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Mrs. Edwin C. Gregory Regent 

Mrs. D. F. Cannox Vice-Regent 

Mrs. Geo. A. Fisher Recording Secretary 

Urs. John McCanless Corresponding Secretary 

Mrs. Wm. S. Nicolson Treasurer 

Mrs. R. L. Mauney Registrar 

Mrs. W. S. BlackmER Historian 

Mrs. N. p. Murphy Chaplain 



R. M. Armstrong 


J. P. Moore 


Fannie. V. Andrews 


G. W. MontcastlE 


Rosalie Bernhardt 


J. W. Neave 


Lyman A. Gotten 


Elizabeth Nicolson 


J. R. Deas 


E. R. Overman 


J. P. Grimes 




A. H. Gray 


J. F. Preston 


J. H. Gorman 


John Stewart 


Thos. Hines 




J. H. Hurley 


Mary L. Smith 



CamillE Hunt 


W. H. Woodson 




In republishing the Rumple History of Rowan 
County, the Elizabeth Maxwell Steele Chapter, 
National Society of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, has accomplished a twofold purpose, 
namely: ''the encouragement of historical research, 
and the publication of its results." In fulfilling these 
primary objects of the Society, it has also furthered 
the ulterior aim of both editor and author, whose 
advocacy of these same objects — ten years prior to the 
organization of the National Society — made this little 
book possible. 

By these recorded ''facts of history, biography, and 
achievement," supplemented by priceless data gleaned 
from old documents, manuscripts, local tradition, and 
the personal recollections of many who have since been 
gathered to their fathers, the author has rendered an 
inestimable service — not only to the Rowan County of 
today, but the territory occupied by forty-five counties 
formed from this venerable mother, which when 
erected comprehended most of the western part of the 
State, and Tennessee. 

Printed weekly from the galley proofs of the cur- 
rent newspaper article, on common material, and filed 
away to be later bound into book form, the first edi- 
tion was of necessity limited, and was exhausted years 


ago. In presenting the second edition, the publishers 
hope to supply a long-felt want. The contents have 
not been built anew ; in a few instances only, supple- 
mental facts have been incorporated, and the past 
linked with the present through the medium of a 
limited number of photographs. In consideration of 
the ample domain formerly covered by Rowan County, 
its history is the common heritage of the people of 
Western North Carolina and a vast number of her 
sons and daughters who have made homes in other 
States — particularly those of the ^Middle West. 

A copy of this little volume owned by the writer is 
thus autographed by its late beloved author : " 'History 
is Philosophy teaching by example.' So said one who 
deeply pondered the import of his words. If we would 
be wise and good, we should learn the best methods 
from the example of those who have gone before us." 
Primarily, the mission of this work was to rescue from 
oblivion the history of Rowan, and to preserve and 
perpetuate the honorable records of her citizens ; and 
incidentally promote an intelligent interest in the early 
development of the County, and a more thorough 
knowledge of the first settlers — peaceable, industrious, 
and law-abiding men — "composed of almost all the 
nations of Europe," who came to make homes for 
themselves and children ; "men and women who had 
suffered for conscience' sake, or fled from despotism 
to seek liberty and happiness unrestrained by the 
shackles of a wornout civilization." Intolerant of 
tyranny, yet characteristically conservative — when 
constrained to act, they were invincible ! Xo people 


has a fairer and broader historic background, as yet 
almost unexplored. "Ill fares it with a State whose 
history is written by others than her own sons !" 

Is it vain to hope that some one, among "the lineal 
descendants and present-day representatives of an 
illustrious dead" — kindled afresh by the holy fires of 
patriotism and pride of race — will arise phoenix-like 
from the ashes of our indifference, and write the noble 
annals of our State? "Earlier colonized in point of 
history, full of glorious examples of patriotism and 
chivalric daring, North Carolina has been neglected 
by her own sons and others." Too long have we felt 
the opprobrium of this neglect. 

To those who have countenanced this effort, and to 
the friends who have rendered valuable assistance both 
by suggestion and contribution, many thanks are due. 
Should but one reader cease to be a "mute inglorious 
Milton," and sing inspiredly of the valor and glory 
of our forebears, then your support and this little 
book shall not have been in vain. 

— Beulah Stewart Moore 


This little book is an accident. While engaged in 
collecting material for another purpose, the writer 
was led to examine the early records preserved in the 
Courthouse in Salisbury, and in the course of his in- 
vestigation happened upon a number of things that 
appeared to be of general interest. Mentioning this 
fact casually to the editor of the Carolina Watchman, 
the writer was asked to embody these items of interest 
in a few articles for that newspaper. This led to ad- 
ditional research, and to the accumulation of a pile of 
notes and references that gave promise of a dozen or 
more articles. These the editor thought should be 
printed in a pamphlet of fifty or a hundred small pages 
for preservation, and he began at once to print off a 
few hundred copies from the type used in the news- 
paper. As the work went on, other facts were gathered 
— from traditions, from family records, and from the 
pages of books written about Xorth Carolina, such as 
the Histories and Sketches of Hawks, Caruthers, 
Foote, Bancroft, Wheeler, Lawson, Byrd, Jones, 
Wiley, Moore, Hunter, Bernheim, Gillett, and from 
miscellaneous diaries, periodicals, and manuscripts. 
These were intended to furnish a frame for the picture 
of Old Rowan, and sidelights that it might be seen to 
advantage. And thus the little pamphlet has swollen to 


its present proportions. It was written in installments 
from week to week, amid the incessant demands of 
regular professional duty, and without that care and 
revision that might have saved it from some infelicities 
of style or obscurities of expression. Both the writer 
and the publisher would have been glad to have ex- 
pended more time and care upon the work, so as to 
render it more worthy of the noble County whose an- 
nals it is intended to recover and perpetuate. Still it 
is believed that very few serious errors have been 
made. Local traditions have been compared with gen- 
eral history, and have been found to coincide wherever 
they came in contact. 

The writer has been indebted to a number of per- 
sons for the facts which he has recorded. Miss Chris- 
tine Beard, a granddaughter of John Lewis Beard, 
and of John Dunn, Esq. — now eighty years of age, 
with a remarkably retentive memory — has furnished 
personal recollections of the Town of SaHsbur}^, cover- 
ing seventy years. She has also treasured up the 
stories heard in her youth from the lips of her ances- 
tors, running back to the first settlement of the County. 
Messrs. J. ]\I. Horah and H. N. Woodson, the Clerk 
and the Register, kindly gave access to the old records 
in the Courthouse, dating back to 1753. John S. Hen- 
derson, Esq., Rev. S. Rothrock, Rev. H. T. Hudson, 
D. D., Rev. J. J. Renn, Rev. J. B. Boone, Rev. J. Ingle, 
Rufus Barringer, Esq., Dr. D. B. Wood, M. L. Mc- 
Corkle, Esq., Mrs. X. Boyden, and others, have either 


prepared papers in full, or furnished documents and 
manuscript statements that have been of special serv- 
ice. Mrs. P. B. Chambers furnished the diary of 
her grandfather, Waightstill Avery, Esq. Col. W. L. 
Saunders, Secretary of State, and Col. J. McLeod 
Turner, Keeper of the State Capitol, very kindly 
furnished, free of charge, a copy of the Roll of Honor 
of the Rowan County soldiers in the Confederate 
Army. The revision and completion of this Roll was 
superintended by Mr. C. R. Barker, who bestowed 
great care and much time upon this work. Many 
thanks are due to all these persons. In fact, it has 
been a labor of love, without hope of pecuniary re- 
ward, with the Author, and all those who have con- 
tributed to this performance. With these state- 
ments, the little book is sent forth, with the hope that 
it will be of some service to the citizens of North Car- 
olina, and especially to the people of Rowan. 

No attempt is made to point out typographical er- 
rors. They are generally of such nature as to be 
readily corrected by the intelligent reader. The follow- 
ing errors may be noted: On page 171, it is stated 
that no man knows where the grave of John Dunn, 
Esq., is. Further inquiry, however, revealed the fact 
that the spot is still known. The correction is given 
on page 228. 

On page 285, Matthew Brandon is represented as 
having had two daughters. A fuller account reveals 
the fact that he had three other daughters— one who 


married a Mr. ]\IcCombs, of Charlotte ; another who 
married Wm. Smith, of Charlotte ; and still another 
who married George Miller, of Salisbury. A daughter 
of the last-named couple married Lemuel Bingham, 
Associate Editor of the Western Carolinian, in 1820- 
23. These were the parents of the Binghams now of 

On page 288, John Phifer is represented as setting 
in Rowan, near China Grove. Further inquiry seems 
to show that John Phifer never lived in Rowan, but 
that his widow moved to that place after her marriage 
with George Savitz. 

On page 394, it is stated that the Rev. W. D. Stro- 
bel and Rev. D. I. Dreher were ministers to the Salis- 
bury Lutheran Church. This statement does not ap- 
pear to be correct. It further appears that the Rev. 
S. Rothrock's first term of service in Salisbury was in 
1833, and his second in 1836; and that the Rev. ]\Ir. 
Rosenmuller came between ^Ir. Reck and Mr. Tabler. 

The reader will observe in these sketches occasional 
reference to the Mecklenburg Declaration of May 20, 
1775, and to its signers, with no expression of doubt 
as to its authenticity. This course has been pursued 
because the writer did not feel called upon to settle, or 
even discuss, that vexed question, and he did not feel 
authorized to set at defiance the conclusions that seem 
to be sustained by the bulk of the testimony, and to 
adopt instead the deductions of critics derived from 
real or supposed inconsistencies and contradictions in 


that testimony. With an array of documents before 
him, he prefers to allow Mecklenburg to settle that 
question for herself, while at the same time he is per- 
fectly satisfied that the Mecklenburg patriots of 1775, 
either on the twentieth or thirty-first of May, or upon 
both occasions, acted in such a noble manner as to 
surround their names with the glory of patriotic de- 
A'otion and heroic courage. 



Nearly a century ago, in an unpretentious farm- 
house in Cabarrus County, N. C, the subject of this 
sketch, Jethro Rumple, was born. Amid these humble 
surroundings, the life of the boy was developed, and 
so the first work of his hands must have been the 
homely chores of the farm, and the first regular jour- 
neyings of his boyish feet in the straight line of the 
furrow, as he followed the plough in the cornfield. 

The first artificial illumination for his eyes was the 
light of the candle or smoky pineknot on the hearth, 
flickering on the leaves of the old "blue-backed spel- 
ler," as he reclined at close of day in that first studious 
attitude of childhood, for the little Jethro must have 
been born with the love of books in his heart. He 
went to the little neighboring school, and between the 
jobs of the farm we can see the barefoot boy trudging 
the long way to the rough schoolhouse from which the 
first ambitions of his life must have come to him. Be- 
yond the horizon of the wheatfield he early found 
the vision of better and higher things, viz. : classical 
education, and a place among the scholars of the land. 
Some years later, with this end in view, and after 
many struggles to raise or make arrangements for the 


necessary funds, we find him entering Davidson 
College, where he was graduated with distinction in 

Teaching school and studying alternately, again, he 
spent the necessary three years of his theological 
education at the Seminary in Columbia, S. C. ; and 
under the patronage of Concord Presbytery, of which 
he was for the remainder of his life a member, he was 
licensed in 1856 to preach the gospel. A Httle later 
he was ordained and installed as the pastor of Provi- 
dence and Sharon Churches, in Mecklenburg County, 
N. C. After holding this pastorate for four years, he 
was called to the First Presbyterian Church of Salis- 
bury, N. C, and was installed as its pastor, November 
24, i860. There he found his life work. Taking up 
the burden of this church with a membership of ninety, 
he continued to be their faithful and beloved pastor 
for the remaining years of his life on earth, and forty- 
five years later he laid it down with a living member- 
ship of four hundred thirty-four souls, a glorious 
harvest for the ]\Iaster. Eight young men have en- 
tered the Gospel ministry, and two — Rev. Dr. John W. 
Davis, of China, and Rev. Robert Coit, of Korea — 
the foreign missionary field. 

Dr. Rumple developed, early in his work, a vigor 
and breadth of mind and heart that was felt by all 
denominations in his town, and abroad as well. Not 
content with working in his home field, he was one of 
the pioneers in the home missionary work in the 
mountains of North Carolina, giving his vacations 
often to that work. He organized the Presbyterian 


Church at Blowing Rock, N. C, and was largely in- 
strumental in raising the funds for the first building. 
The second structure, a picturesque and unicjue gothic 
building of rough mountain stone, stands as a beautiful 
memorial to his labors and life. 

In the department of literature, Dr. Rumple also 
made a place, for in addition to this History of Rowan 
County, first published in 1881, he wrote and published, 
in the pages of the North Carolina Presbyterian (the 
predecessor of the Presbyterian Standard), a History 
of Presbyterianism in North Carolina. This was in- 
tended to have been published later in book form, but 
the writer, amid the increasing duties of church at 
home and abroad, never found the time to completely 
finish and arrange it. 

As a public speaker. Dr. Rumple was much in de- 
mand, and in 1887 he edited the "First Semi-Centenary 
Celebration of Davidson College, containing the ad- 
dresses, historical and commemorative, of that 
occasion ;" and in this publication he is the author of an 
excellent and well-written sketch of Davidson College. 

While not professing to be an evangelist, in the 
present accepted meaning of that term. Dr. Rumple 
was often called to preach away from his home church, 
conducting the meetings of quarterly communion in 
the different churches ; and he was quite sucessful in 
his work, the Spirit of God being manifest in these 
meetings, and giving him the blessing of many souls 
brought to Christ. He was a preacher of the old 
school, not disdaining the elaborate introduction to his 
sermons; and his style was clear, his diction elegant. 


and his moral always helpful and practical. Two 
generations of his hearers rise up and bless his memory, 
and we might have said three, for he lived to baptize 
the grandchildren in some instances of his early mem- 
bers, and having always kept up his interest in and 
attendance on the Sunday School he knew all the 
children of his congregation personally, and loved and 
was loved by them. 

Quoting from the memorial sketch written by the 
Rev. H. G. Hill, and adopted by the Synod of North 
Carolina: ''Dr. Rumple was a strong man in every 
part of his nature. His physical manhood was un- 
usually vigorous and well developed. His intellectual 
powers were active, well-balanced, and capable of sus- 
tained exertion. His moral nature manifested ex- 
cellence in all the varied relations of life. His spiritual 
attributes were plainly the graces wrought by the Holy 
Spirit. His gifts, his graces, and his rare capacity 
for work, caused him to be constantly employed, after 
entering the ministry, for about half a century. As 
pastor and preacher and presbyter, he was a zealous 
and faithful laborer. In the judiciatories of the 
church, which he habitually attended, he was a wise 
counselor and an active member. As a trustee of 
Davidson College and of Union Theological Seminary 
for many years, he could always be depended on to 
perform effciently any duty that devolved upon him. 
As the first president of Barium Springs Orphans' 
Home, he did more for founding and sustaining this 
institution than any member of our Synod. In his 
private and social relations. Dr. Rumple was a typical 


Christian g-entleman, hospitable towards his brethren, 
considerate of the views and feeHngs of others, and 
genial in all his social intercourse. He had his per- 
sonal and family sorrows, but they never led him to 
murmur at the orderings of Providence, nor to be- 
come morose in disposition, nor to cease active work 
for the Master. Down to the last months of his life, 
he held official positions, and amid growing infirmities 
discharged his duties with conscientious fidelity. He 
dropped the oar of toil only to receive the crown of 
life. 'The righteous shall be in everlasting remem- 
brance, and the name of Jethro Rumple shall be hon- 
ored among us as long as virtue is cherished and piety 
revered.' " 

In October of 1857, Dr. Rumple was married to 
Miss Jane Elizabeth \\'harton, daughter of W^atson 
W. and ]\Ialinda Rankin W^harton, of Greensboro, 
N. C. She was a faithful and efficient home-maker, 
and a sympathetic helpmate in his work. Besides this, 
being possessed of musical ability and some training, 
she for years maintained a little musical school, 
thereby helping to furnish the means whereby the 
three children — Watson Wharton, James Walker, and 
Linda Lee — were educated. The first only reached 
eighteen years of age, dying in his senior year at 
Davidson College. The second, James W., became a 
lawyer of promise, but only lived to be twenty-nine, 
being drowned in the Shenandoah River in Virginia. 
He had, about two years previous to his death, been 
married to Jane Dickson Vardell, and one son, James 
Malcolmson, had blessed their union. The daughter, 


Linda Lee, in October, 1891, was married to Rev. C. 
G. Vardell, then pastor of the Presbyterian Church in 
Newbem, N. C, but for the past eighteen years the 
president of the College for \\'omen at Red Springs, 
X. C, known first as the Red Springs Seminary, and 
afterwards the Southern Presbyterian College and 
Conservatory of Music, and recently the name has 
been changed to ''Flora ^MacDonald College." Mrs. 
Vardell has been the organizer and musical director of 
the Conservatory, one of the largest and highest grade 
conservatories in the South. It was at the home of 
his daughter, in Red Springs, X. C, after a decline 
of several months, that Dr. Rumple passed away 
from earth to the home above, on January 20, 1906. 

"And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, 
\A'rite, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord 
. . . . and their works do follow them." — Revela- 
tion 14 : 13. 

— Mrs. Lixda Rumple Vardell 

J. J. Bruxer 



John Joseph Bruner was born in RowaYi County, 
N. C, on the Yadkin River, about seven miles from 
SaHsbury. on the twelfth of March, 1817. He was 
the son of Henry Bruner, and Edith his wife, who 
was the youngest daughter of Col. West Harris, of 
Montgomery County, N. C. Colonel Harris married 
Edith Ledbetter, of Anson County, and was a field 
officer in the Continental army. 

When the subject of this sketch was a little over 
two years old, his father died, and his mother re- 
turned with her two children, Selina and Joseph, to 
her father's house in Montgomery. 

In the year 1825, he came to Salisbury, under the 
care of the Hon. Charles Fisher, father of the late 
Col. Chas. F. Fisher, who fell at the battle of Bull 
Run. Mr. Bruner's first year in Salisbury was spent in 
attending the school taught by Henry x\llemand. This 
was about all the schooling of a regular style that he 
ever received, excepting after he grew up. The re- 
mainder of his education was of a practical kind, 
and was received at the case and press of a printing 

At the age of nine years, he entered the printing 
office of the Western Carolinian, then under the 
editorial control of the Hon. Philo White, late of 
Whitestown, N. Y. The Carolinian passed into the 
hands of the Hon. Burton Craige. in 1830. and then 


into the hands of Major John Beard, late of Florida, 
]\Ir. Bruner continuing in the office until 1836. In 
1839, the late M. C. Pendleton, of Salisbury, and ^Mr. 
Bruner, purchased the Watchman, and edited it in 
partnership for about three years. The Watchman 
had been started in the year 1832, by Hamilton C. 
Jones, Esq., father of the late Col. H. C. Jones, of 
Charlotte. The Watchman was a ^^'hig and anti- 
nullification paper, and was intended to support Gen. 
Andrew Jackson in his anti-nullification policy. 

In 1843, ^I^- Bruner retired from the Watchman, 
and traveled for a while in the Southwest, spending 
some time in a printing-office in ^lobile, Ala. Re- 
turning home, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Mary Ann Kincaid, a daughter of Thomas Kincaid, 
Esq. The mother of Mrs. Bruner was Clarissa Har- 
lowe, daughter of Col. James Brandon of Revolu- 
tionary fame, who married Esther Horah, an aunt of 
the late V\'m. H. Horah, so long known as a leading 
bank officer in Salisbury. Col. James Brandon was 
the son of A\^illiam Brandon, who settled in Thyatira 
as early as 1752, and whose wife was a ]\Iiss Cathey 
of that region. Having married, Mr. Bruner pre- 
pared for his life work by re-purchasing the Watch- 
man, in partnership with the late Samuel W. James, 
in 1844. After six years, this partnership was dis- 
solved, and ]\Ir. Bruner became sole proprietor and 
editor of the Watchman, which he continued to pub- 
lish until the office was captured by the Federal sol- 
diers in the spring of 1865. After a few months, 
however, Mr. Bruner was permitted to re-occupy his 


dismantled office, and resume the publication of his 
paper. Three years later, Lewis Hanes, Esq., of 
Lexington, purchased an interest in the paper, and it 
was called the JVatchman and Old North State. Re- 
tiring for a time from the paper, Mr. Bruner entered 
private life for a couple of years. But his mission 
was to conduct a paper, and so in 187 1 he re-pur- 
chased it, and the Watchman made its regular appear- 
ance weekly until his death. At this date, the Watch- 
man was the oldest newspaper, and Mr. Bruner the 
oldest editor in North Carolina. He was one of the 
few remaining Hnks binding the antebellum journalist 
with those of the present day. The history of Mr. 
Bruner's editorial life is a history of the progress of 
the State. He was contemporary with the late 
Edward J. Hale, Ex-Governor Holden, Wm. J. 
Yates, and others of the older editors of the State. 
\\'hen he began to publish the Watchman, there was 
not a daily paper in North Carolina, and no rail- 
roads. In the forties and fifties, the Watchman was 
the leading paper in Western North Carolina, and had 
subscribers in fifty counties. None now living in 
Salisbury, and few elsewhere in the State, have had 
such extensive personal acquaintance and knowledge 
of men and things in the early years of this century. 
Names that have almost ceased to be spoken on our 
streets were familiar to him. He knew such men as 
Hon. Chas. Fisher, Col. Chas. F. Fisher, Rowland 
Jones, Esq., Dr. Pleasant Henderson, Hamilton C. 
Jones, Esq., Hon. Burton Craige, the Browns, Longs, 
Cowans, Beards, Lockes, Hendersons, and hosts of 


Others of a former generation. He sat under the 
preaching- of every pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
since its organization — Dr. Freeman, Mr. Rankin, 
Mr. Espy, Dr. Sparrow, Mr. Frontis (by whom he 
was married j, Mr. Baker, and Rev. Dr. Rumple, who 
was his pastor and friend for more than thirty years. 
He was a scholar in the Sunday School when Thos. L. 
Cowan was superintendent, and was afterwards a 
teacher and superintendent himself. Col. Philo 
White, his early protector, was a high-toned Chris- 
tian man, and he so impressed himself upon his youth- 
ful ward that he chose him for a model, emulated his 
example, and held his memory in cherished veneration 
to the end of his life. At the age of seventeen, ]\Ir. 
Bruner was received into the communion of the 
Presbyterian Church of Salisbury, and in 1846 he was 
ordained a ruling elder in that Church, and continued 
to serve in that capacity through the remainder of his 
life. He was a sincere, earnest, and consistent Chris- 
tian, and faithful in the discharge of all private and 
public duties of the Christian profession. The family 
altar was established in his household, and he brought 
up his children in the nurture and admonition of the 

I\Ir. Bruner died, after a lingering illness, ]\Iarch 
22i, 1890. His end was peace. As he gently passed 
away — so gently that it was difficult to tell when life 
ended and immortality began — a brother elder by his 
bedside repeated the lines : 


"How blest the righteous when he dies I 
When sinks a weary soul to rest ; 
How mildly beam the closing eyes ; 
How gently leaves the expiring breath!" 

In many things Mr. Brunei* was an example wortliy 
of imitation. His memory must ever shine as 
one of the purest, sweetest, best elements of the past. 
His character was singularly beautiful and upright. 
His life was an unwritten sermon, inestimably pre- 
cious to those who will heed the lessons which it 
teaches, and to whom grace may be given to follow 
his good example. 

He was emphatically a self-made man. His learn- 
ing he acquired by his own unaided efforts : his prop- 
erty he earned by the sweat of his brow ; and his 
reputation he achieved by prudence, wisdom, and faith- 
fulness in all the duties of life. By his paper he 
helped multitudes of men to honorable and lucrative 
oflfice, but he never helped himself. PoHtically, Mr. 
Bruner never faltered in his allegiance to those princi- 
ples to which he believed every true Southern man 
should adhere. Up to the very last he was unflinch- 
ing and unwavering in his love for the South, and in 
his adherence to the very best ideals and traditions of 
the land of his nativity. At no time during his life 
did he ever "crook the pregnant hinges of the knee, 
that thrift might follow fawning." In the very best 
sense of the word, he was a Southern gentleman of 
the old school. The old South and the new were all 
one to him — the same old land, the same old people, 
the same old traditions, the land of Washington, of 


Jefferson, of Calhoun and Jackson, of Pettigrew and 
Fisher, of Graham and Craige, of Stonewall Jackson, 
of Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis. 

For more than a half-century Mr. Bruner was at 
the head of the Watchman, and through its columns, 
and in other walks of a well-spent life, impressed his 
high attributes of character upon the people — not only 
of his town and section, but throughout the State. A 
fluent, able, and conservative writer, with but one 
hope or purpose — to sen-e his State and people faith- 
fully and honestly — he steered his journal from year 
to year, from decade to decade, from the morning of 
one century almost to the morning of another, until 
he made himself and his paper honored landmarks of 
this age and section. He was firm in his convictions, 
a bold and fearless advocate of the rights of the peo- 
ple, but at all times characterized by a degree of liber- 
ality and conservatism that won for him respect and 
friendship even from those who might differ with him 
in matters of Church or State. He recorded truthfully 
and without envy or prejudice the birth and downfall 
of political parties. He — inspired by a united effort 
to Americanize and weld together every section of this 
great Union — waxed eloquent in praise of wise and 
sagacious leaders, and he blotted with a tear the paper 
on which he wrote of sectional strife and discord. He 
chronicled with sober earnestness the birth of a new 
republic, and like other loyal sons of the South raised 
his arm and pen in its defense. He watched with un- 
feigned interest its short and stormy career, and then 
wrote dispassionately of the furling of its blood- 


Stained banner. He was ever found fighting for what 
he beHeved to be the best interests of his people, and 
advocating such men and measures as seemed to him 
just and right. An old-hne Whig before the war, he 
aspired not to poHtical preferment or position, but 
only to an honored stand in the ranks of a loyal and 
beneficent citizenship. Joining in with the rank and 
file of the white men of the conquered South, he was 
content to lend all his talent and energy in aiding 
them in the upbuilding of an impoverished section. 

Blameless and exemplary in all the relations of life, 
a Christian gentleman, he met all the requirements of 
the highest citizenship — and what higher eulogy can 
any hope to merit ? 

"The great work laid upon his three-score years 
Is done, and well done. If we drop our tears, 
We mourn no blighted hope or broken plan 
With him whose life stands rounded and approved 
In the full growth and stature of a man." 

— ]\Irs. Beulah Stewart ^Ioore 




It is but natural that the inhabitants of a country 
should desire to trace back its history as far as possi- 
ble. No doubt many of the citizens of Rowan — the 
queenly mother of more than a score of counties — 
would love to know the early history of their native 
place, the appearance of the country when first seen 
by civilized men, and the character of the original 
inhabitants. Having had occasion to make some ex- 
amination of early documents and histories, and to 
consult a few of the oldest citizens, whose memories 
a-re stored with the traditions of the past, the writer 
has conceived the opinion that many of his fellow- 
citizens would be glad to. have access to some of these 
facts; and through the kindness of the Editor of the 
Watchman, a few sketches will be furnished for their 

\\^ have a vague impression that the early white 
settlers found here a vast unbroken wilderness, cov- 
ered with dense forests, with here and there a cluster 
of Indian wigwams, and varied with an occasional 
band of painted savages on the warpath, or a hunting 
party armed with tomahawks, bows and arrows. But 


beyond these vague impressions we have little definite 
knowledge. Nor is it possible at this late day to rescue 
from oblivion much valuable information that could 
have been gathered a generation or two ago. Still 
there are scattered facts lying at various places, that 
may be collected and woven into a broken narrative, 
that will be more satisfactory than the vague impres- 
sions now in our possession. 

The earliest accounts of the hill-country of North 
Carolina, accessible to the writer, are those contained 
in Lawson's History of a Journey from Charleston to 
Pamlico Sound, in the year 1701. Starting from the 
former place in December, 1700, he passed around to 
the mouth of Santee River in a boat, and thence up 
that stream for a distance in the same way. Then 
leaving the river he traveled up between the Santee 
and Pee Dee Rivers, until he crossed the Yadkin River 
at Trading Ford, within six miles of where Salisbury 
now stands. As there were no European settlers 
from the lower Santee to Pamlico, and as he often 
forgets to mention the scenes through which he passed, 
it is very difficult to trace his exact route. Still there 
are some waymarks by which we can identify 
a part of his course. Among the first of these 
is the High Hills of Santee, in Sumter County, S. C. 
Then the Waxsaws, Kadapaus (Catawba), and 
Sugarees, have left names behind them that indicate 
the spots he visited. The name ''Sugaree" suggests 
the inquiry whether the ancient name of Sugar 
Creek, was not Sugaree, rather than "Sugaw," as 
found in old records. 


From the Catawbas, ]\Ir. Lawson traveled about one 
hundred miles, at a rough estimate, to Sapona Town, 
on the Sapona River. Taking into account the distance, 
in a route somewhat circuitous, the size of the river, 
and the description of the locahty, there can remain 
little doubt on a reasonable mind that the place in- 
dicated as Sapona Town was the Indian settlement on 
the Yadkin River, near Trading Ford. This view is 
confirmed by the names and distances that are men- 
tioned beyond the Sapona River, such as Heighwarrie 
(Uwharie), Sissipahaw (Haw), Eno, the Occonee- 
chees, the Xeuse, which correspond exactly with 
places and distances as now known. It is true that 
Lawson says that the Sapona is the "west branch of 
the Clarendon, or Cape Fair River;" from which 
some have supposed that he meant the Deep River. 
On the other hand, it is a noteworthy fact that Colonel 
Byrd, the author of the "History of the Dividing 
Line," a man of varied learning and close observation, 
says that Deep River is the "north branch of the Pee 
Dee." The error in both cases is excusable, from the 
fact that the places mentioned are several hundred 
miles in the interior, and far beyond the extreme 
verge of civilization in those days. 

The region of country before reaching the Sapona 
— that is, the territor}^ now occupied by Rowan County 
and those south of her — is described by Lawson as 
"pleasant savanna ground, high and dry, having very 
few trees upon it, and those standing at a great dis- 
tance ; free from grubs or underwood. A man near 
Sapona may more easily clear ten acres of ground 


than in some places he can one ; there being much loose 
stone upon the land, lying very convenient for making 
of dry walls or any other sort of durable fence. The 
country abounds likewise with curious bold creeks, 
navigable for small craft, disgorging themselves into 
the main rivers that vent themselves into the ocean." 
(Lawson, History Xorth Carolina, p. 80.) 

Of the last day's journey before reaching Sapona, 
he says : "That day we passed over a delicious country 
— none that I ever saw exceeds it. Wt saw fine- 
bladed grass six feet high along the banks of the 
rivulets. Coming that day about thirty miles, we 
reached the fertile and pleasant banks of the Sapona 
River, whereon stands the Indian town and fort ; nor 
could all Europe afford a pleasanter stream, were it 
inhabited by Christians and cultivated by ingenious 
hands. This most pleasant river may be something 
broader than the Thames at Kingston, keeping a con- 
tinual warbling noise with its reverberating upon the 
bright marble rocks." [^Marble, in its general signifi- 
cation, means any kind of mineral of compact tex- 
ture, and susceptible of a good polish, whether lime- 
stone, serpentine, porphyry, or granite (See Webster). 
From his frequent mention of marble, as found in 
South Carolina and North Carolina, we infer that 
Lawson used the word in this broad sense, as applica- 
ble to granite, sandstone, slate, etc.] "It is beautified 
by a numerous train of swans and other waterfowl, 
not common, though extraordinary pleasing to the eye. 
One side of the river is hemmed in with mountainy 
ground, the other side proving as rich a soil as any 


this western world can afford. * * * Taken with 
the pleasantness of the place, we walked along the 
river side, where we found a delightful island made 
by the river and a branch, there being several such 
plots of ground environed by this silver stream. Nor 
can anything be desired by a contented mind as to a 
pleasant situation but what may here be found, every 
step presenting some new object which still adds in- 
vitation to the traveler in these parts." (Lawson, 
pp. 8i, 84, etc.) 

The foregoing quotation presents several points of 
interest. The first is that the country was not then — 
one hundred and eighty years ago — clothed with dense 
forests as we are apt to imagine, but was either open 
prairie, or dotted here and there with trees, like the 
parks of the old country. Along the streams, as we 
gather from other pages of his narrative, there were 
trees of gigantic height, so high that they could not 
kill turkeys resting on the upper branches. This agrees 
with the recollection of the older citizens, and the tra- 
ditions handed down from their fathers. A venerable 
citizen, now living in the southwestern part of this 
county, remembers when the region called Sandy 
Ridge was destitute of forests, and that his father 
told him that, when he settled there, about 1750, he 
had to haul the logs for his house more than a mile. 
Another honored citizen of Iredell, lately deceased, 
told the writer that he recollected the time when the 
highlands between Fourth Creek and Third Creek 
were open prairies, covered with grass and wild pea- 
vines, and that the wild deer would mingle with their 


herds of cattle as they grazed. A stock law in those 
days would have been very unpopular, however desira- 
ble in these days of thicker settlements and extended 

Another point is the exceeding beauty and fertility 
of the valley of the Sapona or Yadkin River. I sup- 
pose an intelligent man, who would read the descrip- 
tion of Lawson, standing on the Indian Hill on the 
banks of the Yadkin a mile below Trading Ford, could 
hardly fail to recognize in the surrounding scenery 
every feature of the description. Beneath his feet 
would be the mound whereon stood the Sapona fort, 
surrounded by palisadoes. A hundred yards southeast 
roll the waters of the stream into which Lawson feared 
that the northwest storm of wind would blow him. 
Around him, on the mound and on the plain below, lie 
innumerable fragments of pottery, with rudely orna- 
mented flint arrow heads, bones, shells, etc. Around 
him is a large level plateau of fertile land, perhaps one 
thousand acres in extent, a part of the famed "Jersey 
lands." Just above the ford is the beautiful island 
containing a hundred acres — the central part under 
cultivation, but its edges fringed with trees and clam- 
bering vines. In the center of the island he will find 
an Indian burying-ground, where numerous bones are 
turned over by the plow, and where Indian pottery 
and a huge Indian battle-ax have been found. Below 
the ford are several smaller islands, resting on the 
bosom of the smoothly flowing stream. The swans, 
beavers, deer, and buffaloes have fled before the march 
of civiHzation, but on the south side of the stream 


Still Stand the bold bluffs rising abruptly from the river 
bank. Some of these heights are now clothed with 
cedars and other forest trees, but one of them is 
crowned with an old family mansion, that was for- 
merly known as ''The Heights of Gowerie/' At the 
foot of the hill is a spring of pure cold water, and 
nearby a mill, driven by water drawn from the river 
above by a long canal. A cedar grove waves its 
evergreen branches along the level stretch of ground 
opposite the island. Not many years ago a lady, with 
the hectic flush upon her cheeks, returned from a dis- 
tant land to visit for the last time her native place— 
the old mansion on the hill. She was accompanied by 
a gentleman residing in the neighborhood, who after 
her departure penned the following lines, in which he 
has interwoven a description of the surrounding 
scenery, and which he courteously furnished at the 
request of the writer. 

Pensive I stand on Gowerie's height, 
All bathed in autumn's mellow light — 

My childhood's happy home; 
Where Yadkin rolls its tide along 
With many a wail and mournful song, 

As its waters dash and foam. 

And memory's harp tunes all its strings, 
When I catch the dirge the river sings, 

As it sweeps by Gowerie's side. 
And viewless tongues oft speak to me, 
Some in sorrow and some in glee, 

From the river's fitful tide. 


On yon isle, just up the river, 

Where sunbeams dance and leaflets quiver, 

Three fancied forms I see. 
That blest— that sainted trio band, 
Together walk adown the strand. 

And wave their hands at me. 

A father 'tis, whom yet I mourn. 
And sisters two, who long have gone- 
Gone to the other shore. 
They beck me to the goodly land. 
Where, with them, I'll walk hand in hand, 
Ne'er to be parted more. 

When from the fount hard by the mill, 
Just at the foot of Gowerie's hill, 

I drink the sparkling water; 
Echoes from yon cedar grove, 
From which the sighing zephyrs rove, 

Say, "Come to me, my daughter." 



The earliest inhabitants of this country known to 
the Europeans were the wild Indians of the Catawba, 
Woccon, and Sapona tribes, with the Keyauwees on 
the Uwharie River, and the Occoneechees on the 
Eno. These were stationary, or at least had their 
home here. But over the whole country, from the 
Great Lakes on the North to the rivers of Carolina, 
there roved hunting and war parties of Hurons, 
Iroquois, Sinnagers or Senecas — parts of the great 
Five Nations — who were the terror of the less warlike 
tribes of the South. On the upper waters of the Tar 
and Neuse Rivers dwelt the Tuscaroras, the most 
numerous and warlike of the North Carolina Indians, 
occupying fifteen towns, and having twelve hundred 
fighting men. The whole Indian population of North 
Carolina, in the year 1700, not counting the Catawbas 
on the southern borders, or the Cherokees beyond the 
mountains, is estimated at about five thousand. 

]\Ir. Lawson speaks of the Indians of North Car- 
olina, as a well-shaped, clean-made people, straight, 
incHned to be tall, of a tawny color, having black or 
hazel eyes, with the white marbled red streaks. They 
were never bald, but had little or no beard, and they 
allowed their nails to grow long and untrimmed. In 


their gait, they were grave and majestic, never walk- 
ing backward and forward in contemplation as the 
white people do. They were dexterous and steady 
with their hands and feet, never letting things fall 
from their hands, never stumbling, able to walk on the 
smallest pole across a stream, and could stand on the 
ridgepole of a house and look unconcernedly over the 
gable end. But with all their dexterity, the men had a 
supreme contempt for regular labor. Hunting, fish- 
ing, and fighting were gentlemanly accomplishments, 
and in these enterprises the men would undergo any 
amount of fatigue, but the hoeing, digging, and all 
arduous labor were left exclusively to the women. 

Like the inhabitants of the Mauritius, as mentioned 
in Bernardin St. Pierre's "Paul and Mrginia," they 
named their months by some outward characteristic, 
as the month of strawberries, the month of mulberries, 
the month of dogwood blossoms, the month of her- 
rings, or the month when the turkey gobbles. They 
had few religious rites, yet they offered firstfruits, and 
the more serious of them threw the first bit or spoon- 
ful of each meal into the ashes ; which they considered 
equivalent to the Englishman's pulling oft' his hat and 
talking when he sat down to meat. 

The best view of the theological and religious 
opinions of the Sapona Indians, who dwelt on the 
banks of the Yadkin, is that given by "Bearskin," the 
Sapona Indian hunter, who accompanied the Com- 
missioners of \'irginia in running the dividing line be- 
tween Virginia and Xorth Carolina, in 1728. (See 
History Dividing Line, pp. 50, 51.) In substance, he 


Stated that they beheved in one supreme God, who 
made the world a long time ago, and superintended the 
sun, moon, and stars; that he had made many worlds 
before. That God is good, and loves good people, 
making them rich and healthy, and safe from their 
enemies, but punishing those who cheat and tell lies 
with hunger and sickness, and allowing them to be 
knocked in the head and scalped by their enemies. He 
also supposed there were subordinate gods, or evil 
spirits. He believed in a future state, and that after 
death the good and the bad started off on the same 
road, until a flash of lightning separated them, where 
this road forks into two paths. The righthand path 
led to a charming country of perpetual spring, where 
the people are ever young, and the women as bright 
as stars, and never scold. In this land there is abund- 
ance of deer, turkeys, elks, and buffaloes, ever fat and 
gentle, and trees forever laden with fruit. Near the 
entrance of this fair land a venerable man examines 
the character of all, and if they have behaved well, he 
opens to them the crystal gate, and allows them to 

They who are driven to the left hand find a rugged 
path that leads to a barren country of perpetual winter, 
where the ground is covered with eternal snow, and 
the trees bear nothing but icicles. The inhabitants 
are always hungry, yet have nothing to eat except a 
bitter potato, that gives them the gripes and fills the 
body with painful ulcers. The women there are old, 
ugly, shrill-voiced, and armed with claws like pan- 
thers, with which they scratch the men who fail to be 


enamored with them. At the end of this path sits a 
dreadful old woman, on a monstrous toadstool, with 
her head covered with rattlesnakes instead of hair, 
striking terror into the beholder as she pronounces 
sentence upon every wretch that stands at her bar. 
After this they are delivered to huge turkey buzzards 
that carry them off to their dreadful home. After a 
number of years in this purgatory they are driven 
back into the world, and another trial given to them. 
Gross and sensual as this religion is, it embraces the 
cardinal points of belief in a God, the distinction be- 
tween right and wrong, and the future state of rewards 
and punishments. But these children of nature had 
very few acts expressive of religious feeling, and 
those of the rudest kind. Lawson in his travels (His- 
tory of North Carolina, p. 65) was permitted to wit- 
ness among the Waxsaws a feast ''held in commemora- 
tion of the plentiful harvest of com they had reaped 
the summer before, with an united supplication for the 
like plentiful produce the year ensuing." This cere- 
mony does not seem to have been accompanied by any 
spoken prayers or addresses, but consisted of a feast 
of ''loblolly," i. e., mush of Indian meal, stewed 
peaches, and bear venison ; and a dance. Their music 
was made on a drum constructed of an earthen por- 
ridge pot, covered with a dressed deerskin, and with 
gourds having corn in them. It was a masquerade, 
and their visors were made of gourds, and their heads 
were plentifully adorned with feathers. Some of the 
dancers had great horse bells tied to their legs, and 
small hawk bells about their necks. ]Modern civiliza- 


tion has not yet adopted the bells and gourd masks of 
the Waxsaws, but there is no telling what "progress" 
may accomplish in that direction. In these dances the 
men figured first alone, and after they were done 
capering, the women and girls held the ground for 
about six successive hours. Though the dancing was 
not ''promiscuous," after the modern style, it was 
nevertheless accompanied by acts so unbecoming and 
impure as to render it highly immoral and corrupting. 

In addition to this worship of dancing, Mr. Lawson 
says that the Indians were much addicted to the prac- 
tice of sacrificing chicken cocks to the God who hurts 
them, that is the devil (History of North Carolina, 
pp. 97, 98). But the only visible objects of reverence 
among the Indians were the bones of their ancestors, 
especially of their chiefs, which they kept rolled up in 
dressed deerskins, and carried with them w^herever 
they went. Among some of the tribes they had a 
building called a ''Quiogozon," in which they kept the 
bones of their dead kings, and as Mr. Lawson says 
(p. 324) their "idols," where the King, the conjurer, 
and a few old men were wont to spend several days at 
a time in practicing secret and mysterious religious 

Our country abounds in scattered relics of this de- 
parted race, in the shape of the blue flint arrow heads, 
fragments of pottery, and especially mounds of earth 
in various places. A gentleman of our county of anti- 
quarian tastes and accomplishments reports that there 
are several mounds in Davie County supposed to con- 
tain relics of the Indians. There is also another 


artificial mound near Mount Pleasant, beside a small 
stream, some sixty feet in diameter and six or eight 
feet high, but not containing any relics. Several 
mounds abounding with relics are known to exist in 
Caldwell County. One or more have been found in 
Montgomery County, near Little River, and it has 
been reported that large vases, or sarcophagi, have 
been recently discovered in one of them. In that same 
region beautifully dressed quartz mortars, supposed to 
have been used for grinding and mixing their paints, 
have been found. These savages were in the habit of 
painting their faces and bodies before going into bat- 
tle, that by their hideous appearance they might terrify 
and demoralize their enemies. And it can scarcely be 
doubted that this painting was used as a disguise, that 
it might not be known by the enemy who was the 
slayer of their fallen warriors; for the law of ''blood 
revenge" prevailed among them, not much unlike that 
of the ancient Israelites. Hence it might prove in- 
convenient to be known as the slayer, as it was a fatal 
thing for Abner to be known as the slayer of the 
light-footed Asahel. 

In addition to these mounds, Mr. Baldwin, in his 
"Ancient America" (p. 24), mentions "Harrison 
Mound" in South Carolina, four hundred and eighty 
feet in circumference, and fifteen feet high. This 
mound is attributed to the "Mound Builders," or an- 
cient Toltecs. A still larger "Mound" has recently 
been brought to public notice through the columns of 
the Salisbury Watchman, situated in Old Rowan 
County — now Davidson — about eight miles from Salis- 


bury. In many respects this is a work of considerable 
interest, both as to its situation and character. It 
stands within one hundred yards of the Yadkin River, 
at the point where Lawson seems to locate "Sapona 
Town," on *'Sapona River," near the celebrated "Trad- 
ing Ford." As this lies in the ancient territory of 
Rowan, it will require a more particular notice. The 
"Trading Ford" is so named because it was on the 
ancient "Trading Path," leading from Virginia to the 
Catawba and other Southern Indians. Colonel Byrd, 
in his History of the Dividing Line (1728), describes 
this "Path" as crossing the Roanoke at IMoni-seep 
Ford, thence over Tar River, Flat River, Little River, 
Eno, through the Haw Old Fields, over the Haw, the 
Aramanchy (Alamance), and Deep River. The next 
point was Yadkin River, where he says, "The soil was 
exceedingly fertile on both sides, abounding in rank 
grass and prodigiously large trees, and for plenty of 
fish, fowl, and venison is inferior to no part of the 
Northern continent. There the traders commonly lie 
still for some days to recruit their horses' flesh, as well 
as to recover their own spirits. Six miles further is 
Crane Creek, so named from its being the rendezvous 
of great armies of cranes, which wage a more cruel 
war at this day with the frogs and fish than they used 
to do in the days of Homer. About three-score miles 
more bring you to the first town of the Catawbas, 
called Nauvasa, situated on the banks of the Santee 
(Catawba) River. Besides this town there are five 
others belonging to the same Nation, lying on the 
same stream, within the distance of twenty miles. 


These Indians were all called formerly by the general 
name of Usherees, and were a very numerous and 
powerful people * * * but are now (1728) reduced 
to little more than four hundred fighting men, besides 
women and children" (History Dividing Line, p. 85). 
Speaking of the Sapponies, or Saponas, Colonel Byrd 
remarks that they formerly lived upon the "Yadkin 
River," not far below the mountains ; thus placing 
them exactly where Lawson puts them, though he 
calls the river by another name, i. e., "Yadkin," in- 
stead of "Sapona." When these Indians had become 
reduced in numbers, and no longer able to resist the 
incursions of the Northern Indians — Iroquois or Sen- 
ecas — they resolved to form a combination, or fusion 
of the Saponas, Toteros, Keyauwees, and Occonee- 
chees, for mutual defense and protection. Two or 
three years after Lawson passed here, that is, about 
1703, these consolidated tribes removed from Carolina 
into Virginia, and settled at Christiana, ten miles 
north of the Roanoke (Lawson, p. 83; Dividing Line, 
p. 89). After remaining there twenty-five or thirty 
years, they returned to Carolina and dwelt with the 
Catawbas (Dividing Line, p. 89). Colonel Byrd de- 
scribes these Saponas as having "something great and 
remarkable in their countenances, and as being the 
honestest as well as the bravest Indians he was ever 
acquainted with." Colonel Spottswood — the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia — placed a schoolmaster among them 
to instruct their children, though from the shortness of 
time they were under his tuition, he taught them little 
else than the much needed grace of cleanliness. 


It was these Saponas that occupied the important 
post near "Trading Ford," when the trading cara- 
vans, with their goods packed on a hundred horses, 
stopped to recruit for five or six days, and doubtless 
to trade with the Saponas and their confederates. Of 
the transactions at that deserted metropoHs, we have 
no records. Tradition says that at "Swearing Creek," 
a few miles beyond Sapona, the traders were in the 
habit of taking a solemn oath never to reveal any un- 
lawful proceedings that might occur during their so- 
journ among the Indians. 

The "Indian Hill," as it is now called, standing in 
sight of the North Carolina Railroad, about a half- 
mile in front of Dr. Meares' residence, was evidently 
once the fort of the Indian Town of Sapona. Besides 
the pottery and arrow heads and chips of flint lying 
on its sides and base, the older citizens remember that 
in their boyhood they were accustomed to find lead 
there, in the shape of shot, bullets, etc. This lead was 
either dropped by the traders or the Indians, in their 
early days, or the fort was the scene of some unre- 
corded conflict between the Saponas and Iroquois after 
the introduction of firearms. Or it may be that In- 
dian Hill was the scene of some old-time shooting 
match between the sturdy marksmen of the "Jerseys," 
in the forgotten days of a past generation. 

The origin of this mound is surrounded with more 
doubt than its use by the wild Indians. It contains 
ten or fifteen thousand cubic yards of earth, some of it 
carried from pits a hundred yards or more distant. 
This would require, with their rude implements and 


dilatory habits, a hundred workers for a half-year. 
Now there is nothing better known than the improvi- 
dence, lack of foresight, and especially detestation of 
drudgery, that characterized the ''gentleman savage." 
If done by the Indians, it was the work of the women 
alone; and this fact suggests the existence of a large 
and powerful tribe, somewhat more civilized than the 
wild Indians. And though it is not commonly held 
that the Toltecs, or Mound-builders, penetrated so far 
east as the Atlantic slope, still it is possible that in the 
distant ages when this civilized race dwelt in the val- 
ley of the Mississippi and the Ohio, there may have 
been some solitary out-stations, or colonies, between 
the valley of the Mississippi and the Atlantic Ocean. 
When the ''Ishmaelitish" wild Indians succeeded in 
overpowering their more civihzed rivals, these mounds, 
on which wooden or adobe temples once stood, would 
lie in ruins like the mounds marking the site of Baby- 
lon and Nineveh. In process of time, the wild In- 
dians would utilize them as sites for forts, or refuges 
from the floods. 

In closing, I may be allowed to mention that about 
a half-mile this side of Trading Ford, the old Trading 
Path turns off from the present road towards the 
south, and that it crosses Crane Creek somewhere in 
the neighborhood of "Spring Hill," running perhaps a 
mile southeast of Salisbury, and so on to the south- 
ward, between Salisbury and Dunn's Mountain. Along 
this path, before civilized men dwelt here, caravans 
passed to and fro, visiting the Redmen in their towns, 
and selHng them guns, powder, shot, hatchets, or toma- 


hawks, kettles, plates, blankets, cutlery, brass rings, 
and other trinkets. Parallel to this path the great 
North Carolina Railroad now rushes on, bearing the 
commerce of the nation. And it was along this same 
path that emigrants from Pennsylvania and Virginia 
began to pour into Old Rowan in the first half of the 
last century. Of these we will speak in our next 



The earliest settlements in North Carolina were made 
on the coast, along Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, 
and near the mouth of the Cape Fear River. In a map 
of the inhabited parts of North Carolina, made by John 
Lawson, the surveyor-general, in 1709, we see the out- 
lines of the settlements. The line commences at the 
mouth of Currituck Inlet, and sweeps around in a semi- 
circle, crossing the Roanoke at Aconeche Island, pass- 
ing by the head of Pamlico Sound, crossing the Neuse 
near the mouth of Contentnea Creek, and so on east of 
where Fayetteville now stands, to the Atlantic, thirty 
miles south of the mouth of the Cape Fear. The pop- 
ulation was then less than seven thousand (Hawks, 
Vol. I, p. 89). In twenty years more, about three 
thousand had been added to the population, and there 
were five small towns : Bath, Newbern, Edenton, Beau- 
fort, and Brunswick. Of these, Edenton was called 
the metropolis. 

In the year 1729, the King of Great Britain, accord- 
ing to act of Parliment, purchased seven-eighths of the 
territory of the Carolinas from the Lords Proprietors, 
for twenty-five hundred pounds (£2500) for each 
eighth part. But John, Earl of Granville, the son and 
heir of Sir George Carteret, refused to part with his 


portion, and his lands were laid off to him, extending 
from latitude thirty-five degrees, thirty-four minutes 
to the Virginia line, and westward to the South Sea, or 
Pacific Ocean. It is within the limits of Earl Gran- 
ville's lands and on the western portion of them that 
Rowan County was situated. 

The Royal Governors of North Carolina were as 
follows: George Burrington, 1731-34; Nathaniel 
Rice, 1734 — a few months; Gabriel Johnston, 1734- 
52; Nathaniel Rice, 1752-53; ^Matthew Rowan, 1753- 
54. During the terms of these Governors the popula- 
tion rolled upwards and westward, county after county 
being set off as the land was occupied. Bladen was set 
off from New Hanover in 1734, Anson from Bladen in 
1749, Rowan from Anson in 1753, and Mecklenburg 
from Anson in 1762. Of course, population was in 
advance of county organizations, and there was a suffi- 
cient number of settlers in the territory of Rowan, 
previous to 1753, to demand a separate county govern- 
ment. But it becomes a difficult task to ascertain when 
and from whence came the first white settlers. 

In his Sketches of North Carolina, Colonel Wheeler 
says: "Rowan was early settled (about 1720), by 
the Protestants from ]\Ioravia, fleeing from the perse- 
cutions of Ferdinand II. ; and by the Scotch, who, 
after the unsuccessful attempts of Charles Edward, 
grandson of James II., to ascend the English 
throne, and whose fortunes were destroyed on the fatal 
field of Culloden (sixteenth of April, 1746), had fled 
to this country ; and by the Irish, who after the rebel- 
lion of the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel, in the 


time of James I., were forced to leave the 
country. These, or their ancestors, previously had 
come from Scotland, and hence the term Scotch-Irish" 
(AMieeler, Art. Rowan County). It would be difficult 
to crowd more mistakes into one short paragraph than 
are found in this brief account of the settlement of 
Rowan. First of all, Ferdinand II., Emperor of 
Germany, reigned from 1618 to 1648, more than one 
hundred years before the time required, and the Mora- 
vians, or United Brethren, did not appear in Moravia 
until 1722, in England in 1728, in New York and 
Georgia in 1736, and in North Carolina not until 1753. 
Again, very few of the Scotch came to Rowan directly, 
but to the Cape Fear section, and not there in numbers 
until some time after 1746. It was not the native Irish, 
after the rebellion of Tyrone and Tyrconnel, but 
the descendants of the Scotch whom James I. had 
placed on their escheated lands, who came to Rowan. 
They remained in Ireland for more than one hun- 
dred years, enduring many trials and disabilities dur- 
ing that period, and then in the early part of the 
eighteenth century immigrated to New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania, and thence to North Carolina. 

The earliest settlements in Rowan of which we have 
any accurate knowledge were made about 1737. Dr. 
Foote, in his Sketches of North Carolina, states that 
the Scotch-Irish began their settlements in Shenan- 
doah Valley in Virginia in 1737, and in North Carolina 
soon afterwards. Some scattered families followed the 
Trading Path and settled in chosen spots from the 
Roanoke to the Catawba. As the Indians were friendly, 


and the caravans of the traders frequent, it would be 
but natural that immigrants would be attracted by their 
glowing descriptions of the fertile prairies that lay be- 
tween the Yadkin and the Catawba — a land abounding 
in game, and whose streams were stocked with fish, 
and its flowery meadows affording pasturage for their 
cattle. (See Foote, p. i88.) 

Fortunately for the settlement of this point, the 
Clark family, who have resided on the Cape Fear since 
about 1745, have preserved memoranda showing that, 
as early as the year 1746, a family or a company of 
emigrants went west of the Yadkin to join some other 
families that were living sequestered in that fertile 
region (Foote, p. 189). Thus it appears that there 
were settlers, families, residing here previous to 1746. 
They would scarcely think it necessary to enter lands 
in a region where all was open to them, and if they did, 
their deeds would be recorded in the Court of Bladen 
or New Hanover, of which Rowan then constituted a 
part. It is worthy of notice that there was once a set- 
tlement and a church of the Scotch in South Rowan, 
called Crystal Springs, and in the old minutes of the 
Presbyterian Church, Crystal Springs and Salisbury 
are represented as asking for ministerial supplies. This 
church was about ten miles nearly south of Salisbury, 
near the residence of Dr. Paul Sifford, and in its old 
graveyard lie the remains of the ^IcPhersons, the 
Alahans, the Longs, and others. Since 1812, this church 
has not been in existence, as it is said that at that time 
the members were transferred to Old Bethphage, about 
eight or ten miles west of Crystal Springs. 


But the Scotch-Irish were probably the most numer- 
ous and the leading people of the settlement. The old 
records of the Court here show the names of many of 
these old families, some of them now extinct, such as 
the Xesbits, Allisons, Brandons, Luckeys, Lockes, 
McCullochs, Grahams, Cowans, McKenzies, Barrs, 
Andrews, Osbornes, Sharpes, Boones, ]McLauchlins, 
Halls, with many others whose names are as familiar 
as household words. 

But along with these Scotch-Irish immigrants, and 
settling side by side with them, there came settlers of 
another nationality to whom Rowan is no less indebted 
for her material wealth and prosperity. These were the 
Germans, or as they were familiarly called the "Penn- 
sylvania Dutch." They were of course not of Dutch or 
Holland extraction, but Germans from the Palatinate, 
and from Hessen Cassel, Hessen Homburg, Darm- 
stadt, and the general region of the upper and middle 
Rhine. Prominent among these for its history and the 
numbers of its emigrants is the Palatinate, or 'Tfalz" 
as it is called in the maps of Germany. This country 
lies on the western banks of the Rhine, below Stras- 
burg, and along the eastern boundaries of France. This 
beautiful land is watered by numerous small streams, 
the tributaries of the Rhine, and is divided by a range 
of mountains, the Haardts, running from north to 
south. Manheim and Speyer (Spires) are the two 
principle cities, situated on the Rhine, while Xeustadt, 
Anweiler, Zweibrucken, Leiningen. are among its 
towns. This Province was the theater of many 
bloody and atrocious deeds during the reign of 


Louis XIV., of France, a time when such great 
generals as the Prince of Conde, Marshal Turenne, 
Prince Eugene, the Duke of ^Marlborough, and Wil- 
liam, Prince of Orange, won glory or infamy on the 
bloody field of battle. It was in the Palatinate that 
Turenne sullied his glory by an act of the most savage 
barbarity in laying waste the country with fire and 
sword, reducing two cities and twenty-five villages to 
ashes, and leaving the innocent inhabitants to perish of 
cold and hunger, while the unfortunate Elector looked 
helplessly on from the walls of his palace at ^^lanheim. 
And a few years after, Louis again invaded the Pal- 
atinate, and laid the cities of Mentz, Philipsburg, 
Spires, and forty others, with numerous villages, in 
ashes. Thus this little principality, whose inhabitants 
by their industry and peacable habits had made it the 
most thriving and happy state in Germany, was Hterally 
turned into a desert. Ravaged by fire and sword, and 
trodden down under the iron heel of despotism, the 
wretched inhabitants were forced at last to leave their 
beautiful country and seek a home among strangers. 
Their first place of refuge was the Netherlands, where 
a liberal and Protestant government afforded them a 
safe asylum. 

From the Netherlands many of them found their 
way into England, where Queen Anne gave them a 
safe refuge from their enemies. But England was 
itself a populous country, and the English government 
determined to induce as many of the Palatines as pos- 
sible to cross the Atlantic and become settlers in the 
American Colonies. In that broad land they could 


find comfortable homes, and by their industry they 
might make its deserts blossom as the rose. Some 
of them came over with De Graffenried and Mitchell 
and found homes on the lower waters of the Neuse, 
where a New "Berne" would remind the Swiss portion 
of the colonists of the old Berne they had left behind 
them among the Alps. Others found homes in the 
State of New York, and others still in Charleston, 
S. C, and along the banks of the Congaree 
and Saluda Rivers. Many others from this general 
section of Germany settled in Lehigh, Northampton, 
Berks, and Lancaster Counties in Pennsylvania. Find- 
ing this country thickly settled and good land to be 
secured only at high prices, in a few years they turned 
their attention southward. Here Earl Granville^s 
lands — lately set off to him — were offered at a cheap 
rate, and the climate was much more mild than in the 
homes they had chosen in Pennsylvania. The first 
arrival of Germans in Western North Carolina, in the 
bounds of Old Rowan, is believed to have taken place 
about 1745, though it was five years later that the 
great body of them came. The stream thus started 
continued to flow on for years, many of them arriving 
after the Revolutionary war. They traveled with their 
household goods and the women and children in wag- 
ons, the men and boys walking and driving their cattle 
and hogs before them. They came side by side with 
their Scotch-Irish neighbors, sometimes settling in the 
same community with them, and at other times oc- 
cupying alternate belts or sections of country. Thus- 
we can trace a German stream through Guilford, 


Davidson, Rowan, and Cabarrus Counties, and just 
by its side a stream of Scotch-Irish. But as years 
passed away these streams, Hke the currents of the 
Missouri and ^Mississippi Rivers, have mingled into 
one, resulting in a mixed race of German-Scotch-Irish, 
perpetuating the virtues and perhaps also the weak- 
nesses of all the races. Dr. Bemheim, in his interest- 
ing work on German settlements in North and South 
Carolina, has given a Hst of names, found in common 
use in Pennsylvania and in North Carolina, such as 
Propst, Bostian, Kline (Cline), Trexler, Schlough, 
Seitz (Sides), Rheinhardt, Biber (Beaver), Kohlman 
(Coleman), Derr (Dry), Berger (Barrier), Behrin- 
ger (Barringer). To this list may be added other 
names familiar in Rowan County, such as Bernhardt, 
Heilig, Meisenheimer, Beard, I^Iull, Rintelman (Ren- 
dleman), Layrle (Lyerly), Kuhn (Coon), Friese, 
Eisenhauser, Yost, Overcash, Boger, Suther, Wine- 
coff, Cress, \\'alcher, Harkey, Savitz, Henkel, IMoser, 
Braun (Brown), and many others familiar to all our 
people. The German settlers have generally been re- 
markable for industry, enonomy, and the habit of 
living within their means and not getting into debt. 

During their sojourn here, a century and a quarter, 
they have passed through the ordeal of changing their 
language. As the laws were written and expounded 
in English, and all public affairs conducted in that 
language, the Germans were incapable of taking part, 
in most cases, in public affairs. Hence, letting public 
affairs alone, and attending to their home interests, 
they surrounded themselves with well-tilled farms, and 


adorned their premises with capacious barns and 
threshing floors. Who has not seen the immense 
double barns, with wide double doors, to admit a four- 
horse wagon with its towering load of hay or straw or 
wheat; and the threshing floor, where the horses 
tramped out the wheat, and the "windmill" blew the 
chaflf into the chaflfhouse ? And who has forgotten the 
long stables where the cows were yoked to the troughs, 
each one knowing her place, while the calves were tied 
to a trough at the other wall? 

But the ''Pennsylvania Dutch" has almost ceased to 
be heard on our streets where once its quaint tones of 
mingled German, French, and English were so famil- 
iar. The dialect is gone, but the accent and the 
idiom still linger on many tongues, and the traditions 
and folklore of the old world still flow in a deep un- 
dercurrent in many families. 

Not long after the Scotch-Irish and Pennsylvania 
Germans came into the territory of Old Rowan, came 
another people that have added much to the wealth of 
the State. I mean the Moravians, or United Brethren. 
These people purchased a tract of 98,985 acres, called 
the "Wachovia Tract," in what is now Forsyth 
County, but originally Rowan. This was in 1751, but 
the deed for the tract was signed in 1753, and in the 
autumn of this year twelve single brethren came from 
Bethlehem, Pa., and began the settlement of 
Bethabara. Bethany was founded in 1759, and Salem 
in 1766; Frieburg and Friedland, in 1769 and 1770. 
In 1804 the well-known Salem Female Academy was 


founded, at which many of the fair daughters of the 
South have been educated. 

Along with these settlers from Ireland and Germany 
came, from time to time, others of English, Welsh, and 
Scotch descent, who have mingled with the former in 
working out the destiny of Old Rowan — the mother of 

Although Rowan was not settled by Cavaliers or 
Huguenots, or by the aristocracy of old-world society, 
she has good reason to be proud of the early pioneers 
who laid here the foundations of their homes. They 
were men and women who had suffered for conscience* 
sake, or fled from despotism to seek liberty and hap- 
piness unrestrained by the shackles of a womout civ- 



The early settlers of Rowan were peaceable, indus- 
trious, and law-abiding men, who had come to this 
land to make homes for themselves and their children. 
When therefore their numbers had increased suffi- 
ciently to justify the measure, steps were taken for 
the formation of a county government, and the ap- 
pointment of county officers and courts of justice. 
Accordingly, at the sessions of the General Assembly 
of the Province of North Carolina begun and held at 
Newbern, ]\Iarch 27, 1753, an Act was passed estab- 
lishing the County of Rowan. Gov. Gabriel Johnston, 
after a long and prosperous term of office, had 
died in August, 1752, and the duties of the office de- 
volved upon Nathaniel Rice, first Counselor of the 
King's Commission. But President Rice lived only 
until January, 1753, and at his death the Hon. Matthew 
Rowan, the next Counselor in order, qualified as 
President, in Wilmington, on the first of February, 
1753. As he was now President of the Council, and 
acting governor, the new county formed during his 
administration was called after his name. The Act of 
the Assembly establishing the county is, in part, as 
follows: "That Anson County be divided by a line, 
to begin where (the) Anson line was to cross Earl 


Granville's (line), and from thence in a direct line 
north to the Virginia line, and that the said county be 
bounded on the north by the Virginia line, and to the 
south by the southernmost line of Earl Granville's: 
And that the upper part of said county so divided be 
erected into a County and Parish by the name of 
Rowan County and St. Luke's Parish, and that all the 
inhabitants to the westward of said line, and included 
within the before-mentioned boundaries shall belong 
and appertain to Rowan County" (Iredell's Laws of 
North CaroHna, Ed. 1791, p. 154.) To get an idea 
of these extensive boundaries, we have only to remem- 
ber that, in 1749, Anson was cut off from Bladen by 
a line starting where the westernmost branch of Little 
Pee Dee enters South Carolina, thence up to the head- 
waters of Drowning Creek, and so on by a line equi- 
distant from Great Pee Dee and Saxapahaw. All west 
of this somewhat indeterminate line was Anson County. 
The design in 1753 was to include in Rowan all that 
part of Anson which was comprised in Earl Gran- 
ville's lands, that is, all north of latitude thirty-five 
degrees, thirty-four minutes as far as to the Mrginia 
line. The ''point" where Anson line was to cut Earl 
Granville's line, as well as can be determined by the 
writer, must have been somewhere near the south- 
eastern corner of the present County of Randolph, not 
far from the point where Deep River passes from Ran- 
dolph into Moore County. The eastern line of Rowan, 
if this be correct, would run due north from that point, 
along the eastern boundaries of the present Randolph, 
Guilford, and Rockingham Counties. The southern 


boundary, beginning at the southeast corner of Ran- 
dolph, ran due west along Earl Granville's south line, 
on the south side of Randolph, Davidson, Rowan, and 
Iredell, as they now lie (latitude thirty-five degrees, 
thrity-four minutes), to the Catawba River, a short 
distance above Beattie's Ford ; thence due west, cutting 
into Lincoln County, and running a few miles north of 
Lincolnton, through Cleveland and Rutherford, 
through Hickory Nut Gap, and on through Buncombe, 
Haywood, Jackson, Macon, and Cherokee, and on to 
the westward indefinitely. Old Rowan included in its 
ample domain the territory occupied today by thirty 
counties and parts of counties in North Carolina, be- 
sides the indefinite and unexplored regions of the 
west, as far as the South Seas, embracing the western 
section of Granville's vast inheritance. It is true, in- 
deed, that the region beyond the mountains in the 
early days was unknown, and in the farther West was 
the French territory of Louisiana, that practically cut 
down these gigantic proportions. But theoretically, 
and according to the Charter, such was its vast terri- 

It may not be amiss to recall to the mind of the 
student of North Carolina history that Charles II., of 
England, in the fifteenth year of his reign, granted to 
the Earl of Clarendon, the Duke of Albemarle, the Earl 
of Craven, Lord Berkeley, Lord Ashley, Sir George 
Carteret, and Sir John Colleton, the whole territory 
of America lying between latitude thirty-one degrees, 
thirty-six minutes and thirty-six degrees, thirty-one 
minutes north, and extending from the Atlantic Ocean 


to the South Seas, or Pacific Ocean. After making 
the experiment of a Proprietary government for more 
than a half-century, under the famous constitution of 
Locke and Shaftesbury, and otherwise, seven of these 
Lords Proprietors surrendered their interest in the 
Carolinas to the Crown, in the third year of George 
IL (1729), for the sum of twenty-five hundred pounds 
(£2500) each, as stated in a previous chapter. But John, 
Earl of Granville, Lord Cartaret, and Baron of 
Hawnes, as he is styled, the son and heir of Sir 
George Carteret, declined to surrender his eighth part 
of the land, preferring to dispose of it to the settlers 
by means of special agents. In 1743, his eighth part 
was set ofif to him, and was situated between latitude 
thirty-five degrees, thirty-four minutes and the Vir- 
ginia line. His southern line began on the Atlantic 
Ocean near Cape Hatteras, crossed Pamlico Sound, 
passed on west not far from \\'ashington, across the 
Conuties of Beaufort, Pitt, Greene, \\'ayne, and John- 
ston, on the north side of Moore, and so on westward 
along the line indicated as the south line of Rowan 
County. Granville does not appear to have exercised 
any authority over the people in his lands, nor any con- 
trol in the enactment or execution of the laws. He 
was simply a mighty landowner, with a vast body of 
desirable land to sell to the best advantage. After 
1743 all grants and sales of lands were made in his 
name. The curious inquirer may look into the office 
of our Register of Deeds, in the Courthouse in Salis- 
bury, and see volumes upon volumes of old land deeds, 
reciting over and over again the titles and dignities of 


Earl Granville, conveying lands to the Allisons, An- 
drews, Brandons, Grahams, Lockes, Nesbits, etc., and 
signed by his Lordship's attorneys and agents, Fran- 
cis Corbin and James Innes, or by sub-agents William 
Churton and Richard Vigers. 

It appears that the General Assembly of North Car- 
olina, at this early day, began to exercise more power 
than was entirely agreeable to the loyal government in 
England, and by the multiplication of counties the 
assembly was increased in numbers too rapidly. Hence 
the policy of repression was early adopted. In 1754, 
the year after the erection of Rowan County, King 
George II., in privy council, revoked the acts of 1753, 
establishing Rowan, Cumberland, and Orange Coun- 
ties. But upon a more thorough understanding of the 
subject, he was pleased the next year to allow the said 
counties to be re-established, and the Assembly at its 
sessions in 1756 did re-establish these counties, and 
validated all deeds and conveyances that had been made 
during the period of the royal revocation. It appears 
that the disapprobation of the King made no break in 
the Courts of Rowan County, for the record shows 
that they went on precisely as they would have gone 
on had the King fully approved. So far away were 
they from the Court of England, and so full of the 
spirit of independence, that they were ready to practice, 
if not assert, the inherent right of self-government. 

The county having been established in March, 1753, 
in June of the same year the Court of Pleas and Quar- 
ter Sessions met somewhere in the county and pro- 
ceeded to their work. But where the first Court was 


held, the writer has not been able to determine. There 
are several vague traditions and recollections that 
point to different times and places ; and with the hope 
that someone will be able to probe this matter to the 
bottom, these traditions are given. 

1. There is a vague impression floating in certain 
legal circles here, that an old ''Docket" has been seen 
in our courthouse, dating back a number of years be- 
fore the establishment of the county. If this be so, there 
must have been some kind of itinerant or circuit 
Court held at occasional times on the frontiers. But 
of this I have seen no historical or documentary proof 

2. There is a tradition that the first Courts were 
held in the Jersey Settlement, not far from Trading 
Ford, on a place once owned by Thales ]\IcDonald, now 
the property of ^Ir. Hayden; and the venerable oaks 
that shaded the premises were pointed out some twen- 
ty-five years ago, and may be still standing. This is 
rendered somewhat probable from the fact that the Jer- 
sey lands were early occupied, and were probably more 
thickly settled at that period than the region between 
the Yadkin and the Catawba. In connection with this 
location there is another tradition that preliminary 
steps were once taken to lay out a town in the vicinity 
of Trading Ford. \A'ith such a beautiful stream, easily 
capable of being made navigable from the Narrows 
far up into the mountains, the wonder is that a town 
has not long since sprung up in that delightful region. 

Another tradition, that has been constant in one 
family, is that the first Courts of Rowan were held in 


a building that stood on the premises now owned by 
Miss McLaughHn, about thirteen miles west of Salis- 
bury. This place is midway between Thyatira and 
Back Creek churches, and not far from Sill's Creek. 
An old door is still preserved there, which the family 
say has always been known to have belonged to the 
building in which the Court was held. 

It is possible that there is substantial truth in all 
these traditions. In those early days the General As- 
sembly of the Province was migratory, being held at 
Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, and Hillsboro, and it 
is not impossible that one or two of the first Courts of 
Pleas and Quarter Sessions of Rowan were held out- 
side of Salisbury, before a courthouse was erected. 
The early records contain no mention of the place 
where the Courts were held, and the first leaf is 



As stated on a former page, it is not certainly known 
where the first Court was held. But from the records 
in the office of the Superior Court Clerk, in SaHsbury, 
it appears probable that it was held in June, 1753, only 
a few months after the county was established. The 
names of the justices who presided at the Courts the 
first year were \\'alter Carruth, Thomas Lovelatty, 
James Carter, John Brandon, Alexander Cathey, 
Squire Boone, Thomas Cook, Thomas Potts, George 
Smith, Andrew Allison, John Hanby, Alexander Os- 
borne, James Tate, and John Brevard. Wq know, or 
have some reasons for conjecturing, the neighborhoods 
from which several of these magistrates came. Walter 
Carruth owned lands, and probably resided, on the 
east side of Coddle Creek, adjoining the McKnights, 
in the Prospect neighborhood. James Carter owned 
the lands in the southeast quarter of Salisbury, on both 
sides of Water Street, and on towards Crane Creek, 
now called Town Creek, and probably lived in the pres- 
ent corporate limits of the town. John Brandon lived 
six miles south of Salisbury, near the Concord Road, 
on the plantation now owned by Charles H. ]\IcKenzie, 
Esq. Alexander Cathey lived on Cathey's Creek, near 


Thyatira Church, and was the ancestor of the late 
Alexander Long, AI. D., of Salisbury. Squire Boone 
lived on the Yadkin, at Alleman's or Boone's Ford, and 
was the father of the great hunter and pioneer, Daniel 
Boone, of Kentucky. At this place young Daniel spent 
the days of his boyhood, and no doubt often hunted 
over the hills and through the thickets of the Yadkin. 
Thomas Potts probably lived in the Jersey Settlement, 
where Potts' Creek, running into the Yadkin River 
just below the site of the Indian Town of Sapona, 
perpetuates his name. George Smith was probably 
from the same neighborhood, where a prominent 
family of that name still resides. Andrew Allison 
owned large tracts of land on Fourth Creek, a few 
miles from Statesville, where a large and influential 
family of that name may still be found. Alexander 
Osborne lived on the headwaters of Rocky River, 
about two miles north of Davidson College. He was 
a leading man in the community, a colonel, the father 
of Adlai Osborne, and the ancestor of the late eloquent 
and popular Judge James W. Osborne, of IMecklen- 
burg. John Brevard was probably from the same 
neighborhood, a little farther west, and not far from 
Beattie's Ford, on the Catawba. At least this was the 
neighborhood of the Brevards, one of whom. Dr. 
Ephraim Brevard, is reputed to be the composer of the 
celebrated Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. 
Of Lovelatty, Cook, Hanby, and Tate the writer has 
no knowledge, though doubtless some of their de- 
scendants may be still residing among us. There is a 
Ford on the Catawba, and a postoffice in Caldwell 



This picture of the famous frontiersman appears on frontispiece to Colonel Roose- 
velt's "Winning of the West," Vol. 2. The facsimile signature is taken from a mar- 
riage certificate in the office of the Clerk of the Superior Court of Rowan County, 
North Carolina. 


County called "Lovelady," perhaps a remembrance of 
Justice Lovelatty, of the Rowan County Court. 

A good part of the time of the first Court was taken 
up in registering the marks and brands which the citi- 
zens had invented to distinguish their cattle and other 
livestock; and the changes are rung on ''crops/' "half- 
crops/' ''slits", and "swallow-forks," in the "off" and 
"near" ear, and other quaint devices for marking. The 
cattle that were to be identified by the marks and 
brands registered in the Rowan Court, ranged over the 
meadows and prairies of the Yadkin, the Catawba, the 
Deep, the Saxapahaw, and the Dan Rivers. Consta- 
bles were also appointed whose beats lay as much as 
a hundred miles from the seat of justice. These old 
"records" of the Rowan Court of Pleas and Quarter 
Sessions, for 1753-54-55-56, are full of interest to any- 
one who will take the trouble to decipher them. For 
instance, here is a list of constables and their beats for 
1753. Preston Goforth for the South Fork of the 
Catawba. (This was for the region from Hickory to 
Lincoln.) John McGuire, south side of the Yadkin. 
John Attaway ( ?) for Dan River. John Robinson for 
south side of Yadkin, "from the mouth of Grant's 
Creek to the ford of the same; thence across to the 
Trading Path ; thence along said Path as far as Cold- 
water; thence with his Lordship's line." This shows 
that the Trading Path ran to the point where Cold- 
water Creek runs from Rowan into Cabarrus. "John 
Nesbit had his beat from James Cathey's Creek to the 
Western Path, as far as the fork of said Path. James 
Howard from Cathey's Creek to Third Creek, and as 


far as the Division Ridge between the two settlements. 
Benjamin W'inslow, as far as the Catawba River, and 
along the King's line and Lamb's Mill, and down as 
far as William McKnight's. John Doller on Abbott's 
Creek, as far as the \\'estern Path. David Stewart on 
the north side of Yadkin, from ]\Iuddy Creek and up- 
ward. William Fisher for the district included in the 
Forks of Yadkin. James Watkins from the Orange line 
as far as Beaver Island Creek, on Dan River. James 
Hampton from Beaver Island Creek and upwards" 
(i. e., higher up the Dan). These names of men and 
localities show the extent of the jurisdiction of the 
Rowan Court, stretching from the Orange line and Dan 
River to the King's line, and as far west as the south 
fork of the Catawba, northwest of Lincolnton. The 
following were the officers of the county, viz. : 

Richard Hilliar, Deputy Attorney-General ; John 
Dunn, Court Clerk; James Carter, Esq., County 
Register; John Whitsett, County Treasurer; Francis 
Corbin, Esq., Colonel of Rowan Regiment of Foot; 
Scotton Davis, Captain in Corbin's Regiment. 

The following persons are named as composing the 
Grand and Petit Juries of the first Court, viz. : Henry 
Hughey, John AlcCulloch, James Hill, John Burnett, 
Samuel Bryant, John McDowell, James Lambath, 
Henry Dowland, ]\Iorgan Bryan, \\'illiam Sherrill, 
William Morrison, William Linvil. 

Samuel Baker asked this Court (1753) to declare 
his mill on Davidson's Creek (near Center Church) a 
public mill, and his request was granted. John Baker 
proved before this Court that his ear had been bitten 

~ /^. 



off in an affay (not cropped off for larceny), and ob- 
tained a Court certificate to that effect. 

In those days innkeepers were not allowed to charge 
at their own discretion for the drinks and other enter- 
tainments which they furnished to their patrons, but 
the Court took the matter in hand and made a schedule 
of prices. In 1755, after fixing the prices for wine, 
whiskey, beer, etc., they decided that the keepers of 
ordinaries, inns, or taverns, should charge as 
follows : 

For dinner of roast or boiled flesh, one shilling. 

For supper and breakfast, each, six pence. 

For lodging over night, good bed, two pence. 

For stabling (24 hours), with good hay or fodder, 
six pence. 

For pasturage, first twenty-four hours, four pence, 
every twenty-four hours after, two pence. 

For Indian corn or other grain, per quart, two pence. 

This was to be paid in Proclamation money, which 
was about on a par with Confederate the second or 
third year of the late war. 

Salisbury was well supplied with licensed ordinaries, 
or inns, in those days. The licensed houses were as 
follows: In 1755, John Ryle's ordinary was licensed. 
In 1756, John Lewis Beard, Peter Arrand, Jacob 
Franck, Archibald Craige, James Bower, and Thomas 
Bashford and Robert Gillespie received licenses. Jacob 
Franck occupied the lot where the late Dr. Alexander 
Long resided, and Bashford and Gillespie occupied the 
corner next to the present courthouse, i. e., corner of 
Corbin and Council Streets. Robert Gillespie was the 


first husband of the celebrated ]\Irs. EHzabeth Steele, 
of SaHsbury, and the father of the wife of the Rev. 
Samuel E. McCorkle, D. D. A few years after this, 
Paul Barringer, Esq., of Mecklenburg (Cabarrus), 
bought the lot on the east corner of Corbin and Innes 
Streets, ninety-nine feet down Corbin and one hundred 
and ninety-eight feet down Innes, from a man who is 
described as an ''ordinary keeper." From this it ap- 
pears probable that the corner now occupied by Kluttz' 
drugstore was occupied as an ordinary at an early 
day, as we know that it was at a later day, when Wil- 
liam Temple Coles kept an inn there, where John 
Dunn, Esq., died in the winter of 1782-83. 

We may remark in passing that John Dunn and \\'il- 
liam Monat were appointed attorneys by Governor 
Dobbs, and presented their Commissions to the Rowan 
Court in 1755. Of WiUiam Monat little or nothing 
appears in the records of Rowan County; but for 
thirty years John Dunn occupied a prominent place in 
the public affairs of Rowan County, both before and 
after the W^ar of the Revolution. He deser\xd well of 
his country, and his name is embalmed in the hearts of 
a large circle of honored descendants, and his memory 
is perpetuated in the name of Dunn's Mountain, in 
sight of the Public Square of Salisbury, at the foot of 
which his remains lie interred. This name v/ill often 
recur in the course of these sketches. 

At the June term of 1753, the Court proceeded to 
select a place for the erection of a courthouse, pillory, 
stocks, and gaol. The action of the Court is substan- 
tially as follows : ''The courthouse, gaol, and stocks 


shall be located where the 'Irish Settlement' forks, 
one fork leading to John Brandon's, Esq., and the other 
fork along the old wagon road over Grant's Creek, 
called Sill's Path, and near the most convenient spring." 
John Brandon, as stated before, lived six miles south 
of Salisbury, on the Concord Road, and ''Sill's Path" 
was probably the Beattie's Ford Road, crossing Sill's 
Creek about seventeen miles west of Salisbury. The 
most "convenient spring" is thought to be a spring in 
the garden of the late Dr. Alexander Long, where 
Jacob Franck's ordinary and still-house were after- 
wards established, the lot afterwards owned by 
Matthew Troy, the father-in-law of the late Maxwell 
Chambers. The exact site of the courthouse was the 
center of our present Public Square, at the intersection 
of Corbin and Innes Streets, where the great town well 
now is. Tradition says that this spot — originally con- 
siderably higher than it now is — was a famous "deer- 
stand," where the rifleman stood, and with unerring 
aim brought down the fleet-footed doe or antlered 
stag, as he fled before the music-making pack of 

The Court directed that the courthouse should be 
of frame work, weather-boarded, thirty feet long and 
twenty feet wide, a story and a half high, with two 
floors, the lower one raised two feet above the ground. 
It w^as to be provided with an oval bar, and a bench 
raised three feet above the floor, with a table and seat 
for the Clerk, and "cases" for the attorneys. There 
was to be a good window behind the bench, with glass 
in it, and a window near the middle of each side, and a 


door in the end opposite the bench. This simple struc- 
ture of wood, with one door and three windows, ap- 
pears to us, after the lapse of a century and a quarter, 
to have been an insignificant affair. But doubtless it 
compared favorably with the finest structures to be 
found in the wilderness, only about ten years after the 
first settlers arrived, and it accorded well with the tem- 
per and the habits of those earnest and honest Justices 
who sat upon the "bench," and arraigned evildoers at 
their bar. No complicated suits, involving nice points 
of law, often came before them for adjudication, but 
rather affrays, trespass, and larcenies, with now and 
then a homicide, would make up the docket. Suits 
would not be apt to linger long. They did not erect a 
very large or very strong jail, for the culprit was apt 
to find himself speedily in the pillory or stocks, or at 
the whipping-post. I presume that few offenders 
escaped upon legal technicalities, or on the plea of in- 
sanity, for the administrators of the law were more 
likely to consult the dictates of primitive justice than 
the niceties of any written code or precedent. 



The contract for building the courthouse was taken 
by John W^hitsett, the County Treasurer, but for reas- 
ons not explained it was not finished until 1756, at 
which time the Court met in the building for the first 
time. Before this time the Court probably met in 
private houses, or in the public room of some con- 
venient ordinary. At the second term of the Court, 
October, 1753, the Justices adjourned once to the house 
of James Alexander, and at another time afterwards 
to Peter Arrand's (Earnhardt?) ordinary. James 
Alexander seems to have been a resident of Salisbury, 
where he died in 1754. We conclude from this fact 
that the second term of the Court was held in Salis- 
bury. And since the common gaol, pillory, and stocks 
were already up and in use in 1754, we have con- 
clusive evidence that the Courts from and after that 
date were held near these public buildings. Tradi- 
tion states that the old gaol building was located at or 
near the site of the present old gaol building, now 
standing at the northwest corner of Corbin and Lib- 
erty Streets. Arrangements were early made to se- 
cure suitable lands for the 

76 history of rowax county 

Township of Salisbury 

At the Court in 1753, Edward Hughes, Esq., was 
appointed trustee for Rowan County, and directed to 
"enter" forty acres of land, at the place selected for 
the "County Seat," and to see that a title was secured 
from Earl Granville's agents. At the same time, John 
Dunn, Esq., and John \\'hitsett, the Treasurer, were 
directed to see that the land was laid off in a manner 
suitable for the purpose intended. It appears that Mr. 
Hughes did not succeed in securing immediately the 
forty acres required by the Court, though some of the 
public buildings were at once erected. The deed for 
the Township lands is dated Februars^ 11, 1755. At 
that date AMlliam Churton and Richard \'igers, agents 
for Earl Granville, having received a grant from 
Francis Corbin, Granville's attorney — conveyed by 
deed six hundred and thirty- fire (635) acres of land 
for "Salisbury Township," to James Carter, Esq., and 
Hugh Foster, farmer, trustees — including the land 
upon which the public buildings had been erected. 
The deed for the land calls for the following distances, 
viz. : 

"Beginning at a point near the 'Public Square' — 
James Carter's corner, and running due east with 
James Carter's Hne, 66 chains; thence north 37^ 
chains; thence west I03>4 chains; thence east 37V2 
chains, crossing Crane Creek three times ; thence north, 
66 chains, crossing Crane Creek, to the beginning." 
The Township lands, the streets, and the streams are 
pretty fairly represented in the following diagram. 

lO F H E N D E R S N A N d' C M PA 1^^ 

•4F W!l rsFRNES 

LHECT _..,,. - 
• 'ELLJiX 



*'The point near the public square, James Carter's 
Corner," appears from an old map of the town, drawn 
about fifty years ago, and now in the possession of 
Miss C. Beard, to have been in the middle of 

Corbin or Alain Street, in front of the present store of 
R. J. Holmes. 

It will be seen from the above diagram that several 
small streams took their rise in the Township lands, 


no doubt each of them much more bold than now, and 
flowing with pure and sweet water. As the Indians 
had for several years given place to the white settlers, 
and the practice of burning off the country employed 
by the Indians for the purpose of securing open hunt- 
ing grounds having been suspended, the ground began 
to be covered by a beautiful young forest growth. 
Under the shelter of these young trees, and with the 
ground covered with luxuriant herbage, the streams 
were fuller and purer than in modern days. There is 
reported to have been a fine spring of water rising 
near the eastern corner of the Episcopal Church yard, 
with a stream flowing between the site of the present 
courthouse and jail. The tokens of former culverts 
are still to be seen near the courthouse. After cross- 
ing Corbin Street the stream was joined by another 
flowing from Franck's Spring. Here Jacob Franck, 
in 1756, obtained license to keep a village inn, and on 
this lot he afterwards run a distillery, for the benefit 
of those whose thirst could not be adequately quenched 
by the purer and wholesomer waters of his spring. 
No doubt many of the affrays and murders that 
claimed the attention of the Court took their origin 
in the firewater that was brewed in the boiling caldrons 
and flowed trickling down through the coiling worm 
of Jacob Franck's distillery, Hcensed and perhaps 
patronized by themselves. We notice that on several 
occasions the Court imposed fines upon jurymen who 
were not able to serve because of drunkenness. The 
distiller and render reaped the profits, the Court had 


the trouble, and the citizens of the county had to bear 
the burden of the expense. 

It is to be regretted that there is a propensity to 
change the names of places as time moves on. This 
is often a real inconvenience and a positive loss ; for it 
not infrequently happens that lines and boundaries 
cannot be identified because of this change. The 
popular modern name for the stream that flows south- 
east of Salisbury is "Town Creek," but in the deed 
conveying the Township lands it is rightly called 
"Crane Creek,'' and the lines cross it four times. It 
is so called in Colonel Byrd's History of the Dividing 
Line. There are other deeds for lands higher up the 
stream that call it by that name. The next stream 
flowing on this side of Dunn's Alountain was anciently 
called "Middle Crane Creek." 

Then again we always speak of "Main Street," 
forgetful or ignorant of the fact that the old deeds 
always speak of it as Corbin Street. It was named 
after Francis Corbin, Granville's attorney. It is not 
surprising, perhaps, that the older citizens should dis- 
like to call the street after this grasping attorney who 
extorted illegal and exorbitant fees from the people, 
and who was once mobbed at Edenton for his extor- 
tion. Our modern town authorities have also taken 
the liberty of altering the spelling of James Innes' 
name, and we now see every day staring down upon 
the passerby, "Inniss Street." The signature of 
James Innes may now be seen in the Register's oflice 
to hundreds of deeds, and it is invariably written 


There were probably few private residences in Salis- 
bury, and probably no inn, until 1755. In the fall of 
1755, the Rev. Hugh ^IcAden, a Presbyterian minister, 
on a missionary expedition, passed from the "Jersey 
Settlement" and over "Trading Ford" to James Alli- 
son's owning land, about four or five miles south of 
Salisbury on Crane Creek, but he made no call at Salis- 
bury. Perhaps he followed the Trading Path, and so 
traveled up between the two branches of Crane Creek. 
Perhaps Mr. Sloan, from whose house in the "Jer- 
seys" he came, knew of no Presbyterian family in the 
little village, and could not encourage him with the 
hope of congenial entertainment. At all events, duty 
or inclination led him to pass on to James Allison's, 
and from Mr. Allison's to John Brandon's, Uving on 
the west side of the plantation now owned by C. H. 
McKenzie, Esq. Thence he journeyed to Thyatira, 
to Coddle Creek, to Center, to Rocky River, to Sugar 
Creek, and on to the western part of South Carolina. 



We have already mentioned James Alexander, who 
died here in 1754, as one of the first settlers in Sahs- 
bury. We have also mentioned the names of those 
who were licensed to keep ordinaries or taverns, in 
1755-56, as John Ryle, John Louis Beard, Peter Ar- 
rand, Jacob Franck, Archibald Craige, James Bower, 
Thomas Bashford, and Robert Gillespie. Bashford 
and Gillespie seem to have been in copartnership, and 
bought up a number of lots in the town, evidently with 
the view of holding them until the growth of the town 
should enhance their value. In 1757 they purchased 
lots Nos. 3, II, and 12 in the great "East Square," 
from Carter and Foster, trustees of the Township. 
These lots contained one hundred and forty-four 
square poles each, and on one of them they estab- 
lished a village inn. 

Before leaving these early settlers, the reader must 
have a special introduction to a few of them who 
played a more conspicuous part in public affairs. The 
first of these is a sturdy German, by way of Pennsyl- 
vania, not yet naturalized. His name is 

John Louis Beard 
While he lingered in Pennsylvania, Mr. Beard was 
married to Miss Christina Snapp, of that Province. 


Coming- to Salisbury, he was naturalized in 1755. 
While many of the German settlers, unacquainted with 
the English language, and therefore incapable of taking 
part in public affairs, were content to remain several 
years as liens, and whose names therefore seldom 
appear on the public records, Mr. Beard, with a vigor 
that characterized his after Hfe, immediately assumed 
his place as an active and energetic citizen. He did 
not at first settle within the corporate limits of the 
town, but opened up a farm on Crane Creek, near the 
Bringle's Ferry Road. He afterwards owned the lot 
on which the courthouse now stands, and erected a 
large dwelling-house thereon. In 1768, ]\Ir. Beard was 
bereaved of a beloved daughter, and having laid her in 
a grave on a lot of his own, he made, the same year, a 
title to said lot of one hundred and forty square poles 
to certain trustees of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
of Salisbur>^ These trustees were "to erect and build 
thereon a church, for the only proper use and behoof 
of the said German Lutheran congregation forever." 
He also granted in the deed the use of the church to 
the "High Church of England, and to the Reformed 
Calvin ministers, at such time as the said Lutheran 
minister doth not want to perform divine service in 
it." The "Reformed Calvin ministers" were probably 
the "German Reformed," who were intimately 
associated with the Lutherans, often using the same 
building. This lot given by Mr. Beard is the one 
known as the "Lutheran graveyard," on which 
formerly stood the Lutheran church. It is now some- 
times called the "Salisbury Cemetery," and has been 


recently enclosed with a substantial brick wall by the 
united contributions of citizens of all denominations. 
Within its spacious enclosure and beneath its somber- 
hued cedars, sleeps the honored dust of multitudes of 
the once active and earnest citizens of Salisbury. Mr. 
Beard left a large family of sons and daughters, 
whose descendants are still among us. 

Another early settler here, appearing at the session 
of the first Court, in June, 1753, was 

John Dunn, Esq. 

This gentleman was a native of Ireland, born at 
\A'aterford, and on his mother's side connected with 
the Erskine family. He was a younger brother, and 
was early sent to Oxford University, that he might 
prepare himself to carve out his own fortune. When 
he was about twenty years of age he left Oxford, and 
emigrated to America, landing in Charleston, S. C. 
After a brief residence there he came to Salisbury, 
where he spent the remainder of his life. He became 
in 1753 Clerk of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Ses- 
sions, which office he held until he became a licensed 
lawyer in 1755. His residence in Salisbury was on 
the corner of Innes and Church Streets, on the lot 
now occupied by Mr. P. B. Meroney. After the style 
of those days, the house was built as close to the street 
as possible. Here the writer saw a freedman, a few 
days ago, throw up old pieces of old bricks, as he 
was digging out a place in which to plant a sycamore 
tree — doubtless the debris of John Dunn's family resi- 
dence, or perhaps the foundations of his law office. 


There is also a deed on record, from Earl Granville to 
John Dunn, dated June 10, 1758, for four hundred and 
seventy acres of land on the south branch of Middle 
Crane Creek, adjoining the lands of John Brandon. 
He purchased lot No. 5, in the East Square, of Carter 
and Foster, in 1755. He was also the owner of a 
large tract of land, including Dunn's ^Mountain, where 
he made his home after the Revolutionary war. 

AA'iLLiAM Temple Coles 

was another of the early settlers in Salisbury. He 
was a native of Dublin, Ireland, and was related to the 
Temple family. In Salisbury he was the proprietor 
or keeper of a tavern, situated on the corner of Corbin 
and Innes Streets, where Kluttz's drug store now 
stands — the same property that Paul Barringer pur- 
chased from Magoune in 1768. He was a Freemason, 
as he records himself. His \\'ill, still on file in the 
Register's office, is something of a curiosity. He be- 
queaths to his wife, Sarah, four lots in the town of 
Salisbury — her choice from all his Salisbury lots. He 
leaves to his son, William Temple Coles, Jr., "the 
whole town of Salisbury," as conveyed to him by 
Foster, a former trustee. His furniture he left to his 
daughter, Henrietta Coles. He bequeathed a half- 
acre of ground in the South Square of Salisbury for a 
burying-ground, one-half of it to the Freemasons, and 
one-half to the citizens. This lot lay where the North 
Carolina Railroad track now is, where the Bank Street 
bridge crosses the said road. It is remembered that 
when the "cut" for the road was made manv human 


bones were exposed. By what means the right of the 
citizens and of the Freemasons to said lot passed 
away we know not. Neither do we know exactly 
what claims Mr. Coles had to the ''whole town of 
Salisbury." And what became of William Temple 
Coles, Jr., or Henrietta Coles, or where the elder Coles 
was buried, are questions more easily asked than 

Though not permanent residents of the County of 
Rowan, the names of James Innes and Francis Corbin 
were very familiar in the days of the early settlement 
of Salisbury. These were Earl Granville's land 
agents, and had in their hands the whole disposal of 
the lands in the Earl's vast estate. Mosely and Holten 
were the first agents, and after them Childs and Cor- 
bin. Hillsboro was first called Childsburg, after one of 
these agents. Upon the removal of Childs, the agents 
were Corbin and Innes. These gentlemen had an 
ofifice on the corner of Innes and Church Streets, 
where the fountain in Mr. R. J. Holmes' yard now is, 
in close proximity to John Dunn's law office. Francis 
Corbin was a citizen of Chowan, and resided a few 
miles from Edenton. He is represented as an extor- 
tioner, charging exorbitant fees for his official acts. 
At one time ten or fifteen men of Halifax County 
arrested him and compelled him to give a bond that he 
would produce his books and return all money re- 
ceived by him above his proper fees. Instead of doing 
this he commenced a suit against the rioters, and some 
of them were lodged in the Enfield gaol. But on the 
next day the prison doors were broken down, and the 


prisoners liberated. Corbin then thought fit to dis- 
continue the suit and pay costs. 

James Innes was a citizen of Wihriington and a 
baron of the Court of Exchequer there. He was 
associated with Corbin in the SaHsbury land office, 
and one of the principal streets was named after him. 
But even more prominent among our people were two 
brothers, who probably came to this county along with 
Francis Corbin from Halifax or Edenton. Their 
names were 

John and Thomas Frohock 

The name of John Frohock, in beautiful round 
hand, appears as "Court Clerk" on the records as early 
as 1756; and for a number of years after the large 
volumes of land titles of various kinds are recorded in 
the same beautiful hand, and authenticated over his 
signature. Step by step he grew very wealthy, chiefly, 
it would appear, by entering and selling public lands. 
The books are largely filled by conveyances either to 
him or from him. In his Will, dated 1768, and proved 
in 1772, there are named thousands of acres of land in 
Rowan County, in the forks of the Yadkin, near Salis- 
bur}% on Saxapahaw, on Tar River, and in Virginia, 
bequeathed by him to his two brothers, Thomas and 
William Frohock, besides thirty or forty slaves, one of 
which he liberated at death. He was once the owner 
of the lot on which the Watchman office and Craw- 
ford's hardware store now stands, and in a transfer 
of said lot between John Frohock and \\^illiam Temple 
Coles, the street now called "Fisher Street" is called 


"Temple Street." He mentions neither wife nor child 
in his Will, and it is presumed that he was not married. 
Besides the kindness shown in the education and 
liberation of his body servant, Absalom, he expressly 
enjoins that his debtors should not be oppressed or 
sued, but ample time given to them to pay their debts 
to his executors. His brother William does not ap- 
pear to have resided here, but had his home in Halifax, 
though one of his daughters married and settled in the 
vicinity of Salisbury. 

Thomas Frohock 

resided on what has been known as the McCay place, 
and inherited the mill and the lands adjoining from his 
brother, John Frohock, who was probably the builder 
of the mill — certainly the owner of it, and of all the 
lands lying between the town and Grant's Creek. 

Dr. Caruthers designates Thomas Frohock as a 
"bachelor," but the evidence of his Will is to the con- 
trary. His Will, in 1794, leaves his property to his 
son, Alexander Frohock, and to his daughter, Eliza- 
beth, who was married to Charles Hunt, a merchant of 
Salisbury. There are two or three items of his history 
of peculiar interest. The first is that he gave to the 
town that lot now known as the "English Graveyard," 
or "Oak Grove Cemetery," and the schoolhouse lot im- 
mediately in front. The oldest stone in this yard is 
that of Capt. Daniel Little, who died in 1775, and was 
laid peacefully to rest just as the stormy days of the 
Revolutionary war were coming on. In this place, it is 
said that some of Gates' soldiers, after the battle of. 


Camden, wounded there, or worn out in their flight, 
were buried. And here were interred some of the 
British soldiers, who died in 1781 during the time that 
Cornwallis occupied SaHsbury, The graveyard lay 
unenclosed until about fifty years ago, when William 
Gay, the father of the late Mrs. Mary Brown, left a 
legacy for the purpose of enclosing it. With the pro- 
ceeds, a wooden paling or plank fence was put around 
it, and renewed from time to time until, in 1855, the 
present substantial granite wall was erected by the 
voluntary contributions of the citizens of this town. 

Another matter mentioned by Caruthers, in his Life 
of Caldwell (page 114), is that ''Thomas Frohock in 
Salisbury, and Edmund Fanning in Hillsboro, were 
Clerks of the Superior Courts in their respective 
counties, and had become exceedingly obnoxious to 
the people by their extortions." * * * ''It is said 
that Frohock charged fifteen dollars for a marriage 
license; and the consequence was that some of the 
inhabitants on the headwaters of the Yadkin took a 
short cut. They took each other for better or for 
worse ; and considered themselves as married without 
any further ceremony." In his last \\'ill, Thomas 
Frohock enjoins upon his executors to pay all his just 
debts of under three years' standing, but to plead the 
"statute of limitation" upon all claims older than that, 
whenever they could. 

A constant tradition represents that Thomas Fro- 
hock lies buried in an unmarked grave on the hillside, 
within two hundred yards of McCay's — once Fro- 
hock's — mill. 


It is now one hundred years since these old citizens, 
Dunn, Beard, Coles, Corbin, Innes, John and Thomas 
Frohock, lived and acted their part in the ancient 
Township of SaHsbury. Now their names are never 
heard except as the antiquarian rummages among the 
dusty records of a bygone generation, or questions 
some old citizen whose memory is stored with the 
traditions of the past. The places that knew them 
once will know them no more forever. 



In modern days towns and cities rise like mushrooms 
along the lines of railways, or in the regions of the 
great West. But the growth of towns at the early set- 
tlement of this country was a much more gradual 
thing. The people did not originally come to this sec- 
tion with the view of making fortunes by trade, nor 
by the possession of lucrative offices, but to earn a 
living by the simpler process of cultivating the soil or 
by mechanical pursuits. They were not therefore 
disposed to congregate in towns, but to scatter far and 
wide, where the most fertile lands were to be found, 
where game was most abundant, or where they sup- 
posed they would enjoy the best health. For many 
years therefore the towns were composed of the public 
buildings, the residences of some of the county officials, 
a store or two, a hatter shop, a blacksmith shop, a 
tailor shop, and a few inns or ordinaries furnishing 
''entertainment for man or beast.'* ''Hotel" was an 
unknown word among those people, who had not yet 
learned to disguise an English article under a French 
name. It required a half-century for the population to 
increase to five hundred; for it was about 1803 that 
Salisbury is represented as containing one hundred 
houses, and the custom is to estimate five inhabitants 


to each house. And yet the Httle village at once be- 
came a point of importance as the place where the 
Courts of Oyer and Terminer and General Gaol 
Delivery, for the counties of Anson, Mecklenburg, and 
Rowan, were held. 

The Court system of North Carolina adopted in 
1746 (See Swan's Revisal, pp. 224-25), provided that 
the ''Court of Chancery, and the Supreme or General 
Court," should be held in Xewbem, where the Chan- 
cery and other offices were to be located. Besides 
this Court, the Chief Justice was required, twice every 
year, to hold a ''Court of Assize, Oyer and Terminer 
and General Gaol Delivery," in the towns of Edenton 
and Wilmington, and the couthouse in Edgecombe. 

After the erection of Anson, Rowan, and Orange 
Counties, it appears that Salisbury was added as a 
fourth place for holding such Courts. At least the 
earhest records (dated 1755) in Rowan courthouse 
show that such a Court was held here. And as about 
twenty leaves or more are torn off from the first part 
of the record, it is probable that there were earlier 
Courts. In 1756^ the Hon. Peter Henly presided at 
such a Court here, for Rowan, Anson, and Orange, 
with Charles Elliott, Esq., as Attorney-General. In 
1758, the Hon. James Hasell, Chief Justice, presided. 
At the next Court, IMarmaduke Jones, Esq., Associate 
Justice, presided, with Edmund Fanning, Esq., Attor- 
ney for the King, and John Frohock, Esq., Clerk. At 
this Court, Abner Nash, Esq., produced his license 
from Governor Dobbs to practice as a lawyer in the 


In 1762 "a. Superior Court was held here, presided 
over by the Hon. Stephen Dewey, a Justice of the 
Superior Courts of Pleas and Grand Sessions." In 
1763, Maurice Moore, Esq., Associate Judge, with Ed- 
mund Fanning, Esq., Attorney-General, and John 
Frohock, Clerk, officiated at a Court in Salisbury. 
These extracts and references reveal the fact that, soon 
after the organization of Rowan County, Salisbury 
became a center in the Court system of Western Car- 
olina, and to this, among other causes, is to be at- 
tributed the fact that she was the most prominent and 
populous town in the West. This prominence con- 
tinued until the modern railroad system superseded 
the Court system in influence, and fixing the centers of 
trade elsewhere built up other thriving and populous 
towns, which have outstripped Salisbury in the 
rapidity of their growth. 

The Superior Courts were established by Act of the 
General Assembly at Newbern, in the year 1766, during 
the administration of Governor Tryon. The State 
was divided into six districts, viz. : V\'ilmington, New- 
bern, Edenton, Halifax, Hillsboro, and Salisbury dis- 
tricts, the latter embracing the counties above named. 
These Courts were presided over by a Chief Justice and 
two Associate Justices, appointed by the Governor. The 
Clerks of these Courts were appointed by the Chief 
Justice. The Chief Justice, by act of 1770, was to re- 
ceive a salary of six hundred pounds f£6oo), and 
also the sum of fifty pounds (£50) for each Court he 
attended, while the Associate Justices, by act of 1766, 
received forty-one pounds (^41) for each Court at- 


tended; that is, about one hundred dollars, specie, for 
each Court ; or, for the twelve Courts, twelve hundred 
dollars per annum. The salary of the Chief Justice 
would be about equal to thirty-three hundred dollars, 
in specie. 

At its first establishment the little village of SaHs- 
bury was not provided with a Charter or municipal 
government, nor for twelve or fifteen years after- 
wards. But in 1770 an Act was passed by the As- 
sembly for ''Regulating the Town of SaHsbury." The 
preamble states that Salisbury is a "healthy, pleasant 
situation, well watered, and convenient for inland 
trade." Even at that early day Frohock's — after- 
wards called McCay's — millpond was in existence, 
and no doubt the deadly miasma rose from its broad 
surface of nearly a square mile in area, for we learn 
that Mr. Frohock's residence on a hill on the south- 
east side of the pond, in later years called ''The Cas- 
tle," was regarded as an unhealthful place, and many 
of his slaves died annually of the fever. But the pond 
was separated from Salisbury by a forest growth, 
whose leafy branches absorbed or dissipated the nox- 
ious exhalations, so that for many years, even up to 
the present century, the town was resorted to for 
health by people from the lower portions of the State. 
And it is a happy circumstance that, after standing for 
over a hundred years, its present owners generously 
consented to cut the huge embankment and drain off 
the festering waters. Thus for the last half-dozen 
years the city is restored to its ancient condition of 
healthfulness, and the people from a warmer climate 


again begin to resort here, even in the summer time, 
without fear, especially those who desire to secure the 
benefit of the skill of our most excellent physicians. 

The Common 

It was customary for the towns in England to have 
a ''Common" or open tract of public land in their im- 
mediate vicinity, where the cattle might graze at will, 
where the children might play, and the gatherings of 
the citizens be held on extraordinary occasions. In 
accordance with this custom, the Act of the Assembly 
specifies a "Common" in connection with the town of 
Salisbury. Its precise locality has been difficult to 
determine, but the Act appears to describe it as lying 
"on each side of the Western Great Road leading 
through the frontiers of this Province." If this "West- 
ern Great Road" was the Beattie's Ford Road" of 
modern days, crossing Grant's Creek at the bridge 
near the head of McCay's pond, the said road ran 
through the westward of town, leaving Corbin Street 
with "Temple" or Fisher Street, running diagonally 
through the square occupied by the late Dr. Jos. W. 
Hall, and back of the residence of the late Judge Cald- 
well— now the residence of M. L. Holmes. The "Com- 
mon" on each side of this road would include the 
square now occupied by the grounds of the Presby- 
terian manse, and the spring that was anciently on it, 
as well as the spring at the head of the stream starting 
behind Paul Heilig's residence, and running through 
the grounds of the "National Cemetery." Persons 
still living remember when these grounds were unoc- 


cupied and covered with small oaks and chinquapin 
bushes. In a plan of the town made about sixty years 
ago, now lying before the writer, these lots are marked 
as belonging to Troy, Chambers, Caldwell, Thomas 
Dixon, H. C. Jones, Dr. Polk, John Beard, Louis 
Beard, Lauman, Brown, Woodson, etc. These lots, 
originally constituting the Common, had probably been 
recently sold, perhaps as a financial enterprise to re- 
lieve the town of some unfortunate debt, or to carry 
out some promising scheme of internal improvement 
that was destined never to see light. It is a matter of 
profound astonishment that town corporations will 
part with grounds that would make desirable parks or 
breathing places, for a mere trifle, and condemn the 
citizens to live in a long, unbroken line of houses, un- 
relieved by shade, when they might so easily retain a 
Common or Park, where the inhabitants might resort 
at will in summer weather, and refresh themselves by 
breathing the pure air that comes whispering through 
the rustling leaves of the trees. It is really more 
difficult, in some of our larger towns, to escape from 
the dust and glare of the streets and painted houses 
into a pleasant and shady retreat, than it is in the 
great cities where the land is worth hundreds of dollars 
per square yard. 

The Act provides that all the inhabitants of Salis- 
bury shall have free access to all natural springs and 
fountains, whether on private lots or on the Common, 
and that it was lawful for anyone to ''cut and fell," 
and appropriate to his own use, any tree or trees stand- 
ing on the Town Common." That was before the 


exquisite poem, beginning "W^oodman, Spare that 
Tree," was composed, and the early inhabitants were 
more anxious to enjoy their Hberties, and to have an 
open grazing place for their cattle, than to have a 
shady park for public resort. 

It is worthy of notice that a strict "hog law" pre- 
vailed in the sylvan shades of the ancient borough of 
Salisbury. Cows were indeed a privileged class, and 
might roam at will over the streets and Common, but 
it was enacted that "no inhabitants of said town shall, 
on any pretense whatsoever, keep any hog or hogs, 
shoat or pigs, running at large within the corporate 
limits of said town, under a penalty of twenty 
shillings," while anyone had the right to "shoot, kill, 
or destroy" the offending pig at sight. As a protection 
against fire, every householder was required to keep a 
ladder, and two good leather buckets. Fast riding and 
fast driving incurred a penalty of five shillings for 
each offense. It further appears that the pioneer 
settlers were provided with a market-house for the 
mutual benefit of the buyer and seller. 

Taking them all in all the municipal regulations of 
1770 were good and wholesome, and in some par- 
ticulars might still stand as models. 

The gentlemen who were authorized, as Town Com- 
missioners, to put these regulations into execution were 
prominent citizens, selected for their standing and 
their fitness for the high trust, and were generally the 
owners of a large real estate in the town. The list is 
as follows: William Steel. John Dunn, Maxwell 
Chambers, John Louis Beard, Thomas Frohock, Wm. 


Temple Coles, Matthew Troy, Peter Rep, James Kerr, 
Alexander Martin, and Daniel Little. These Commis- 
sioners were appointed by the General Assembly, and 
in case of a vacancy, the place was to be supplied by 
appointment of the Justices of the Rowan Inferior 
Court. Holding their offices for a term of years, or 
during life, these Commissioners would be able to 
mature and carry out extended schemes of improve- 
ment, without having before their eyes the constant 
fear of being left out the next year if they should 
chance to offend any of the people by the conscientious 
and faithful discharge of unpopular duties. This was 
the conser\'atism of monarchy, and doubtless it had 
its evils as well as the fickleness and instability of 
popular democracy. Perhaps the best results would 
be secured by a policy lying between these two ex- 



The early settlers of Rowan County were religious 
people. The Presbyterians, of Scotch-Irish extrac- 
tion, were probably the most numerous in the section 
now comprising Guilford County, in the Jersey Set- 
tlement, in Western Rowan and Iredell Counties. The 
Lutherans and German Reformed (the latter some- 
times called Calvin congregations, and Presbyterians), 
prevailed in parts of Guilford, Davidson, East and 
South Rowan, and Catawba Counties. I name the 
regions as they are now known, but they were all then 
in Rowan. In Davidson and Randolph there were 
Baptist churches. In Salisbury, in the "Jerseys," and 
elsewhere, there were some members of the Church of 
England. It is probable that \\'illiam Temple Coles 
and his family, John Dunn, perhaps Corbin and Innes 
and the Frohocks were attached to that communion. 
We infer this simply from their nativity and their con- 
nection with Earl Granville and Governor Dobbs, as 
agents or officers of the crown. In regard to Dunn 
we have a more certain tradition, as we shall here- 
after mention. It will be remembered that 

loo history of rowan county 

St. Luke's Parish 

was established cotemporaneously with the county, as 
a part of the great system of government here wrought 
out, or attempted ; as nearly conformed to the system 
of the mother country as practicable. During the 
administration of Governor Dobbs — in 1754, according 
to Wheeler — ten years later according to other authori- 
ties (See Wheeler, p. 357; Caruthers' Caldwell, p. 
175), steps were taken to provide for the ministry of 
the word according to the rubric of the Church of 
England. A petition, signed by thirty-four persons 
in the County of Rowan, and addressed to Governor 
Dobbs, represents: ''That His Majesty's most dutiful 
and loyal subjects in this country, who adhere to the 
liturgy and profess the doctrines of the Church of 
England, as by law established, have not the privileges 
and advantages which the rubric and canons of the 
Church allow and enjoin on all its members. That the 
Acts of the Assembly calculated for forming a regular 
vestry in all the counties have never, in this county, 
produced their happy fruits. That the County of 
Rowan, above all counties in the Province, lies un- 
der great disadvantages, as her inhabitants are com- 
posed almost of all nations of Europe, and instead of 
a uniformity in doctrine and worship, they have a 
medley of most of the religious tenets that have lately 
appeared in the world ; who from dread of submitting 
to the national Church, should a lawful vestry be estab- 
lished, elect such of their own community as evade 
the Acts of the Assembly and refuse the oath, whence 


we can never expect the regular enlivening beams of 
the holy Gospel to shine upon us." 

From the fact that there were only thirty-four 
signers to this petition from the vast territory of 
Rowan, we may naturally infer that the population in 
those days was hopelessly plunged into ''Dissent." And 
yet it was the purpose of the far-away rulers of Eng- 
land, and of the North Carolina Assembly, to have 
the Province to conform as far as possible to the 
ecclesiastical system at home. And so the parish sys- 
tem of England, as far as practicable, was incorpor- 
ated in the system of Xorth Carolina law. What that 
system was, can be gathered from a voluminous Act, 
of thirty-three sections, passed by the General Assem- 
bly at Wilmington in 1764. Other Acts and regula- 
tions of the same general tenor had been adopted on 
various occasions before, but the Act of 1764 — with 
a supplementary one in 1765 — is the most full, and 
gives an impartial view of the system as perfected, 
just before the final downfall of the whole scheme at 
the Declaration of Independence in 1776. I will en- 
deavor to give an impartial resume of the parish 

According to this "Act" the Freeholders of each 
county, on Easter ^Monday of every third year, were 
required to elect twelve vestrymen to hold said office 
for the term of three years. A "Freeholder" accord- 
ing to existing laws was a person who owned at least 
fifty acres of land, or a lot in some town. These 
Freeholders were required to vote for vestrymen 
under a penalty of twenty shillings — equal to 


two dollars and fifty cents in specie — and the vestry- 
men SO elected were required to subscribe an oath 
that ''they will not oppose the doctrine, discipline, and 
liturgy of the Church of England, as by law estab- 
lished;" and in case of refusal to qualify, any vestry- 
man-elect was to be declared incapable of acting in that 
capacity. Out of the twelve vestrymen two church 
wardens were to be chosen, who were required to hold 
office at least one year, under a penalty of forty 
shillings, equal to five dollars in specie or sterling 
money, and they were to forfeit five pounds (£5) if 
they did not set up their accounts for public inspection 
in the courthouse. These vestries might appoint one or 
more clerks, or readers, to perform divine service at 
such places as they might designate. 

The vestry were also empowered to lay a tax of ten 
shillings, proclamation money, on each ''taxable" in 
the county, for the purpose of building churches or 
chapels, paying ministers' salaries, purchasing a glebe, 
erecting "mansions or parsonages," etc. 

"Taxables," as we gather from another Act, were all 
white male persons over sixteen years of age, all 
negroes, mulattoes, and mustees,both male and female, 
over twelve years of age, and all white persons male 
and female over twelve years of age who intermar- 
ried with negroes or persons of mixed blood. Such a 
tax, faithfully collected, would have yielded an im- 
mense revenue for the support of religion. Being a 
poll tax, and not a property tax, it fell heavily upon 
the poor, and lightly on the rich. The tax thus levied 
was to be collected by the sherifT, as the other taxes, 


and paid over to the vestry; and in case of refusal, the 
sheriff was required to "distrain" the goods of the 
dehnquent and sell them at public auction, after pub- 
lishing the sale by posting it on the courthouse door, 
the church door, and by public announcement to the 
people immediately after divine service. (See Davis' 
Revisal of North Carolina Laws, Edition 1773, pp. 
304, 309.) 

By an ''Act" passed in 1765, during the administra- 
tion of William Tryon as Lieutenant-Governor, and 
called an ''Act for establishing an orthodox clergy," it 
was provided that every minister of a parish was to 
receive a stated salary of £133, 6s, 8d., and for each 
marriage solemnized in the parish, whether he per- 
formed the ceremony or not, provided he did not re- 
fuse, twenty shillings ; for preaching each funeral, forty 
shillings. In addition to this he was to have the free 
use of a "mansion house" and "glebe," or "tract of 
good land" of at least two hundred acres, or twenty 
pounds (£20) additional until such time as the "man- 
sion house" and "glebe" were provided. The "mansion 
house was required to be thirty-eight feet in length, 
and eighteen feet in width, and to be accompanied with 
a kitchen, barn, stable, dairy, and meathouse, with 
such other conveniences as they may think necessary." 
(See Davis' Revisal, 1773, pp. 338-39.) From this 
it will appear that the Assembly of North Carolina 
made a fair and liberal provision for the support of 
her parish ministers, and with the exception of the 
glebe, which he need not cultivate himself, rendered 
him "free from worldly cares and avocations." But 


the difficulty lay in putting these regulations into 
effect. In Governor Dobbs' letter to the "Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," he 
informs the Society, in 1764, that in North Carolina 
"there were then but six clergymen, though there were 
twenty-nine parishes, and each parish contained a 
whole county." (Rev. R. J. Miller's letter to Dr. 
Hawks, 1830.) The fact was that a large part of the 
population were "Dissenters," and they resisted every 
effort to settle a parish minister over them, and thus 
refused to subject themselves to additional taxation. 
In Unity Parish, in Guilford County, the people 
elected non-Episcopalians for vestrymen, and it be- 
came necessary for the Assembly to dissolve the ves- 
try and declare their actions null and void. (See 
Caruthers' "Caldwell".) 

But let Parson Miller, in the letter above referred 
to, tell how matters were conducted in Rowan County, 
and in Salisbury especially. He says : "Subsequently 
to the year 1768, the Rev. Mr. (Theodore Drane) 
Draig came to Salisbury, in Rowan County, which 
was then St. Luke's Parish, and so far succeeded as to 
be able to have a small chapel erected in what is called 
the Jersey Settlement, about nine or ten miles east of 
Salisbury. But the opposition made to his settlement 
as rector of that parish, by the Presbyterians, was so 
very rancorous as to raise great animosity in their 
minds against all his endeavors to that end — they be- 
ing far the most numerous body, having several large 
congregations well organized in the adjacent counties, 
and one of them in the vicinity of Salisbury. I well 


remember an anecdote told me by Dr. Xewnan [and] 
John Cowan, Sr., in their Hfetime, and indeed by- 
several others in the vicinity of Salisbury, some of 
whom may yet be living: 'That on Easter ]\Ionday, 
when an election according to the then law of the 
Province was to be held for the purpose of electing 
vestrymen, the Presbyterians set up candidates of 
their own persuasion and elected them, not with any 
design either to serve or act as vestrymen, but merely 
to prevent the Episcopalians from electing such as 
would have done so.' This caused much bitter 
animosity to spring up between the parties, and so, 
much discouraged the reverend gentleman. Perhaps 
the approach of the Revolutionary War had its influ- 
ence also ; but be that as it may, after a four years' 
fruitless effort to organize an Episcopal congregation 
in this section, he left it as he found it, without any" 
(Rev. Air. Miller's letter in ''Church Messenger/' Octo- 
ber 15, 1879). A fuller sketch of each of the churches 
of Salisbury will be furnished in the future chapters, 
but so much was deemed necessary here, to give a 
glimpse of the early days before the Revolution. To 
the stirring times immediately preceding the great 
struggle for American liberty we must now direct our 
attention, for Rowan County was rather before than 
behind her neighbors in that struggle, as the record 
will show. 



Though the Indians had retreated from the lands 
occupied by the whites, yet they still continued upon 
the frontiers, and both in peace and war were often 
seen in the "settlements." On the records of the 
Rowan County Court, about 1756, there is an account 
of a visit from a party of Indians, one a Sapona In- 
dian, another a Susquehanna Indian, who were pass- 
ing through Salisbury on their way to the Catawbas. 
Their object was to conclude a treaty of peace with 
the latter, and they asked that a ''pass" be granted to 
them, and as a token of their good will they left a 
''belt," or "string" of "wampum," in the hands of the 
Clerk of the Court. But their visits were not all of 
such a peaceful character. The terrible war-whoop 
sometimes rang out in the dead hours of the night, and 
families of settlers were mercilessly slaughtered, or 
carried off to a hopeless captivity beyond the moun- 
tains, west of the Blue Ridge. 

Where the shadows of the giant mountain-peaks 
lingered longest in the morning, lived the powerful 
and warlike Cherokees. Bancroft, in language that 
beautifully describes the scenery of that region, thus 


pictures the land of the Cherokees. "Their homes 
were encircled by blue hills rising beyond hills, of 
which the lofty peaks would kindle with the early 
light, and the overshadowing ridges envelop the val- 
leys like a mass of clouds. There the rocky cliffs, 
rising in naked grandeur, defy the lightning, and mock 
the loudest peals of the thunderstorm; there the gen- 
tler slopes are covered with magnolias and flowering 
forest trees, decorated with roving climbers, and ring 
with the perpetual note of the whippoorwill ; there 
the wholesome water gushes profusely from the earth 
in transparent springs ; snow-white cascades glitter on 
the hillsides; and the rivers, shallow, but pleasant to 
the eye, rush through the narrow vales, which the 
abundant strawberry crimsons, and coppices of 
rhododendron and flaming azalea adorn. At the fall 
of the leaf, the fruit of the hickory and the chestnut 
is thickly strewn on the ground. The fertile soil 
teems with luxuriant herbage on which the roe-buck 
fattens ; the vivifying breeze is laden with fragrance ; 
and daybreak is welcomed by the shrill cries of the 
social nighthawk and the liquid carols of the mocking- 
bird. Through this lovely region were scattered the 
little villages of the Cherokees, nearly fifty in number, 
each consisting of but a few cabins, erected where the 
bend in the mountain stream affords at once a defense 
and a strip of alluvial soil for culture" (History 
United States, Volume 3, pp. 246-47). 

In 1759 the whole frontier of the Southern Prov- 
inces was threatened by the savages, and the Indian 


scalping knife had already begun its bloody work upon 
the unsuspecting borderers. After the reduction of 
the French forts of Frontenac and Duquesne by the 
American forces, the Cherokees, who were allies of 
the Americans, on their return home, appropriated 
some horses to their own use from the pastures of the 
Virginia settlers. Upon this the \'irginians rose 
agamst them and slew twelve or fourteen of their 
warriors. This ill-advised severity aroused the whole 
nation, and the young warriors flew to arms, and 
began an indiscriminate slaughter of the white settlers. 
Governor Littleton of South Carolina promptly called 
out the troops of the State, and in this campaign 
young Francis Marion first fleshed his maiden sword. 
Col. Hugh Waddell, of Belmont, Bladen County, 
N. C, was sent to the West to aid in holding the 
Indians in check. His headquarters were in Salis- 
bury, while his troops ranged through the foothills 
of the Blue Ridge. Under his direction Fort Dobbs, 
on the headwaters of the South Yadkin, near States- 
ville, was erected, and Fort Tellico appears to have 
been another outpost in the same region of country. 
Colonel Waddell, though not a citizen of Rowan 
County, spent a considerable portion of his time in the 
neighborhood of Salisbury, and was the owner of a 
large amount of lands in the county, including a town 
lot, over six hundred acres on the south side of Fourth 
Creek, and about seven hundred acres adjoining the 
south Hne of the Salisbury Township lands, on both 
sides of Crane Creek. His Fourth Creek lands he 
sold in 1767 to Walter Lindsay, Esq., and his lands 


near Salisbury were sold in 1793 to Conrad Brem 
and Louis Beard. 

At the defeat of General Braddock, in 1755, ]\Iajor 
Hugh Waddell appears as the commander of two 
Companies of North Carolina troops, and in the ex- 
pedition against Fort Duquesne, in 1758, Major Wad- 
dell with some North Carolina troops serv^ed under 
General Washington. It was a North Carolina sol- 
dier, named John Rodgers, a sergeant-major in Wad- 
dell's troops, that captured the Indian whose informa- 
tion led to the attack on and subsequent abandonment 
of that celebrated fort at the junction of the Alonon- 
gahela and Allegheny Rivers, where Pittsburg now 
stands. Rodgers obtained a reward from the Assem- 
bly of North Carolina for his meritorious services. 

In 1759, Col. Hugh Waddell, with all the provin- 
cials and all the militia of Orange, Anson, and Rowan 
Counties, joined with the troops of South Carolina 
in an expedition against the Cherokees. Fort Prince 
George, on the banks of the Isundaga River, within 
gunshot of the Indian town of Keowee, was the place 
of rendezvous for the North Carolina forces. The 
Chief of the Cherokees, Atta Calla Culla, alarmed at 
the approach of so numerous an army, sued for peace, 
and a treaty was concluded. Colonel Waddell re- 
turned home, where with five hundred militia kept in 
constant service he protected the frontier from the 
incursions of the Cherokees, whose hostility still man- 
ifested itself on every suitable occasion, notwithstand- 
ing the treaty of peace. 


the indian wars iii 

Society and Schools 

Such was the condition of the inhabitants of West- 
ern North CaroHna from its first settlement, about 
1745, up to the period of the Revolution. Moore, in 
his History of North Carolina, describing this period 
of time, with great truth and force says : "Life in the 
eastern counties was full of pleasure and profit. The 
Indians, save those of King Blunt on the Roanoke, 
were all gone toward the setting sun. The rude cabins 
of the first settlers had been replaced by brick or 
framed houses. Hospitahty was unbounded, and the 
weddings and other social gatherings were largely 
attended. \\'est India rum and the negro fiddlers 
added charms to the midnight revel. The strict mor- 
als of the Puritans and Quakers did not prevail in the 
Albemarle region. The curled and powdered gentle- 
men, and the ladies with their big hoops, were never 
so well pleased as when walking a minuet or betting 
at a rubber of whist. Horse races and the pursuit of 
the fox were also in high favor as pastimes. Very 
different were the men of Rowan, Orange, and Cum- 
berland. Swarms of Cherokee warriors were just be- 
yond the Blue Ridge ^lountains, and death by the 
tomahawk was possible at any moment. Long per- 
secution had stimulated the zeal and enthusiasm of the 
Scotch-Irish, until religious devotion became the ab- 
sorbing habit of whole communities. The log churches 
were to them almost what Solomon's temple had been 
to the Jews. The ministers in charge and the ruling 
elders were followed implicitly, both in matters of 


church and State" (School History, p. 37). Those 
were the days, from 1758 until 1766, when the Rev. 
Alexander Craighead resided in Mecklenburg County, 
but extended his labors to the settlements of Rowan, 
and laid the foundation of Thyatira, Fourth Creek, 
and Center Churches. The inhabitants, being of that 
respectable middle class of society, equally removed 
from the cultivated vices of the rich and from the 
ignorant meannesses of the abject poor, generally pos- 
sessed the rudiments of an English education, and 
could ''read and write, and cipher as far as the Single 
Rule of Three" with considerable accuracy. The 
German settlers brought their Luther's translation of 
the Bible along with them, and their "Gemainschaft- 
liches Gesangbuch," or Union Hymn Book, adapted to 
the wants of both Lutherans and German Reformed. 
In those days the *'old-field schools" were established, 
and taught by some citizen whose knowledge of letters 
was something above the average. They obtained the 
name of ''old-field" schools because they were fre- 
quently built on or near an old field or other open 
piece of ground. The open ground furnished a fine 
place for the games of the boys, such as "town-ball," 
"bull-pen," "cat, " or "prisoner's base," while on its 
edge the rosy-cheeked lasses enjoyed themselves with 
the less laborious games of "blind-man's-bufif," "drop- 
the-handkerchief," "fox-and-geese," "barley-bright," 
and "chichama-chichama-craney-crow." The passing 
traveler could easily identify the log schoolhouse, by 
the bell-like tones of mingled voices of the boys and 
girls as they studied their spelling and reading lessons 


aloud— sometimes rendering the schoolroom a very 
babel of confused sounds. As the weather grew 
warmer — if the school did not close up for the summer 
— the children would devote themselves to the gentler 
games of marbles, mumble-peg, or housekeeping in 
leafy arbors, with moss carpets, beneath the spreading 
branches of the trees. 

But the people were not content with the common 
''old-field school." About 1760 a classical school was 
established at Bellemont, near Col. Alex. Osborne's 
residence, called the ''Crowfield Academy." The 
location is about two miles north of Davidson College, 
on the headwaters of Rocky River, and in the bounds 
of Center congregation. Here a number of distin- 
guished men, who acted well their part in their day, 
received their education, or were prepared for college. 
Among these were Col. Adlai Osborne, who was for a 
long time Clerk of Rowan Superior Court, and a lead- 
ing man in the Rowan Committee of Safety at the 
opening of the Revolution. Dr. Samuel Eusebius 
McCorkle, the pastor of Thyatira and preacher in 
Salisbury, and who for a long time conducted the 
''Zion-Parnassus Academy," near Thyatira, also began 
his classical studies at ''Crowfield." Dr. James Hall, 
the soldier-preacher of the Revolution, the founder 
and conductor of "Clio's Nursery School," on the 
headwaters of South Yadkin, began his literary course 
at this same institution. The same is true in regard to 
Dr. Ephraim Brevard, who is said to be the author of 


the Mecklenburg Declaration of ^lay 20, 1775. The 
Rev. David Caldwell, about 1766, is said to have 
taught in the Crowfield Academy for a short season. 
But he soon removed to northeastern Rowan — now 
Guilford — where after a short time he established a 
school on the headwaters of North Buffalo, about 
three miles from where Greensboro now stands. This 
school was in operation ten years before the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and also a number of years 
after, and it is computed that there were about fifty 
ministers, besides a large number who entered the 
other liberal professions, who were educated at this 
"Log College" of North Carolina. The old-field schools 
and a few classical academies comprised the educa- 
tional facilities of Western North CaroHna at this 
time. But those whose means would allow it were 
sent to complete their education at Princeton, or 
"Nassau Hall," as it was then called. There, under 
the instructions of President \\'itherspoon — the cleri- 
cal signer of the National Declaration of Independence 
— they imbibed not only a knowledge of the liberal 
arts and sciences, but also the principles of liberty and 
independence, which brought forth such rich fruit a 
few years afterwards. 



The echoes of the Indian war-whoop had not died 
away before the mutterings of another storm was 
heard over the hills and valleys of Orange and Rowan 
Counties. This is what is known in the history of 
North CaroHna as the war of the "The Regulation." 
It can scarcely be called a war, and yet it rises above 
the dignity of a riot. It was rather the first blind, un- 
organized rising of the spirit of liberty against a long 
train of oppressive acts, for which there was no 
remedy and of which there appeared to be no end. As 
the men of Rowan were to some extent connected with 
this struggle, some on each side, it will not be amiss to 
give a brief sketch of its rise and sad termination — 
though a detailed account would exceed the limits pro- 
posed in these papers. 

As the first factor in this problem we have a liberty- 
loving population, who came to the wilds of North 
Carolina for the express purpose of escaping from 
pohtical and ecclesiastical oppression. Such were the 
early refugees from Mrginia, who settled on the Albe- 
marle Sound; such the hardy Scotch who came from 
the Highlands to the banks of the Cape Fear; such the 
Swiss and Palatines on the Xeuse and Trent ; and in a 
peculiar sense were the Scotch-Irish and Germans of 


ancient Rowan, Orange, and ^^lecklenburg. These, or 
their fathers, had once felt the weight of the oppres- 
sor's iron hand, crushing out their Hberties — almost 
their manhood; and having once suffered they were 
jealous of the approaches of tyranny in their new 

As the next factor we have the most wretched sys- 
tem of misgovernment of modern times. This mis- 
government began with the cumbrous and Utopian 
Constitution prepared by Locke and Shaftesbury, hav- 
ing in it the germs of a provincial nobility — land- 
graves and caciques — totally uncongenial to the wild 
and free spirit of the people. And such governors as 
Seth Sothel, George Burrington, and Richard Everard 
were a reproach to humanity and a stench in the nos- 
trils of decency. The testy and prosy Irishman, Gov- 
ernor Dobbs, the warlike and ambitious Tryon, and 
the incapable Josiah Martin, who enacted the last 
scenes in the drama of the royal government, were 
peculiarly calculated to irritate and annoy the people, 
to aggravate and sting to rebellion a population far 
less independent and intelligent than the inhabitants of 
North Carolina. Nor could the prudence of such gov- 
ernors as Drummond, Archdale, and Johnstone coun- 
teract the deep-seated opposition of the people to the 
oppressive and tyrannical legislation dictated by the 
royal cabinet of England, and enacted by an obse- 
quious Colonial Legislature. 

The struggle between the Province of North Car- 
olina and its foreign rulers began one hundred years 
before the yoke was thrown off — in 1669, when the 


''Grand [Model" was forced upon an unwilling people, 
and when the obnoxious Xavigation Act crippled and 
strangled the commerce of the infant colony. The 
struggle became more serious, when the "Parish 
Laws" were enacted, disallowing all marriages to be 
celebrated by dissenting ministers, and taxing the 
country for the support of a religious system which 
was distasteful to an overwhelming majority of the 
people. The obstinacy and nepotism of Governor 
Dobbs added fuel to the flame. Governor Tryon was 
not a bigot, but his tastes and his expenses were 
princely. Aided by the blandishment of his elegant 
wife and her bewitching sister, ]\Iiss Esther \\'ake, 
Tryon secured from the cringing General Assembly 
an appropriation of fifteen thousand pounds sterling 
(£15,000), equal to nearly seventy-five thousand dol- 
lars, for the erection of a palace at Newbern more 
suitable for a prince of the blood royal than 
for the governor of an infant provincial colony. 
This palace was said to exceed in magnificence 
any structure of that day found upon the 
American continent, and its erection rendered 
a large increase of the taxes necessary. But 
Tryon never did things by halves. He must needs 
make a military expedition to the land of the Chero- 
kees, in order to run a dividing line of a few miles in 
length, and returned with the significant title, bestowed 
by the Indians, of "The Great Wolf of North Car- 
olina." All this was very expensive, and to supply 
the means, not only were the direct taxes increased, 
but the governor required a share of the fees allowed 


to the various crown officials for their services. The 
crown officers, in their turn, taking the cue from the 
Governor, doubled or tripled their charges for every 
act done for the people. The lawyers also refused to 
serve their clients for the established fees, and thus 
closed up all the avenues to the temple of justice. In 
this emergency there arose the two persons necessary 
to bring on a collision. These two persons were a 
poet or ballad-monger, and a popular leader. The 
rhymester was named Rednap Howell, a native of 
New Jersey, who occupied the position of old-field 
schoolmaster somewhere on Deep River. He was the 
author of about forty songs or ballads, in which he 
mercilessly lampooned the extortioners and crown 
officers of the day. Prominent among these were 
Edmund Fanning, Esq., of Hillsboro, the Court Clerk, 
and son-in-law of Governor Tryon, and John Frohock, 
Clerk and Register in Salisbury. The following 
effusion of Howell's upon these two officers aft'ords a 
fair specimen of his political rhymes. 

Says Frohock to Fanning. "To tell the plain truth, 
When I came to this country I was but a youth. 
My father sent for me : I wa'nt worth a cross, 
And then my first study was to steal for a horse. 
I quickly got credit, and then ran away. 
And haven't paid for him to this very day." 

Says Fanning to Frohock, " 'Tis folly to lie, 
I rode an old mare that was blind of an eye : 
Five shillings in money I had in my purse ; 
My coat, it was patched, but not much the worse; 
But now we've got rich, and it's very well known, 
That we'll do very well if they'll let us alone."' 


By such rhymes as these, sung and repeated from 
plantation to plantation, from the Eno to the Yadkin ; 
called for at every house-raising, log-rolling, and corn- 
shucking, at every Court and vendue, at every wedding 
and funeral, the minds of the people were wrought 
up to a high pitch of excitement and indignation 
against the crown officers and the lawyers. 

When this leaven had worked sufficiently, a popular 
leader arose in the person of Herman Husbands, from 
Sandy Creek, near the line between Guilford and 
Rowan — now in Randolph County. Husbands was by 
birth a Pennsylvania Quaker, and said to have been a 
relative of Benjamin Franklin. He possessed great 
shrewdness of character, a naturally vigorous mind, 
and by boldly protesting against extortion upon all 
occasions he won the regard of the multitude. By 
the influence, and under the guidance of this man, 
many of the people of Orange were induced to asso- 
ciate themselves together in bands, sometimes called 
"the mob/' sometimes the "Sons of Liberty," and at 
last the "Regulators." The first general or public 
meeting of Regulators was held at Maddock's Mill, in 
Orange County, October lo, 1766. They proposed to 
consult concerning their grievances and the proper 
mode of securing redress. Fanning and other crown 
officers were invited to be present, but refused to 
come, on some pretext or other. From this time 
sympathy with the "Sons of Liberty" spread far and 
wide, and many people, not only in Orange and 
Guilford, but in Rowan, ^Mecklenburg, and Anson 
Counties, were ready to venture into the same perils 


ous path. They first stated their grievances to the 
Governor, and appealed to him for rehef. He 
promised what they asked, and ordered a schedule 
of fees to be made out and posted up for public inspec- 
tion. But the officers laughed in their sleeves at 
the gullibility of the people, and went on demanding 
the same or larger fees. At last a true bill was found 
against Edmund Fanning, for extortion in no less than 
six instances. When the trial came on at Hillsboro, 
in 1768^ Fanning pleaded guilty in each count, and 
was fined — six pence and costs. Such a mockery of 
justice, under the very eye of Tryon — for he was pres- 
ent — and in the case of his son-in-law, plainly demon- 
strated that no relief was to be expected from the 
Courts of Justice. The very foundation of justice was 
corrupt, and poured forth streams of bribery and op- 
pression. The Regulators were maddened, and com- 
mitted several acts of violence and lawlessness upon 
the person of Fanning, and threatened to control the 
Court by violence, and at their suggestion many re- 
fused to pay any taxes. But Governor Tr}^on was also 
alive to his own interest, and began to put into opera- 
tion measures to allay the irritation of the public mind, 
and overawe the disaflfected. One of these measures 
was a journey, or progress to the western counties, 
with a body of troops escorting him. In July, 1768, 
he marched to the Yadkin River, and crossing that 
stream reached Salisbury on the eighteenth of Au- 
gust. After a brief stay he visited Captain Phifer in 
Mecklenburg (now Cabarrus), and from thence went 
to Captain Polk's, returning to Salisbury^ by the twen- 


ty-fifth, in order to review the troops or militia of the 
county. Here Col. Alexander Osborne called upon His 
Excellency for instructions concerning the parade, and 
read to him a letter from the Rev. Messrs. David 
Caldwell, Hugh McAden, Henry Patillo, and James 
Creswell, Presbyterians, touching the conduct of the 
Regulators. These ministers labored in Guilford, 
Orange, and Granville Counties, and as Colonel Os- 
borne and the four ministers were of the same church 
it is presumed that the tenor of the letter would be 
such as not to irritate the Governor against them. In 
fact, while these ministers sympathized with the peo- 
ple in their oppression, they appear to have done all in 
their power to prevent violence, and secure the resto- 
ration of peace and harmony. 

Eleven companies appeared in Salisbury in this re- 
view — all except Captain Knox's Company, whose 
sympathies appear to have been decidedly in favor of 
the Regulators. Colonel Wheeler states that this Cap- 
tain Knox was the maternal grandfather of James K. 
Polk, the President in after years of the United States. 
President Polk was born in ^lecklenburg County, ten 
miles south of Charlotte, and his maternal grand- 
father, James Knox, resided also in Mecklenburg, in 
the Hopewell region, and it does not appear probable 
that he was the Captain Knox of the Rowan militia 
Company that failed to appear at the Salisbury re- 
view; still it may have been the same. Some of the 
Polk family, relatives of the President, were in after 
years citizens of Salisbury, and their dust lies under 
marble slabs in Oakgrove Cemetery, in that city. 


From the Salisbury review Governor Tryon went 
to see the spot where in 1746 the commissioners left 
off running the dividing line between the King's lands 
and Earl Granville's lands. He found the place about 
five or six hundred yards east of Coldwater Creek — on 
the present dividing line between Rowan and Cabar- 
rus. He then paid a visit to Capt. John Paul Barrin- 
ger, in Mecklenburg (now Cabarrus), drank freely of 
the Captain's rich wine, and tried his hand at mowing, 
with a Dutch scythe doubtless, the green meadows of 
Dutch Buft'alo. The Governor then visited Col. 
Moses Alexander's, on Rocky River, and returning to 
Salisbury spent eight days in the town and surround- 
ing country. A, a soldier, a genial com- 
panion, his visit no doubt was one reason why Rowan 
County did not enter more fully into the Regulation 

But while the policy of the Governor stayed for a 
season the rushing of the torrent of rebellion, it did 
not avert the final catastrophe. Alatters grew worse 
and worse, and in the spring of 1771 the Governor 
left Xewbern a second time with a body of troops to 
enforce the laws and disperse the Regulators. At 
Tryon's approach the Regulators were massed near 
the Great Alamance River, and here the long delayed 
collision took place, on the sixteenth of May It is 
not necessary in sketches of Rowan to enter into the 
details of this battle — if it can be called a battle ; for 
the Regulators were not organized as a military force, 
and had no officers beyond the rank of a captain. ]Many 
of them were unarmed and seemed to be rather specta- 


tors than soldiers, and the rest were armed with their 
hunting pieces, with enough ammunition for a day's 
sport in the woods. So perfectly unprepared were 
they to engage with the troops of the Governor that 
the Rev. David Caldwell, who was present, after 
passing backward and forward several times vainly 
trying to prevent bloodshed, at last advised the Regula- 
tors to submit to any conditions they could obtain, or 
disperse, rather than engage in the hopeless contest. 

It is said that Colonel Fanning, better acquainted 
with the logomachy of the courtroom than with the 
dangerous contests of the battlefield, withdrew his 
Company at the beginning of the firing. Husbands, 
the leader of the Regulators, is reported to have 
followed his example, and saved himself by flight. 
Thus the two men who did more than any others to 
excite to conflict left their adherents to fight it out 
without their presence. 

Some time previous to the conflict Governor Tryon 
sent General Hugh Waddell to Salisbury with a divi- 
sion of troops from Bladen, Cumberland, and the 
western counties. These troops were to remain at 
Salisbury until a supply of powder, flints, blankets, 
etc., from Charleston should reach them. But the 
"Cabarrus Blackboys" as they have been called, inter- 
cepted the convoy at Phifer's mill, three miles west of 
Concord, unloaded the wagons, stove in the kegs of 
powder, tore up the blankets, and forming a huge pile 
blew up the whole. The military stores failing to reach 
him, General Waddell, with two hundred and fifty 
men, left SaHsbury and attempted to join Tryon in 


Orange or Guilford County. But when he reached 
Potts' Creek, about two miles east of the Yadkin, he 
was confronted by a large force of Rowan Regulators, 
who threatened to cut his troops in pieces if he offered 
to join the army under Tryon. Calling a council of 
officers, he discovered that the Regulators out- 
numbered him by far, and that his men had no desire 
to engage in battle with their brethren. He wisely 
resolved to fall back across the river to Salisbury. This 
was on the tenth of Alay, 1771, six days before the 
battle of Great Alamance. 

A few days after the battle, Tryon marched to the 
east side of the Yadkin, where he effected a junction 
with General Waddell, and extricated him from his 
painful position. 

I must not omit to mention that, on the seventh of 
■March, 1771, a public meeting was held in Salisbury, 
probably just before General Waddell arrived here, 
at which a large and influential committee was ap- 
pointed to meet the clerk, sheriff, and other crown 
officers, and require them to disgorge their unlawful 
fees. These officers agreed to the demand of the com- 
mittee, and signed a paper to that effect. ^Matthew 
Locke and Herman Husbands, with others, were ap- 
pointed on the committee to receive and distribute the 
unlawful fees, but it is doubtful whether any were 
ever returned. After the affair at Alamance, the rul- 
ing party acquired additional power, and no doubt for 
a season longer had everything their own way. 

At this day, as in that, it is difficult to make a proper 
estimate of the character of the Regulation. In Rowan, 


Anson, and ^Mecklenburg, public opinion was divided. 
On the Governor's side, either actively or in sympathy, 
were such men as Colonel Waddell, Samuel 
Spencer, Richard Caswell, W'aightstill Avery, Griffith 
Rutherford, W m. Lindsay, Adlai Osborne, John Ashe, 
and others of the noblest men of the State, who after- 
wards proved their devotion to the cause of liberty. 
While no doubt they were opposed to the exactions of 
the officials, they still adhered to the regular adminis- 
tration of the law in the hands of the constituted 
authorities. The struggle can neither be properly 
characterized as the noble uprising of an oppressed 
people in behalf of liberty, nor condemned as a mob 
or insurrection. It would seem rather to have been a 
good cause, prematurely, rashly, and violently con- 
ducted, and led on by men incapable of allaying or con- 
trolling the storm they had evoked, and the effect was 
disastrous, for Governor Try-on so entangled the con- 
sciences of many of them with oaths of allegiance, 
that when the real struggle came, six years later, a 
great number of the Regulators felt constrained to 
cast in their lot with the Tories. 



It has been truthfully said that the "Revolution" 
took place before the Declaration of Independence, 
and that the document proclaimed in Philadelphia on 
the Fourth of July, 1776, was simply a public recogni- 
tion of a state already existing. The skirmishes at 
Lexington and Concord took place April, 1775; the 
battle of Bunker Hill in May of the same year; 
while Boston was evacuated by the British in 1776. 
In North Carolina the battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, 
between the Patriots and the Tories, was fought in 
February, 1776, and in consequence Lord Cornwallis, 
who was hovering around the mouth of the Cape Fear, 
took his departure, carrying away with him Josiah 
Martin, the last royal Governor of this Province. In 
fact the Revolution was no sudden occurrence, but the 
result of a long continued series of events, culminating 
in the independence of the State and country. It may 
be useful to take a glance at the events that led up to 
this wondrous consummation, especially to dispel the 
illusion of those who have been told and who believe 
that nothing worth the expenditure of the blood and 
treasure required was achieved by the \\^ar of the 


The grievance of the Americans, though appearing 
in different forms, consisted in the despotic principle 
that a people may be taxed without being represented 
in the lawmaking assemblies. While every borough 
and shire in England, Wales, and Scotland was rep- 
resented in the English House of Commons, not a 
single representative, delegate, or commissioner could 
appear in that body from the thirteen colonies of 
America. And yet the Parliament took complete and 
sovereign control of many of the most vital interests 
of the colonies. By the odious ''Navigation Act" of 
the British Parliament, no production of Europe, Asia, 
or Africa could be brought into the colonies except in 
British ships, commanded by British captains, and 
manned by British crews, nor could the exports of the 
colonies be removed in any other way. The design 
of this law was to ''protect" the British marine mer- 
chant service, and the design was effectual, since no 
other nation could underbid their own vessels. But it 
left the colonies at the mercy of the grasping ship- 

But even this indirect taxation was not enough. 
England had expended large sums in her recent wars, 
and especially in the French and Indian wars waged 
in behalf of the colonies. In return, the mother 
country, perhaps not unreasonably, expected the col- 
onies to bear their portion of the burden. And no 
doubt, if the matter had been presented in a proper 
form, the colonies would have consented to tax them- 
selves to meet the expenses incurred for their pro- 
tection. But when England proposed to lay this bur- 


den on them without so much as consulting them upon 
the subject, the universal opinion of the Americans 
was that it was a tyrannical invasion of the rights of 
free men, and that if England could take any part of 
their property without their consent, she could take 
the whole upon the same grounds ; and that if they 
submitted to such taxation, the Americans virtually 
became the slaves of the people from whom they 

On the twenty-second of March, 1765, the Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain adopted what was called the 
''Stamp Act," requiring all contracts, notes, bonds, 
deeds, writs, and other public documents, to be written 
on government paper, which had a "stamp" on it, and 
which was to be sold at a high price by government 
agents, and from the sale of which a large revenue 
was expected to flow into the English treasury. The 
passage of this "Act" produced great excitement in 
all the colonies, and in none more than in North Car- 
olina. The General Assembly of North Carolina was 
in session when the intelligence of the passage of this 
Act arrived, and no doubt would have taken some de- 
cided action upon the matter had not Governor Tryon 
prudently prorogued that body after a session of 
fifteen days. John Ashe, the Speaker of the House, 
plainly informed the Governor that the Act would be 
resisted "unto blood and death." And when, early in 
the year 1766, the British sloop of war "Diligence," 
with the odious "stamps" on board, arrived in the 
Cape Fear, Cols. John Ashe and Hugh Waddell, with 
their respective militia regiments under arms, in- 


formed the commander of the ship that the landing 
of the "stamps" would be resisted. In the meantime, 
a boat of the ''Diligence" was captured and borne 
through the streets of W^ilmington at the head of a 
procession. Colonel Ashe also demanded of Governor 
Tryon, the stamp-master — one James Houston, who 
was lodged in the Governor's house, and upon refusal 
to deliver him up threatened to fire the house. Upon 
this the stamp-master was produced, and compelled 
to take a solemn oath that he would not attempt to 
dispose of the obnoxious stamps. This ended the 
matter of the stamps, for the Act was repealed by 
Parliament, in March, 1766. 

The "Stamp Act" was the cause of the first General 
Congress of the American Colonies, which was held 
in the City of New York, June 6, 1765. This con- 
vention or congress was held by the agreement of a 
number of the colonies, at the suggestion of their re- 
spective Assemblies ; but the Provinces of New Hamp- 
shire, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia were not 
represented in it, for the reason that their respective 
Legislatures were not in session in time to take the 
necessary steps for the appointment of delegates. 

Although the English Parliament repealed the 
^'Stamp Act," they did not abandon their claim to tax 
the colonies, but directly asserted it. And so in 1767 
another Act, not less an invasion of colonial liberty, 
was adopted. This was the famous "Bill" imposing 
a tax on glass, paper, painters' colors, and tea, im- 
ported into the colonies. This Act being resisted was 
followed by other Acts of unfriendly legislation, such 


as the suspension of the Legislative Assembly of New 
York, and closing the port of Boston. In consequence 
of this, the "General Court" of Massachusetts sent a 
circular to the other colonies, asking their co-operation 
in devising some method of obtaining a redress of 
grievances. This circular was laid before the General 
x\ssembly of North Carolina, in November, 1768, by 
Col. John Harvey, the Speaker of the House, but no 
decisive steps appear to have been taken. In fact, the 
Governor kept his watchful eye upon the Assembly 
and stood ready to prorogue its sessions at the first 
indication of the spirit of union and independence. 
Thus it happened that North Carolina was not repre- 
sented in the first Provincial Congress of the Colo- 
nies, nor indeed until the General Congress assembled 
in Philadelphia, in September, 1774. The way the 
"Provincial Congress" of North Carolina came into 
existence at the last was as follows: In 1773, the 
House of Burgesses of Mrginia resolved upon estab- 
lishing committees of correspondence between the 
several colonies, and sent forth circulars to the vari- 
ous Provincial Legislatures. The Virginia "Circular," 
as well as letters from some of the other Provinces, 
was laid before the North Carolina Assembly by 
Speaker Harvey in this same year, and the Assembly 
seized the opportunity to appoint a committee to watch 
the proceedings of the English Parliament and to 
concert with the other Provinces measures for the 
general defense. The committee appointed consisted 
of Speaker Harvey, Richard Caswell, Samuel John- 
ston, Hewes, Vail, Harnett, Hooper, John Ashe, and 


Howe. AMien the \'irginia House of Burgesses pro- 
posed the holding- of another General Congress, after 
the closing of the port of Boston, Governor ]\Iartin 
intimated that he would repeat Governor Tryon's old 
trick of proroguing the North Carolina Assembly, and 
thus prevent the Province from being represented in 
that Congress. But the brave and fearless John Har- 
vey, though fast sinking into the grave by incurable 
disease, resolved if necessary to sacrifice his few re- 
maining days by a counterstroke of policy. He there- 
fore issued a proclamation over his own signature, 
calling upon the people to elect members to a Provin- 
cial Congress that would not be subject to the Gov- 
ernor's orders, but responsible only to the people. Our 
children have been taught to admire the courage of 
John Hancock, who signed the Declaration in letters 
so large that all the world might read it, and of 
Charles Carroll, who added ''of Carrollton" to his 
name, to prevent the possibility of being confounded 
with another Charles Carroll. But who has paused a 
moment to tell them of the heroic Col. John Harvey, 
of Perquimans County, N. C, who dared, in defiance 
of Governor ]\Iartin and the royal authorities, to issue 
a proclamation, inviting the people to assume their 
rights as free men, and join with the other Provinces 
in concerted action? The act was performed, not 
under the pressure of enthusiasm, or in the midst of a 
patriotic crowd of sympathizers, but in the seclusion 
of a quiet home, under the united pressure of the in- 
firmities of age and enfeebling disease! He did not 
live to see the final results of the impending struggle, 


but sank into the grave just as the storm of the Revo- 
lution burst upon the country. His name and his 
services deserve a grateful remembrance. 

In pursuance of the "proclamation" of Harvey, the 
Assembly of 1774 was supplemented by another body 
called a '^Congress." Both bodies were composed, gen- 
erally, of the same members, and Colonel Harvey was 
chosen ''Speaker" of the Assembly, as usual, and 
"^loderator" of the Congress. The Congress met in 
Newbern on the twenty-fifth of August, 1774, and 
was composed of brave and judicious men, quite a 
number of whom are distinguished in the annals of the 
State. On the list we find the names of Samuel Spen- 
cer of Anson, Robert Howe of Brunswick, Samuel 
Johnston of Chowan, Richard Caswell of Dobbs, 
Thomas Person of Granville, Willie Jones of Halifax, 
John Ashe and \A*illiam Hooper of New Hanover, 
John Harvey of Perquimans, and Abner Nash of 
Newbern. Rowan County was represented in this 
Congress by William Kennon, Aloses Winslow, and 
Samuel Young. 

On the third day of their session, August 2.y, 1774, 
the Congress adopted twenty-five resolutions, that em- 
body the principles of independence and resistance to 
tyranny. These resolutions prudently affirmed a loyal 
regard for the British constitution, and devotion to the 
House of Hanover, but at the same time declared that 
allegiance should secure protection; that no person 
should be taxed without his own consent, either per- 
sonal or by representation; that the tax on tea was 
illegal and oppressive ; that the closing of the port of 


Boston, and sending persons to England to be tried for 
acts committed in the colonies, were unconstitutional; 
and that it was the duty of our people to cease all 
trade with the mother country, or any Province that re- 
fused to co-operate in measures for the general wel- 
fare. They also approved the movement for a Gen- 
eral Congress in Philadelphia, in September following, 
and appointed \\'illiam Hooper, Joseph Hewes, and 
Richard Caswell to represent this Province in said 
General Congress. After authorizing ]\Ioderator Har- 
vey, or in case of his death Samuel Johnston, to call the 
Congress together, if occasion should require it, the 
body adjourned. In the spring of the year 1775, the 
Provincial Congress met again in Xewbern, and Rowan 
sent as deputies Griffith Rutherford, \\^illiam Sharpe, 
and William Kennon. At subsequent meetings of 
this Congress, at Hillsboro and Halifax, Rowan was 
represented by ]\Iatthew Locke, James Smith, and 
John Brevard. 



In the last chapter it was mentioned that Rowan 
County was represented in the Provincial Congress by 
Griffith Rutherford, James Smith, Matthew Locke, 
Moses Winslow, William Kennon, William Sharpe, 
Samuel Young, and John Brevard. These were doubt- 
less the most influential and prominent men in the 
county, chosen, not from party prejudice, but because 
they possessed the confidence of their fellow-citizens. 
It will doubtless be interesting, after the lapse of a 
hundred years, to gather up, and reflect upon, the his- 
tory and the character of the men who exercised such 
an influence upon public affairs. 

It will be observed, as we progress, that they were 
chosen from different sections of the county, and dif- 
ferent settlements. In those early days the country 
was not filled up with farms and families, as now, but 
the people gathered in settlements, where lands were 
most fertile, and society was considered most desirable. 
Prominent among these settlements was the Grant's 
Creek region, stretching from near the Mecklenburg 
(now Cabarrus) line, along the west side of SaHsbury, 
to the Yadkin River, about two miles above Trading 
Ford. This region was filled up with the Lockes, 
Brandons, Grahams, Nesbits, AlHsons, Rutherfords, 





JaaiEs Graham Ramsay, ]\I. D. 

STATE senator; member second confederate congress; a 



Lynns, Gibsons, Frohocks, and others, whose descend- 
ants still remain in the county. 

From this region, in 1775, was chosen, to represent 
Rowan County in the Provincial Congress at New- 

Gen. Griffith Rutherford 

The Rutherfords are Scotch-Irish, and one of the 
families in the "Land of Bruce." The family is men- 
tioned in the early annals of Scotland as friends of 
King Ruther, from whom they received the name, 
and large tracts of land. For centuries they have 
been classed among the most ancient and powerful 
families in Teviotdale, on the borders of England. 
They have intermarried with the royal families, and 
from inherited honors and from honors conferred 
have been prominent among the nobility. The mother 
of Sir Walter Scott was a Rutherford. 

The Rev. Samuel Rutherford, the author of the 
Rutherford Letters, was one of the ablest leaders of 
Presbyterianism. He was sent as a delegate from 
Scotland to Westminster to defend that faith. This, 
together with his political opinions freely expressed, 
caused some of the family to be banished from Scot- 
land, and to take refuge in Ireland, where John 
Rutherford was married to ]\Iiss Griffith, an exile 
from \\'ales. Their son Griffith came to America 
wnth his son — also called Griffith — and settled near 
Salisbury, Rowan County, X. C. This son — the sub- 
ject of this sketch — married Elizabeth Graham, a sis- 
ter of James Graham, who was also descended from a 


long line of noble Scotch ancestors. Both families 
lived in what was then called the Locke or Thyatira 
settlement. They had five sons and daughters. Their 
eldest son, ]\Iajor James Rutherford, was killed in 
the battle of Eutaw. In 1770, the subject of this 
sketch was a captain of militia under Governor Tryon, 
but joined James Graham and others and formed the 
Regulators against Tryon the following year. He 
was appointed a member of the Committee of Safety, 
and was a jur}^man in the trial of Tories in 1775. He 
was a member of the Provincial Congress which met 
at Hah fax, April 4, 1776. He and Matthew Locke 
represented Rowan County. He was also a member 
of the Provincial Congress of 1775. In April of 1776, 
he was appointed brigadier-general, and in the same 
month was a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion. In September, he marched at the head of 
twenty-four hundred men into the Cherokee country, 
and killed a number of Indians, destroyed their crops, 
burned their habitations ; and finally forced them to 
sue for peace and surrender a part of. their lands. In 
this campaign, his loss was only three men killed. 
He returned to Salisbury, and disbanded his army at 
that place. He commanded a brigade at the battle of 
Sanders Creek, near Camden, where he was wounded 
and taken prisoner. He was first sent to Charleston, 
S. C, and later taken to St. Augustine, Fla., where he 
remained until exchanged, June 22, 1781. He again 
took the field, and was in command at Wilmington 
when the town was evacuated by the British at the 
close of the war. 





During the continuance of the war, he was a State 
Senator from 1777 to 1780, and from 1782 to 1786. 
In the year 1786, he removed to Tennessee, and settled 
in Sumner County. In 1794, George Washington, our 
first President, appointed General Rutherford a mem- 
ber of the Territorial Legislature which met at Knox- 
ville, Tenn. The Knoxville Gazette, of date 1794, 
contains account as follows, viz. : "On ]\Ionday last, 
the General Assembly of the Territory commenced 
their first session in this town. Gen. Griffith Ruther- 
ford, for distinguished services in the Legislature of 
North Carolina, is appointed president of the Legisla- 
tive Council." 

Rutherford County, N. C, was formed in 1779, and 
Rutherford County, Tenn., in 1803 ; both were named 
in honor of this distinguished Revolutionary soldier 
and statesman, Griffith Rutherford, who died in Sum- 
ner County, Tenn., in 1800, in old age and full of 

The following sketch of another distinguished 
member of the Provincial Congress, and soldier of the 
Revolution, was prepared for this article by one of his 
descendants, Lee S. Overman^ Esq. 

Major James Smith 

Of the many and brave men associated with our 
American Revolution, very few figured more prom- 
inently, or did more for the cause of liberty in this 
section of our State than the subject of this sketch. 

The son of James Smith, who emigrated from Hol- 
land to New Jersey, he, with a colony of young mar- 


ried men, came to North Carolina some time before the 
Revolution and settled on the left bank of the Yadkin 
River, and made what is known as the Jersey Settle- 
ment in Davidson County, then Rowan. 

In stature he was over six feet tall, straight as an 
arrow and of a commanding appearance. He was by 
occupation a planter, and was possessed of means in 
addition to the land he owned, which he obtained by 
grant from McCullough. He had slaves, by whom he 
was much loved, for, though they were carried off 
south by the Tories, they in time made their escape 
and returned to their old home. 

James Smith served as Ensign, in 1776, under King 
George HI. (See report of Commandant of Court 
of PubHc Claims, held at Newbern, N. C, on the 
sixth day of November, 1756), to wit: ''J^i^^s Smith, 
an Ensign in Rowan County, was allowed his claim of 
twelve pounds and nineteen shillings (£12/19), for 
ranging on the frontier as per account filed" (State 
Records, Vol. XXH, page 842). 

At a council held at Newbern, November 10, 1769, 
"a commission of Peace and Dedimus of Rowan 
County" was issued to James Smith (A^ol. 8 of Colonial 
Recorder, page 149). 

In the Court of Pleas and Quarter Session of 
Rowan County, in 1772 (on minute docket of Rowan 
County, 1768-72), is the following: "\A'ednesday, 
fourth of November, 1772, Griffith Rutherford, 
Colonel, and James Smith, Captain, produced their 
commission in open Court, qualified, and signed the 
test agreeable to law." 


James Smith served as justice presiding over the 
"Court of Pleas and Quarter Session for Rowan 
County," under King George III., during the years 
1770-71-72-73-74-75, at Salisbury, N. C. 

In 1775, he took a prominent and active part in 
every movement tending to throw off the yoke of 
tyranny and looking to the Declaration of Independ- 
ence by the country at large. He was a member of 
the Committee of Safety for Rowan County, and so 
far as we are able to find out was present at every 
meeting thereof. During this same year he was ap- 
pointed to address the citizens of his county upon the 
subject of American freedom, was chairman of the 
Committee to examine certain citizens as to their po- 
litical sentiment, and also was one of the Committee 
of "Secrecy, Intelligence, and Observation." Also, he 
was chosen by the friends of liberty in his county to 
represent them in the Convention of Patriots Adverse 
to the Oppression of Great Britain, which met at Hills- 
boro, on the twenty-first of August of the same year. 

At the Halifax Congress, April 22, i'/76, he was ap- 
pointed Major of the Salisbury District, of which 
Francis Locke was Colonel, and Griffith Rutherford, 
Brigadier-General. He was a member of the Provin- 
cial Congress which met at Halifax on the twelfth 
day of November, 1776, and which framed our first 
civil Constitution. In 1777 he was a member of the 
House of Commons, with Matthew Locke as his asso- 
ciate and Griffith Rutherford in the Senate. 

Not only did he thus appear in the public assemblies 
of our country, in behalf of the people's rights, but no 


one was more active than he in repeUing the Tories. 
He buckled on his sword at every call, and was always 
at the front, fighting for freedom and his native land. 
He made several campaigns with his regiment against 
the British, and engaged in several hard-contested bat- 
tles, until he was severely wounded, when he was fur- 
loughed home. He had not been long returned be- 
fore the Tories heard of his whereabouts, and being 
eager for their prize they sought him immediately. 
Air. Sloan, who lived in the neighborhood, had heard 
of their designs, and sent his ser^-ant, Ben, to inform 
the Major of his danger. Poor Ben, who lived until 
i860 to tell the tale, was destined never to deliver his 
message, for before he had proceeded far, Captain 
Wood and forty men overtook him, shot him through 
and left him for dead. They then went to the Major's 
residence and demanded his surrender. His wife, 
Clara, met them at the door, as tradition has it, with 
one of the long-handled frying-pans which were used 
in those days, and defied them. She was soon over- 
powered, however, and her husband was seized, and 
with John Paul Barringer, of ^Mecklenburg, and others, 
carried to Camden, S. C, and imprisoned. Soon he 
was attacked with smallpox, and died. His good and 
brave wife followed him and nursed him in his last 
moments. She saw his remains deposited in the grave, 
and returned to comfort her three children she had 
left behind. Of these children, James, who was only 
twelve years old at the time of his father's capture, 
was for a long time Sheriff of Rowan, and of Davidson 
after the division. Sheriff Smith's daughter, Alice, 


married Fielding Slater, who for many years was also 
Sheriff of Rowan County, which office he filled with 
great acceptability to the people. Also two of his 
sons now live in the county of Davidson, fit representa- 
tives of their honored ancestor. In both counties 
there are many descendants of this brave and noble 
man, all of whom are noted for their good character 
and moral worth as public-spirited citizens. 

Intimately associated with General Rutherford and 
Major Smith, in the Provincial Congress of North 
Carolina, and in the public affairs of Rowan County 
during and after the War of the Revolution, was 

Hon. William Sharpe 

While Rutherford represented the Central Rowan, 
or Grant's Creek, section, and Smith came from the 
"Jerseys" or Eastern Rowan section, Sharpe was from 
the West, and represented that region now included in 
Iredell County. 

William Sharpe was the eldest son of Thomas 
Sharpe, of Cecil County, Md., and was born in 
that State, December 13, 1742. In the year 1763 he 
immigrated to North Carolina, and settled in Mecklen- 
burg County, where he married the daughter of David 
Reese. Mr. Reese was from Pennsylvania — the brother 
of the Rev. Thomas Reese, a prominent minister in 
Mecklenburg, and afterwards in South Carolina. 
David Reese was a leading citizen in his day, and his 
name is honored with a place among the signers of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. 


Mr. Sharpe, soon after his marriage, moved to 
Rowan County, and in the Revolution took an early 
and decided part in all public affairs, and was a 
staunch advocate for independence. At the formation 
of the Committee of Safety for Rowan County in 
1774, William Sharpe was selected as a member, and 
his name is attached to the minutes of the Committee 
as secretary. At the adjournment of the Committee, 
in 1776, the minutes appear to have been left in his 
hands, and were preserv^ed in his family, until they 
were brought to light by the researches of Prof. E. F. 
Rockwell, and published in 185 1, in Wheeler's 
Sketches of North Carolina. 

In 1775 he represented Rowan in the Provincial 
Congress at Newbern and Hillsboro, and he was also 
a member of the convention that formed the first con- 
stitution of the State, at Halifax, in 1776. The same 
year he acted as aide to General Rutherford in his 
campaign against the Cherokee Indians. 

In 1779 he was the representative of the Salisbury 
District in the Continental Congress of Philadelphia. 
At the battle of Ramsour's Mill, June, 1780, two of 
Captain Sharpe's sons, William and Thomas, served 
under the command of Col. Francis Locke, ^^'illiam 
was in command of a Company and conducted himself 
with distinguished gallantry. It was a shot directed 
by him that struck down one of the Tory captains, 
near the close of the action, and thus contributed to 
the speedy termination of the battle in favor of the 


Mr. Sharpe, during the Revolutionary War, was a 
magistrate of Rowan County and his name appears 
frequently on the records as one of the presiding 
Justices in the County Court. On the seventh of 
February, 1785, he presented a lawyer's Hcense, and 
took the customary oath of an attorney. After this 
period he appears as a lawyer in many cases in Court, 
and enjoyed, as Dr. Hunter says, an extensive practice. 

Mr. Sharpe died in 181 8, in the seventy-seventh 
year of his age, leaving a widow and twelve children. 
These children, with his own reputation for distin- 
guished services, constitute his legacy to his country. 

In concluding this sketch I will mention that, be- 
sides his sons, by whom the name of Sharpe is 
perpetuated, there were two raughters, who became 
mothers of extensive and influential famiHes. The 
eldest of these v/as named Matilda, and was united in 
marriage to William W. Erwin, of Burke County. 
Their union was blessed with a family of fifteen chil- 
dren, many of whom have held prominent and honora- 
ble positions in the State, and their descendants are 
still found as honored and useful citizens in the Pied- 
mont regions of North Carolina. 

Ruth, the second daughter of the Hon. William 
Sharpe, was married to Col. Andrew Caldwell, of 
Iredell County. Colonel Caldwell represented Iredell 
County in the House of Commons in 1806-07-08, and 
in the Senate in 1812-13. 

His two sons, Judge David F. Caldwell, so long a 
prominent citizen of Salisbury, and the Hon. Joseph 
P. Caldwell, who represented his district in the 


National Congress, sustained the reputation of their 
distinguished ancestor by their pubHc services. 

John Brevard 

Another name on the list of members of the Provin- 
cial Congress of North Carolina was John Brevard. 
The family is of French extraction, and its history is 
associated with the stirring events that accompanied 
the Reformation of the sixteenth century, in France. 
The Calvinistic subjects of the French King were per- 
secuted and harrassed through long years, until driven 
to madness they allied themselves with the Prince of 
Conde, and attempted resistance. But their plans 
were discovered and frustrated, and they were sub- 
jected to still greater persecutions. At length, how- 
ever, Henry IV., by the famous Edict of Nantes, in 
1598, granted equal rights to his Protestant and Catho- 
lic subjects. For about three quarters of a century 
the Huguenots, or French Calvinists, enjoyed com- 
parative safety, during which time they multiplied 
and prospered. At length, however, Louis XR\, in- 
stigated by ]\Iadame de ]\Iaintenon, began to renew 
the cruel work of persecuting his Protestant subjects, 
by imposing disabilities and fines upon them. In 1685 
he revoked the Edict of Nantes, and endeavored to 
suppress all forms of worship except the Romish. 
By this cruel and short-sighted policy he drove from 
his dominions more than a half-million of his most 
useful and industrious subjects — farmers, artisans, 
laborers, producers of all kinds. They crossed into 
Switzerland, Germany, Holland, England, wherever 


the frontiers were more easily passed. Among these 
Huguenot emigrants was a young man of the name 
of Brevard, who found his way to the north of Ire- 
land. Here he made the acquaintance of a family by 
the name of McKnitt, of Scotch extraction. He deter- 
mined to cast in his lot with this family in their pro- 
jected emigration to the New World. It happened 
that there was in the McKnitt family a fair young 
lass, for whom the ardent Huguenot conceived a ten- 
der passion, and responsive affection w^as awakened in 
the bosom of the maiden. The result was a marriage, 
and the young couple upon reaching America settled 
in a home on Elk River, in Maryland. There were 
born unto them five sons and a daughter. The eldest 
of these was John Brevard, the Rowan County farmer 
and member of the Provincial Congress. 

Before his removal to North Carohna he was united 
in marriage to a sister of the Rev. Alex. McWhorter, 
D. D., a distinguished Presbyterian minister, who was 
for a short time president of "Queens Museum" Col- 
lege, in Charlotte. 

John Brevard settled in Rowan County, about three 
miles from Center church, some time between 1740 
and 1750, coming on with the first immigrants to that 
section. There he led a quiet and useful life, rearing 
a large family, consisting of eight sons and four 
daughters, whom he trained to be useful citizens. 
A\'hen the troublous times of the Revolution came, 
Brevard was an old man, but not too old to represent 
Rowan County in the Provincial Congress. And 
though too old to take the field, his sons gallantly 


obeyed the call to amis, and entered into the military 
service. On that dark morning of the first of Feb- 
ruary, 1781, when Gen. William Davidson fell at 
Cowan's Ford, while resisting the passage of the 
British troops, Mr. Brevard's house was burned down 
by order of some of the British officers. A part of the 
invading army crossed at Beattie's Ford, and so passed 
directly by Brevard's house. The old gentleman was 
absent from home, and his daughters had been sent 
across a swamp, out of harm's way, leaving none but 
the venerable wife and mother at home. A British 
officer, riding up and taking a paper out of his pocket, 
declared that the house must be burned, alleging as a 
reason that Brevard had eight sons in the rebel army. 
Though the venerable matron tried to save some of her 
property, it was snatched from her hands, and cast 
into the flames. Gen. \Mlliam Davidson, who. was 
killed that morning, was the son-in-law of John Bre- 
vard, having married ^lary, his eldest daughter. 
Their son, WilHam Lee Davidson, Esq., was an early 
friend and patron of Davidson College, and made a do- 
nation of the land upon which the College now stands. 
Dr. Ephraim Brevard, the secretary of the Mecklen- 
burg Convention, was the eldest son of John Brevard. 
Dr. Foote says of him: "He thought clearly; felt 
deeply; wrote well; resisted bravely, and died a 
martyr to that liberty none loved better and few un- 
derstood so well." 


Hox. :\rATTHEw Locke 

From the first volume of records in the office of the 

Register of Deeds in Salisbury, we learn that, from 

1752 to 1754, there were three men by the name of 

Locke— probably brothers— who acquired titles to 

land in Rowan County. One of these was Francis 

Locke, who purchased over a thousand acres from 

John Brandon, called the "Poplar Lands," on both 

sides of the wagon road leading from the Yadkin 

River to the "Irish Settlement." In 1752 there was a 

grant from Earl Granville to George Locke of a tract 

in the neighborhood of "Poplar Spring," adjoining 

the lands of John Thompson. These tracts are said 

to be on the south side of the Yadkin, but whether near 

that stream or not is not mentioned. In 1752 there 

was a grant of six hundred acres from Earl Granville 

to Alatthew Locke. From these three persons sprang 

the numerous families of Lockes that resided in 

Rowan County in the closing years of the last and the 

opening years of the present century. 

But it is with special reference to the last-mentioned 
of the three, the Hon. IMatthew Locke, that this 
article is penned. 

He was the owner of a fertile tract of land, on the 
east side of Grant's Creek, about five miles south of 
Salisbury, adjoining the plantations of John Brandon, 
James Allison, and John Nesbit. The family mansion 
stood on the Concord Road, at or near the place where 
Dr. Scott's residence was, now the home of Mr. Philip 


Mr. Locke was born in 1730, and was probably a 
grown young man when he came to the county, and 
contributed his part in laying the foundations of 
society; and when the Regulation troubles arose he 
was in the prime of life, having already established a 
reputation for capacity in business and integrity in the 
most delicate of trusts. In 1771, when the people of 
Rowan were groaning under the pressure of ex- 
orbitant taxation, and a committee of the people had 
met the clerk of court, sheriff, and other officers of 
the crown, and exacted from them a promise to return 
all moneys received by them over and above their law- 
ful fees, Matthew Locke was among those selected 
as proper persons to receive and return to the people 
these unlawful fees. As General Waddell soon ap- 
peared in Salisbury with the Governor's troops, and 
the whole scheme of the Regulation was crushed out 
in the battle of Alamance only two months after this 
appointment, it is probable that no indemnity for the 
past was secured ; but the appointment of Locke for 
the discharge of such a delicate duty shows the confi- 
dence reposed in him by his fellow-citizens. 

He was chosen to represent Rowan in the Provincial 
Congress, which met in Hillsboro, August 20, 1775, 
along with James Smith, ]\Ioses W'inslow, Samuel 
Young, William Kennon, and \\'illiam Sharpe. ^Ir. 
Locke was chosen by this Congress, along with 
Maurice jMoore, Richard Caswell, Rev. Henry Patillo, 
and others, to confer with such persons as entertained 
religious or political scruples with respect to associat- 
ing in the common cause of America, to remove those 


scruples, and to persuade them to co-operate with the 
friends of Hberty. 

Mr. Locke also served on the committee, along with 
Caswell, Hooper, Johnston, Hewes, Spencer, and 
others, which prepared the plan for the regulation of 
the internal peace of the Province in the absence ( !) 
of Governor Martin. He also served on Committees 
of Public Finance, W^ays and ]\Ieans, for arrangement 
of minute men, commissaries, and other important 
matters. At a meeting of the Provincial Council, held 
at Johnston Courthouse, October i8, 1775, Matthew 
Locke, Esq., was appointed paymaster of the troops 
stationed in the District of Salisbury, and also of the 
minute men in said District, and Richard Caswell, the 
"Southern Treasurer," was directed to pay into his 
hands five thousand two hundred and fifty pounds 
(^5.250) for that purpose. 

At the meeting of the Provincial Congress, at Hali- 
fax, April 4, 1776, :\Ir. Locke, with General Ruther- 
ford, represented Rowan County, and was made 
chairman of the Committee on Claims, to settle and 
allow military and naval accounts. He was also on 
the Committee of ''Secrecy, Intelligence, and Observa- 
tion," was appointed to receive, produce, and purchase 
firearms for the soldiers of Rowan County. In view 
of these facts, gathered from the minutes of the North 
Carolina Provincial Congress, as found in Peter 
Force's "American Archives," it appears that ]\Ir. 
Locke was a working man in public affairs, and that 
he was entrusted with much of the important business 


of the Congress, especially such as related to the 
public finances. 

After the formation of the State Constitution, 
Matthew Locke was chosen to represent Rowan 
County four successive years: 1777-78 in the House 
of Commons, and the two succeeding years, 1781-82, 
he was a member of the Senate. After this he served 
six years again in the House of Commons — making in 
all twelve years in the Legislature. 

From 1793 to 1799 he was a member of the Con- 
gress of the United States. His public services lasted 
almost as long as his life, for in 1801, the seventy-first 
year of his age, he departed this Hfe. 

He was married to a daughter of Richard Brandon, 
an early patriot of Rowan County, and had at one time 
four sons in the Revolutionary ^^■ar. One of these 
sons, Lieut. George Locke, was killed by the 
British at Kennedy's Farm, between Charlotte and 
Sugar Creek Church, in a skirmish, when Lord Corn- 
wallis captured Charlotte, on the twenty-sixth of Sep- 
tember, 1780. His remains were interred at his 
father's residence, near Sahsbury. 

Col. Francis Locke, who was appointed Colonel of 
the First Rowan Regiment by the Provincial Congress, 
in April, 1776, with Alexander Dobbins as Lieutenant- 
Colonel, James Brandon First ]\Iajor, and James 
Smith Second Major, was a nephew of the Hon. Mat- 
thew Locke. Colonel Locke was in the command of 
General Ashe in the beginning of 1779, when that 
officer was sent to Georgia, unprepared, with two thou- 
sand North Carolina militia. Against the remon- 


strances of General Ashe, General Lincoln pushed 
these troops forward at Brier Creek, where they were 
surprised and defeated by General Prevost. Colonel 
Locke was one of the court-martial to examine into 
that disastrous affair. The unfortunate General Ashe, 
being broken in spirit by the result of this transaction, 
retired from the army and was no more in active 
service. The reader will remember that it was 
Col. Francis Locke who, with four hundred men 
from Rowan and ]^Iecklenburg, attacked and defeated 
the Tories at Ramsour's Mill, on the twentieth of 
June, 1780, in a hard-fought battle, against a superior 
force entrenched on ground of their own choosing. 
In this battle seven Whig captains, namely : Falls, 
Knox, Dobson, Smith, Bowman, Sloan, and Arm- 
strong, were killed, and the bodies of six of them sleep 
under a brick monumental structure, on the southern 
brow of the rising battleground, about fifty or sixty 
yards from the present public road. The remains of 
Captain Falls were carried to his home in Rowan, near 
Sherrill's Ford, on the Catawba, and there interred. 
His sword was in the possession of the late Robert 
Falls Simonton, his grandson, at the time of his death 
four years ago. 

In Thyatira graveyard stands a monument to the 
memory of the Hon. Francis Locke, which states that 
he was born on the thirty-first of October, 1766, 
elected Judge of the Superior Court in 1803, elected 
Senator of the United States in 1814, and died in 
January, 1823. He never married. 


The Hon. IMatthew Locke, as before stated, married 
a daughter of Richard Brandon, and left eight sons, as 
follows : George, killed near Charlotte ; William, died 
young; John, died young; Francis, moved A\'est; 
Richard, Matthew, James, and Robert. 

Gen. Francis Locke, nephew of the above, and 
probably a son of Francis or George, mentioned in the 
beginning of this article, also married a Brandon, and 
left four sons, viz. : Francis, John, \Mlliam, and 
Matthew. This genealogical notice was obtained by 
Gen. R. Barringer from ^Irs. David Parks, of Char- 
lotte, nee Locke. 

A generation or two ago the Locke family in Rowan 
County was numerous, and held a prominent place in 
public affairs. But by removals and deaths it has 
come to pass that few of that name remain. Still, in 
the female line, there are prominent citizens in Rowan 
and adjoining counties who worthily represent the 
blood of the statesmen, counselors, and warriors who 
once proudly bore the name of Locke. And it is w^ell 
that one of our principal townships has been deputed 
to carry down that honorable name to posterity. Our 
people cannot afford to lose the patriotic influence that 
is exerted by the names of the sages and heroes of past 

Samuel Youxg 

The traveler who leaves Salisbury on the ^^^estern 
North Carolina Railroad, after passing over Grant's 
Creek and Second Creek, will begin to see, on his 
right, a wooded range of hills or small mountains 


looming up near by. It is only a few hundred feet in 
height, yet high enough to be seen for twenty or thirty 
miles around. Here the Indian's watchfire, or signal 
fire beacon, would have flashed its light to different 
mountain peaks — to Dunn's Mountain, to the Pilot, 
and to King's Mountain, sixty miles away to the south- 
ward. This eminence is called Young's Mountain, and 
is named after Samuel Young, the subject of this 

Somewhere about 1750 an Irishman came over the 
waters, and joined in the stream of emigration that 
was flowing throug^h \\^estern Carolina. With a skill 
that marked him out as a man of foresight, he selected, 
entered, or purchased a body of land containing not 
less than four thousand acres, the richest in Rowan 
County. It lay up and down Third Creek from the 
church to Neely's old mill, a distance of three or four 
miles, and included the mountain mentioned before. 
He chose for his residence a spot about two hundred 
yards from Third Creek, on land now belonging to 
Mrs. John Graham, not far from the site of the 
church. The first grant of his is dated March 25, 
1752, and is for three hundred and forty acres, from 
Earl Granville. This was before the County of Rowan 
was formed, and the land is described as lying on 
''Third Creek, County of Anson." In 1756, Michael 
Dickson, weaver, sold to Samuel Young, planter, five 
hundred and twenty-five acres on the north side of 
Third Creek. 

Mr. Young appears as one of the magistrates of 
Rowan County, at an early day, and he was a promi- 


nent actor in public affairs for many years. Suppos- 
ing him to have been twenty-five or thirty years old 
upon his arrival here, he would be a man of mature 
years, between fifty and sixty, at the opening of the 
Revolutionary War. At that time of trial our people 
needed the wisest counselors and the most prudent 
leaders. Among these, Rowan County selected Samuel 
Young. \\'hen the patriotic and courageous John 
Harvey, as speaker of the Assembly, and chairman of 
the Permanent Committee of Correspondence for 
North Carolina, issued his proclamation, in 1774, call- 
ing upon the people to elect members to a Provincial 
Congress, to be held in Newbern, Rowan County 
chose ]\Ioses \\'inslow and Samuel Young, and the 
Borough of Salisbury chose William Kennon, Esq., as 
their Representatives. This Congress was opened 
August 25, 1774. The reader who wishes to know 
the opinions of that Congress upon the subject of 
human rights will find a series of resolutions adopted 
by them, on pages 734-37 of Vol. I, Fourth Series, of 
Peter Force's American Archives. These resolutions 
struck the keynote of American liberty, though they 
did not hint at independence. We have at hand no 
means of deciding as to the authorship of those reso- 
lutions, since the Congress very wisely and prudently 
kept their minutes anonymously. But as to the source 
of their inspiration there can be little doubt. On pages 
360-61 of the second volume of Colonel Wheeler's 
History, we find a series of resolutions by the Com- 
mittee of Safety of Rowan, adopted August 8, 1774, 
just seventeen days before the Provincial Congress 


met. Samuel Young of Third Creek, and William 
Kennon of Salisbury, were members both of the 
Rowan Committee and the Provincial Congress, and 
went directly from the former to the later. They 
doubtless carried a copy of the Rowan resolutions to 
Newbem. A careful inspection of the two papers 
will show that the paper of the Congress is an amplifi- 
cation and modification of the Rowan paper, employ- 
ing the same general course of thought, and some- 
times toning down the warmer and more independent 
expressions of the Rowan paper. The author of the 
Rowan Resolutions is not named, but there was on the 
Committee a number of persons capable of composmg 
it, such as William Kennon, the chairman ; Samuel 
Young, John Brevard, jMatthew Locke, and others. 
This paper, while it afiirms loyalty to the House of 
Hanover, and is no premature Declaration of In- 
dependence, nevertheless bodily affirms the rights of 
free men, the right to be free from all taxation except 
such as is imposed by their representatives. It pro- 
poses a general association of the American Colonies 
to oppose all infringements of their rights and 
privileges ; discourages trade with Great Britain ; de- 
clares that homespun clothing ought to be considered 
a badge of distinction, respect, and true patriotism. 
This is the first extended declaration of principles and 
purposes I remember to have seen. There w^ere meet- 
ings in other counties, where true patriots expressed 
their sympathy and offered help to the Boston suffer- 
ers, but they usually contented themselves with ap- 


proving the assembling of a Provincial and Continental 
Congress, without declaring their principles in detail. 

After the adjournment of the Provincial Congress 
of 1774, 'Mr. Young was appointed by the Rowan com- 
mittee to correspond with said Congress, and to see 
that its resolutions, as well as those of the Continental 
Congress, were carried out. 

On the first of June, 1775, Samuel Young appears as 
chairman of the Rowan Committee of Safety, and was 
directed to draw up an address to the several militia 
companies of the county, and was made military 
treasurer of the county. At the same time an address 
was prepared to be sent to the Mecklenburg Com- 
mitttee. This address to Mecklenburg expresses the 
desire that greater unity may be secured in supporting 
the common cause, and ''that we may have one con- 
stitution as contained in i\Iagna Charta, the Charter 
of the Forest, the Habeas Corpus Act, and the Charter 
we brought over with us, handed down to posterity; 
and that under God, the present House of Hanover, 
in legal succession, may be the defenders of it." That 
was Wednesday, June i, 1775, the week of Court in 
Salisbury, when Captain Jack brought the Charlotte 
Declaration to Salisbury, handed it to Colonel Kennon, 
who caused it to be read in open Court, according to 
Captain Jack's certificate. 

In August, 1775, Samuel Young was again sent as a 
member of the Provincial Congress at Hillsboro, along 
with ]\Iatthew Locke, A\'illiam Sharpe, ]\Ioses Win- 
slow, AA'illiam Kennon, and James Smith. This Con- 
gress appointed as field officers of the Rowan '']\Iinute 


Men/' Thomas Wade of Anson, Colonel; Adlai Os- 
borne of Rowan, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Joseph Har- 
ben of Rowan, Major. 

In the years 1781 and 1782 Samuel Young served as 
a member of the Legislature of North Carolina. After 
this period we have no record of his hfe and actions. 
He lived, however, long enough to see the cloud of war 
roll away, and the bright sun of peace and independ- 
ence shme upon his adopted country, to see the con- 
stitution of the United States adopted, and George 
Washington inaugurated as the first President of the 

From his last Will and Testament, dated August 24, 
1793. and proved in Court November 9, 1793, we 
gather that he closed his earthly career some time be- 
tween these dates-the fall of 1793. From this docu- 
ment It appears that he left seven children to inherit 
his estate, viz.: WiHiam, Janet, Samuel, James 
Margaret, John, and Joseph. William, the eldest, was 
married and had a son named Samuel, to whom his 
grandfather left a small legacy by his Will. Of this 
William Young there are many traditional stories told, 
especially with regard to his presence of mind in dan- 
ger, and his remarkable activity. Upon a certain oc- 
casion, as he was about to cross Third Creek on a foot- 
log, at the head of Neely's Pond, he saw a panther in 
the act of springing upon him from the opposite bank. 
It was the work of a moment to level his gun and pull 
the trigger. The shot met the panther as he sprang, 
and striking it in the head the ferocious beast fell dead 
m the middle of the stream. In 1781, while Lord 


Cornwallis was moving up the Yadkin, in pursuit of 
General Greene, his encampment was at a Mrs. Camp- 
bell's, near Rencher's Ford — his line of tents extending 
from where Mr. William Watson now Hves to the 
farm of ^Ir. Robert Johnston. Tradition says that 
William Young, then a young man, moved with curi- 
osity, strayed unexpectedly into the British camp, and 
suddenly found himself hemmed in and ordered to sur- 
render. But instead of surrendering, he trusted to his 
fleetness and agility, and actually leaped over three 
covered wagons in succession, and so escaped. Follow- 
ing the British as they were about to cross South Fork 
at Rencher's Ford, he was unexpectedly approached 
by some cavalrymen. Starting off up the hill at full 
speed, he soon distanced the troopers and again es- 
caped. Another story is that he won a wager from a 
British officer by beating the most active soldier that 
could be produced in feats of agility. 

The second son, Samuel, received by his father's 
\\'ill a plantation near Cathey's Meeting - house, 
(Thyatira). The oldest daughter, Janet, was mar- 
ried to a man named Webb, and their oldest child, 
Samuel \A^ebb, received a small legacy from his grand- 
father. James' portion was allotted to him on Coddle 
Creek, near the Wilmington Road. Margaret married 
John Inan, and three of her sons are named Christo- 
pher, Joseph, and John — the last still living near Third 
Creek Church, at the ripe age of seventy years. John 
had his portion of land on Third Creek, and Joseph, 
the youngest, according to Scotch-Irish customs, re- 
ceived the home place as his patrimony. From these 


are descended many families, such as the Irvins, 
Foards, Kilpatricks, Alatthews, W^oods, and others. 
Mr. Young evinced his Presbyterianism in his Will by 
providing a sum to purchase for each of his children 
a Bible and a Westminster Confession of Faith. But 
his library seems to have been his special delight, com- 
posed as it was of about one hundred volumes of 
standard works. He left this library to be divided 
into lots and kept by his five sons — the lots to be ex- 
changed as they might desire. But no book of any lot 
was to be loaned, hired, or otherwise disposed of, un- 
der the penalty of forfeiture of all claim to the library; 
and in the event the sons should jointly agree to a 
loan, exchange, or sale, then the whole library was to 
be sold, and the proceeds paid over to the two daugh- 
ters. Books of this library are still to be found in 
Third Creek. As it may be interesting to the curious 
to know what kind of books were found in an intelli- 
gent planter's library one hundred years ago, I give 
the list that accompanies the Will : "Henry's Com- 
mentary, Burket on New Testament, Theory of 
the Earth, Derham on Isaiah, Beatty on Truth, 
Lee's Law Commonplaced, ]\Iuller's Fortification, Der- 
ham's Astrotheology, Life of David, Puffen- 
dorff's History of Europe, Salmon's Gazette, 
Law of Evidence, Salmon's Geography, Black- 
stone's Commentaries, Alair's Bookkeeping, Brown's 
Dictionary of the Bible, Hobbs on Human 
Nature, Nature of the Passions and Affections, 
Athenian Sport, Virgil, Owen on Sin, Man of Pleas- 
ure, Various Subjects, Nature Displayed, Moor's Dia- 


logues, The Soul of Astrology, Locke's Essays, Dry- 
den on Poesy, Cruikshank's History of the Church, 
Cunn's Euclid, Gulliver's Travels, Baxter on Religion, 
Addison's Spectator, \\'atson's Body of Divinity, Book 
of Gauging, Young's Night Thoughts, Salmon's Chro- 
nology, Junius' Letters, Matho, Stackhouse (6 vols.), 
Flavel's Works (8 vols.), Cole's Dictionary, Oziel's 
Logic, Abridgement of Irish Statutes, Religion of Na- 
ture, Young Man's Companion, Atkinson's Efifectum, 
Tisset, Seller's Navigation, Theory of Fortification, 
The Independent Whig, Parker's Justice." 

Scripture, theology, literature, history, military 
tactics, navigation, poetry — a good library of the best 
books, graced the shelves of the Third Creek patriot 
and planter. His library shows that he was a man of 
no ordinary taste and judgment. Drinking in knowl- 
edge from so many and such healthful fountains, we 
can well understand why he was put forth by his 
fellow-citizens in times of trial and danger. 

The facts and traditions above mritten were 
gathered from Wheeler's History, American Archives, 
a note from Dr. D. B. Wood — a greatgrandson of 
Samuel Young, Mr. Franklin Johnston, and others. 

Moses Winslow and Alexander Osborne 

The southwestern corner of Old Rowan County was 
occupied by a noble and patriotic race of people one 
hundred years ago. There you will find the original 
home of families known by the names of Davidson, 
Reese, Hughes, Ramsay, Brevard, Osborne, Winslow, 
Kerr, Rankin, Templeton, Dickey, Braley, ]\Ioore, 


Emerson. Torrence, Houston. There the Rev. John 
Thompson closed his labors, and lies sleeping in Ba- 
ker's graveyard. His daughter, the widow Baker, 
afterwards married Dr. Charles Harris of Cabarrus, 
the ancestor of the late ^^'illiam Shakespeare Harris, 
Esq. Prominent among these families were the Os- 
bornes and Winslows. 

Alexander Osborne 

was born in New Jersey in 1709, and came to Rowan 
County about 1755. He settled on the headwaters of 
Rocky River, and called his place "Belmont." A 
neighbor of his selected for his residence the name of 
"Alount ]\Iourne," after a mountain in Ireland. An- 
other, not to be outdone in names, called his place 
"Purgatory." These names are still familiar to the 
people of that section. Osborne was a colonel in the 
Colonial Government, and a man of influence in his 
day. He married Agnes McWhorter, the sister of the 
Rev. Dr. ]\Ic\\'horter, for some time president of 
Queens ^luseum, in Charlotte. Their place was the 
home of the early traveling missionaries to the South. 
Here the Rev. Hugh McAden stopped, in 1755, and 
preached at the "New Meeting House" nearby 
(Center). Here about the same time was established 
the "Crowfield Academy," where David Caldwell 
taught a few years later. In Center Church yard is a 
double headstone, telling the inquirer that Alexander 
Osborne died on the eleventh day of July, 1776, and 
his wife, Agnes, two days earlier. He probably never 
heard of the Declaration of Independence, made seven 


days before his death. He had gone to a brighter 
world, where the alarms of war never come. These 
parents left two children — Adlai Osborne and Jean Os- 
borne. Adlai was graduated at Princeton College in 
1768. His name appears as Clerk of the Rowan County 
Court under the Royal Government, and he held that 
post in the New Government until 1809. He died in 
181 5. Among his children were two sons whose 
names are distinguished. The one was Spruce ]\Iacay 
Osborne, who was graduated at the University of 
North CaroHna in 1806, became a surgeon in the army 
and was killed in the War of 1812, at the massacre of 
Fort ^limms. The other son, Edwin Jay Osborne, 
the father of the late Hon. James W. Osborne, of 
Charlotte, was himself an eminent lawyer, distin- 
guished for his learning and eloquence. Intimately 
connected with the Osborne family, Vvas the family of 

]\IosEs Win SLOW 

Benjamin AA'inslow or Winsley, as it was first writ- 
ten, obtained a grant of eight hundred and twenty-five 
acres of land, "on both sides of the South Fork of 
Davises Creek — waters of Catawba River," under date 
of May II, 1757. A still earlier grant to Benjamin 
\\^inslow, under date of ]\Iarch 25, 1752, is for five 
hundred and eighty-seven acres, in the same neigh- 
borhood, adjoining the lands of John ^IcConnell. This 

is described as lying in Anson County, Parish of . 

This was before Rowan was erected into a county. In 
1758, Benjamin \\'inslow_, Sr., made a deed of gift 
to his son, Benjamin \Mnslow, Jr., of five hundred and 


thirty-five acres, adjoining the lands of Hugh Lawson, 
Patrick Hamilton, Mrs. Baker, and Moses White. 
From these records we get a glimpse of families resid- 
ing in the neighborhood. The first Moses White em- 
igrated from Ireland about 1742, and married the 
daughter of Hugh Lawson, named above. James 
White, son of the above couple, and the eldest of six 
brothers, was a soldier of the Revolution, but moved 
to East Tennessee in 1786, and was one of the original 
founders of the now flourishing city of Knoxville. He 
was distinguished for his bravery, energy, and talents, 
and was a brigadier-general in the Creek War. His 
illustrious son, Hugh Lawson White, was a Judge of 
the Supreme Court of Tennessee, a Senator of the 
United States, president of the Senate, and in 1836 a 
candidate for President of the United States. His re- 
mains sleep peacefully under the vines and grass of the 
churchyard of the First Presbyterian Church of 

From these deeds, and other sources, we learn that 
Benjamin Winslow had three children — Benjamin, 
Moses, and Alary. Of these we propose to record a 
few facts. 

Alexander Osborne and Benjamin Winslow were 
near neighbors, living only two or three miles apart. 
As a matter of course their boys, Moses and Adlai, 
were early companions and associates. Adlai Osborne 
had a fair young sister — pretty Jean Osborne, the rose 
of Belmont. It was the same old story, told under the 
leafy oaks of Rowan, and pretty Jean Osborne be- 
came the bride of young Moses Winslow. This was 


in 1760. They settled upon some of the Winslow 
lands, according to the custom of the day; for the 
original settlers, tinctured with European notions, 
rarely gave land to their daughters, but divided the in- 
heritance among the sons. The home of this couple 
was not far from Center Church — the property owned 
by the late Sidney Houston, Esq. For sixteen years 
their home was without children. But in the eventful 
year of 1776 came the first child, a daughter whom 
they named Dovey. She grew up to be a famous 
beauty and belle of that region. Her heart was at 
length won by Dr. Joseph McKnitt Alexander, son of 
John McKnitt Alexander. Her life was not a long 
one, but she left one son, Closes Winslow Alexander, 
who lived about ten miles north of Charlotte on the 
Statesville Road. Some of his children are still living. 
On the first day of February, 1771, Cornwallis' 
troops crossed the Catawba River and marched to- 
wards Salisbury. In their march several houses were 
burned down. When they reached the house of !Moses 
Winslow, knowing that he was a prominent man, a 
member of the Provincial Congress, and on the Rowan 
Committee of Safety, the soldiers applied the torch 
to his residence. At the same time some ruffian soldiers 
were endeavoring to cut from Mrs. Winslow the 
capacious outside pockets, so fashionable in that day, 
in which she had deposited some of her household 
valuables. While she was helplessly submitting to the 
indignity Lord Cornwallis himself rode up, and in 
obedience to the instincts of an English gentleman 


ordered them to desist, and to extinguish the fire 
kindled against the house. 

Moses Winslow lived to be eighty-three years of age. 
He and his wife sleep in the graveyard of Center 
Church, where her father and mother are resting side 
by side. 

Besides their beautiful daughter, Dovey, they had 
two other daughters, named Cynthia and Roscinda. 
The reader may have remarked that while these venera- 
ble pioneers were apt to name their sons after one of 
the patriarchs, prophets, or twelve apostles, with 
now and then a selection from the kings of England, 
they gave poetical or fanciful names to their daughters 
—Cynthia, Roscinda, Lillis, or Juliette. Cynthia 
\Mnslow was married to Samuel King, and was 
the mother of the well-known and talented Junius and 
Albert King. Roscinda Winslow married her cousin, 
William J. Wilson, and their daughter, Mary Wilson, 
became the wife of Ezekiel Polk— the grandfather of 
the President, James Knox Polk. Our illustrious 
North Carolina statesman, the late Hon. William A. 
Graham, was also a descendant of Mary, the sister of 
Moses Winslow. So likewise was Col. Isaac Hayne, 
of Charleston, with numerous other prominent and 
influential citizens. The old homesteads have fallen 
to ruins, and the plowshare of strangers, who never 
heard the names of these noble old families, runs 
smoothly over the ground where their altar fires once 
burned brightly. Emigration has borne them away, 
and in the new States the old names are found. But 
North Carolina should treasure up their history as an 


incentive to noble deeds in the days of trial yet to 

Before closing these sketches, I must put on record 
all that is known here of the history of one who left 
his name on the records of our Courts and Com- 

William Kennon 

appears prominent among the actors in public affairs 
at the opening and during the first years of the war. 
He was a lawyer, and it is supposed that he came to 
Salisbury from Wilmington, or from some other por- 
tion of Eastern Carolina. On the twenty-fifth of Au- 
gust, 1775, he represented the town of Salisbury in 
the Provincial Congress at Newbern. As early as 
the eighth of August, 1774, he was chosen as a mem- 
ber of the Rowan Committee of Safety, and on the 
twenty-seventh of September of the same year, he ap- 
pears as chairman of this Committee, with Adlai Os- 
borne as Clerk. Colonel Kennon was a very zealous 
patriot, and his name appears among the signers of 
the Mecklenburg Declaration of May 20, 1775. The 
appearance of his name on that paper can be accounted 
for only on the theory that the Mecklenburg patriots 
had no very rigorous committee on credentials on 
that occasion. Colonel Kennon seems to have been 
the prime mover in the abduction of John Dunn and 
Benjamin Boothe Boote, Esqs. Whether the young 
lawyer, so popular among the people, was jealous of 
the old lawyers, who got the most of the legal business 
of Salisbury, or whether the old lawyers, always the 


most conservative, and constitutional sticklers for prec- 
edent, moved too slowly for the ardent patriotism of 
the young lawyer, it is impossible at this late date to 
determine. But this much appears to be true — that 
somewhere about August, 1774, John Dunn, B. B. 
Boote, Wallace Lindsay, and one other man, signed a 
paper containing a general declaration of fidelity, al- 
legiance, obedience, and submission to the British Acts 
of Parliament. This paper seems to have been a kind 
of private protest against rebellion, kept by ^Ir. Boote 
for future emergencies. The parties signing it do not 
appear to have taken any public steps against the 
movement then in progress, but as crown officers con- 
tented themselves with the quiet discharge of duty. 
The paper, however, or a copy of it, got out among 
the people, and aroused suspicion. At the instance of 
Colonel Kennon, Dunn and Boote were hurried off in 
the night to Charlotte, thence to Camden, and ulti- 
mately to Charleston. The conduct of Colonel Kennon 
was deemed arbitrary and malicious by some of the 
citizens of Salisbury, and Dr. Anthony Newman, and 
others, men of unimpeachable patriotism, presented a 
petition to the Committee embodying the idea that the 
affair was arbitrary and malicious. Be that as it 
may, Dunn and Boote never got a hearing, though they 
prayed to be heard, and were kept in confinement for 
many weary months in Charleston. 

Just at this point it becomes necessary to correct an 
error which Colonel Wheeler published, and which has 
been repeated by other writers since. It is that John 
Dunn and B. B. Boote never returned to North Caro- 


lina, but after the war was over settled in Florida. 
This leaves these two gentlemen in the attitude of per- 
manent disaffection to the cause of American liberty ; 
but there is abundance of proof in the records of 
Rowan Court to prove that both returned and con- 
ducted themselves as good and patriotic citizens, at an 
early period of the War of Independence. In ]\Iarch, 
1777, B. B. Boote bought a tract of land in Salisbury, 
and proved a deed in open Court. On the eighth day 
of August, 1777, Mr. Boote took the oath of expurga- 
tion for disaffected or suspected persons. 

On the same day, August 8, 1777, John Dunn, Esq., 
took the required oath of an attorney in the State of 
North Carolina, and shortly after this date he became 
State's Attorney for Rowan County. Certainly at 
this period there remained not the least lingering doubt 
of his sympathy with the cause of American freedom. 
Still further, on the eighth of August, 1781, five 
months after the battle of Guilford Courthouse, John 
Dunn and ^Matthew Troy, Esqs., were appointed 
Commissioners by the County Court, Adlai Osborne 
being chairman, to repair the courthouse in Salisbury. 
From this it would appear that all suspicion or un- 
friendliness, if any ever existed, had vanished from 
the mind of the high-toned Osborne. ^Ir. Dunn died 
in Salisbury in the early part of 1783. Letters of 
administration on the estate of John Dunn were 
granted to Francis Dunn and Spruce ]^Iacay on the 
twenty-fifth of March, 1783. The traditions of his 
family relate that he was taken sick while pleading a 
case in the old courthouse, where the Public Square in 


Salisbury is, and that he was carried down to a hotel 
belonging to William Temple Coles, where Kluttz's 
drug store now stands. After lingering awhile he 
passed away. His body was interred on his own lands 
near Dunn's Mountain. No man knows where his 
grave is, but the mountain he owned, with its granite 
cliffs, standing in full view of the Public Square of 
Salisbury, is his monument. There it stands, a soli- 
tary sentinel, overlooking not only the broad lands he 
once owned and his unknown grave, but the very spot 
where for a quarter - century he won laurels as the 
leading lawyer of Salisbury bar. 

The events at the opening of the war are to be ac- 
counted for, first on the principle that old men, es- 
pecially lawyers, are slow and cautious in exchanging 
their allegiance. None know so well as they what 
are the results that follow in the wake of revolution. 
They are in the habit of looking at results and conse- 
quences. A second cause is found in the character- 
istic violence and intolerance of such times of excite- 
ment and struggle. Reports fly rapidly and gain ready 
credence. That Committee of Safety actually resolved 
that good old IMaxwell Chambers, their Treasurer, be 
publicly advertised as an enemy to the common cause 
of liberty, for raising the price of his goods above that 
of the year past. Futhermore Dunn and Boote were 
men of great influence, and the easiest way to dispose 
of them was to send them away without a hearing. No 
doubt, if granted a hearing, they would have cleared 
themselves of all acts or purposes of hostility to 
American liberty. But this the Committee did not 


know. Colonel Kennon, being the leader in this affair, 
seems to have removed from Salisbury to Georgia, at 
or about the time that Dunn and Boote returned. So 
far as known to the writer he lived an honored and 
useful life in the State of his adoption. One of his 
descendants was in Salisbury a few years ago, but he 
knew little of his ancestor. 

Authorities: Mrs. H. M. L, in Southern' Home; 
Hnnfe/s Western North Carolina; Wheeler, Records 
of Rowan Court; Miss C. B. 



\Mio sounded the first note of liberty in North 
Carolina? There are claimants for this honor, but 
their claims are not fully established. In the unsettled 
state of affairs immediately preceding the Revolution 
of 1776, public opinion was drifting insensibly for a 
number of years in the direction of a higher form of 
civil liberty. 

Besides this, many have confounded liberty with 
independence. The design to preserve their liberties 
was universal before the thought of independence 
gained any hold upon the public mind. Colonel Moore, 
in his History of North Carolina, affirms that as late 
as the meeting of the Continental Congress, in Septem- 
ber, 1774, there were but three men in America who 
contemplated actual independence of the crown of 
England. These were Patrick Henry of Virginia, Vil- 
liam Hooper of North Carolina, and Samuel Adams of 
Massachusetts. These three had given utterance to 
sentiments of independence, but the Congress avowed 
its loyalty to the King, and protested its devotion to 
the British constitution. The Congress of North Car- 
oHna, in August, 1774, protested the same loyalty; 
but at the same time there were opinions on the sub- 
ject of human rights, and plans and purposes on the 


subject of trade and taxation, and resolves on the mat- 
ter of a union of the colonies, whose inevitable con- 
sequence was the ultimate independence of the colon- 
ies, unless the British Parliament should recede from 
the position they had deliberately chosen. It matters 
little who first called for independence, provided we 
know who first avowed the principles that inevitably 
led to that result. 

Without claiming that these principles were first 
conceived in Rowan County, or even that they were 
first avowed here, from the documentary evidence 
before the public for thirty years it may be affirmed 
that the first recorded adoption of these principles oc- 
curred in Salisbury. Nearly a year before the patri- 
otic citizens of Mecklenburg adopted their famous 
"Resolves" of the thirty-first of May, which so ir- 
ritated Governor Martin, and provoked his angry let- 
ter from the lower Cape Fear; and nearly two years 
before the National Declaration of Independence, the 
citizens of Rowan adopted a paper that contains the 
germs of independence. This was on the eighth of 
August, 1774. The evidence of this is found in the 
Journal of the Committee of Safety of Rowan County, 
found recorded on pp. 36062 of Colonel Wheeler's 
Sketches of North Carolina, Vol. II. This document 
was discovered in Iredell County, among the papers of 
the Sharpe family, by the Rev. E. F. Rockwell, and 
published by Colonel Wheeler in 1851. William 
Sharpe was the last secretary of the Committee, and 
preserved the Minutes that were found in the hands 


of his descendants. Colonel A\heeler vouches for the 
genuineness of the document. 

This Committee of Safety began its sessions, ac- 
cording to these Alinutes, on the eighth of August, 
1774, seventeen days before the assembhng of the first 
North Carolina Provincial Congress. This com- 
mittee was probably chosen at the time appointed for 
electing members to the General Assembly of the 
Province, or it may have come into existence before 
that time in obedience to the wishes of the people. 
The members of the committee were chosen from all 
parts of this grand old county, and numbered twenty- 
five. The following is a list of their names: James 
McCay, Andrew Xeal, George Cathey, Alexander 
Dobbins, Francis McCorkle, Matthew Locke, ^Maxwell 
Chambers, Henry Harmon, Abraham Denton, William 
Davidson, Samuel Young, John Brevard, \\'illiam 
Kennon, George Henry Barringer, Robert Bell, John 
Bickerstafif, John Cowden, John Lewis Beard, John 
Nesbit, Charles :\IcDowell, Robert Blackburn, Christo- 
pher Beekman, William Sharpe, John Johnson, and 
Morgan Bryan. 

At their first recorded meeting, August 8, 1774, this 
committee adopted seventeen resolutions upon public 
affairs, showing that they were in the very forefront 
of Hberal and patriotic opinions. 

As this paper is not generally known, we give it 

"At a meeting of the committee, August 8, 1774, the 
following resolves were unanimously agreed to : 


Resolved, That we will at all times, whenever we are 
called upon for that purpose, maintain and defend, at 
the expense of our lives and fortunes, His ^Majesty's 
right and title to the crown of Great Britain and his 
dominions in America, to whose royal person and gov- 
ernment we profess all due obedience and fidelity. 

Resolved, That the right to impose taxes or duties, 
to be paid by the inhabitants within this Province, for 
any purpose whatsoever, is peculiar and essential to 
the General Assembly, in whom the legislative 
authority of the colony is vested. 

Resolved, That every attempt to impose such taxes 
or duties by any other authority is an arbitrary exer- 
tion of power, and an infringement of the constitu- 
tional rights and liberties of the colony. 

Resolved, That to impose a tax or duty on tea by 
the British Parliament, in which the Xorth American 
Colonies can have no representation, to be paid upon 
importation by the inhabitants of the said colonies, is 
an act of power without right. It is subversive to the 
liberties of the said colonies, deprives them of their 
property without their own consent, and thereby 
reduces them to a state of slavery. 

Resolved, That the late cruel and sanguinary acts 
of Parliament, to be executed by military force and 
ships of war upon our sister colony of ^lassachusetts 
Bay and town of Boston, is a strong evidence of the 
corrupt influence obtained by the British ^Ministry in 
Parliament, and a convincing proof of their fixed in- 
tention to deprive the colonies of their constitutional 
rights and liberties. 


Resolved, That the cause of the toztni of Boston is 
the common cause of the American Colonies. 

Resolved, That it is the duty and interest of all the 
American Colonies firmly to unite in an indissoluble 
union and association, to oppose by every just and 
proper means the infringement of their common 
rights and privileges. 

Resolved, That a general association between all the 
American Colonies not to import from Great Britain 
any comm.odity whatsoever (except such things as 
shall be hereafter excepted by the General Congress 
of this Province), ought to be entered into, and not 
dissolved till the just rights of the colonies are re- 
stored to them, and the cruel acts of the British Par- 
liament against the Massachusetts Bay and town of 
Boston are repealed. 

Resolved, That no friend to the rights and liberties 
of America ought to purchase any commodity what- 
soever, except such as shall be excepted, which shall 
be imported from Great Britain after the General As- 
sociation shall be agreed upon. 

Resolved, That every kind of luxury, dissipation, 
and extravagance ought to be banished from among us. 

Resolved, That manufacturers ought to be en- 
couraged by opening subscriptions for that purpose, 
or by any other proper means. 

Resolved, That the African slave trade is injurious 
to this colony, obstructs the population of it by free 
men, prevents manufacturers and other useful immi- 
grants from Europe from settling among us, and oc- 


casions an annual increase of the balance of trade 
against the colonies. 

Resolved, That the raising of sheep, hemp, and 
flax ought to be encouraged. 

Resolved, That to be clothed in manufactures 
fabricated in the colonies ought to be considered as a 
badge of distinction, of respect, and true patriotism. 

Resolved, That Messrs. Samuel Young and Moses 
Winslow, for the County of Rowan, and for the town 
of Salisbury, William Kennon, Esq., be, and they are 
hereby, nominated and appointed Deputies upon the 
part of the inhabitants and freeholders of this county, 
and town of Salisbury, to meet such Deputies as shall 
be appointed by the other counties and corporations 
within this colony, at Johnston Courthouse, the twen- 
tieth of this instant. 

Resolved, That, at this important and alarming 
crisis, it be earnestly recommended to the said Depu- 
ties at their General Convention, that they nominate 
and appoint one proper person out of each district of 
this Province, to meet such Deputies in a General 
Congress, as shall be appointed upon the part of the 
other Continental Colonies in America, to consult and 
agree upon a firm and indissoluble union and associa- 
tion, for preserving, by the best and most proper 
means, their common rights and liberties. 

Resolved, That this colony ought not to trade with 
any colony which shall refuse to join in any union and 
association that shall be agreed upon by the greater 
part of the other colonies on this continent, for 
preserving their common rights and liberties." 


An analysis of these resolves shows that these 
early patriots comprehended all the great doctrines of 
civil liberty. They began with the profession of loy- 
alty to their king. An examination of a large number 
of similar papers adopted about the same time, in 
Virginia and in the more northern colonies, reveals 
the same acknowledgment of loyalty to the House of 
Hanover. To have omitted it would have been evi- 
dence of treasonable designs. Men educated under 
monarchical rule sometimes affirm their loyalty in 
amusing ways. The Parliament of England, in the 
days of Charles I., levied war against the king in the 
name of the king himself, for his own good. In the 
case of the Revolutionary patriots, there is little reason 
to doubt the genuineness of their professions in the 
early days of the struggle. They entertained hopes of 
securing their liberties by the repeal of the odious 
laws, as they had done in the matter of the stamp 
duties several years before. 

In the next place they firmly declared that no per- 
son had a right to levy taxes upon them except their 
own representatives in Assembly. This was the pivot 
on which the whole matter turned. And to prevent 
the arbitrary imposition of taxes, they proposed an in- 
dissoluble union and association of all the American 
Colonies, and do all in their power towards securing 
this union, by appointing Deputies to a Provincial 
Congress and recommending those Deputies to secure 
the appointment of representatives to a Continental 
Congress. The other resolutions concerning luxury, 


home manufacture, the slave trade, and sympathy with 
Boston, are subordinate to the others. 

Having affirmed their pohtical creed, the Committee 
adjourned until the twenty-second of September, 1774. 
At the next meeting, William Kennon appears as chair- 
man and Adlai Osborne as clerk. Their first business 
was to read and approve the resolves of the Provincial 
Congress that had met in the interval, and take steps 
towards carrying them out. ]\Iaxwell Chambers was 
appointed treasurer of the committee, and an order 
issued that each militia company in the county pay 
twenty pounds (£20), proclamation money, into his 
hands. As there were nine companies of militia in the 
county, this would aggregate the sum of one hundred 
and eighty pounds (£180), or between four and five 
hundred dollars. This money was to be used by the 
committee at discretion, for the purchase of powder, 
flints, and other military munitions. This conduct, as 
early as September, 1774, showed that the idea of re- 
sistance was growing up rapidly in the minds of the 
patriots of Rowan. This committee fixed the price of 
powder, and examined carefully into the political senti- 
ments of the people. If they were not satisfied with a 
man's conduct, they did not hesitate to declare him an 
enemy to liberty, and to put him under suitable re- 
straints. They also, in after days, took control of Court 
matters, allowing some to enter suits against others, and 
forbidding some. No doubt many of their acts were 
arbitrary in a high degree, and sometimes an infringe- 
ment of the liberty they proposed to protect. But when 
the storm of war was about to break upon the country. 


the committee acted vigorously, awaking zeal, sup- 
pressing disaffection, embodying militia companies, 
providing ammunition, and doing all they could to sup- 
port the cause of freedom. Xor did they confine them- 
selves to deliberation, but they took the field. General 
Rutherford, Colonel Locke, Gen. William Davidson, 
and others, won for themselves honorable names in 
many a march and skirmish, and many a hard-fought 



The Provincial Congress of North Carolina held 
its fourth meeting at Halifax, beginning on the fourth 
of April, 1776. Rowan was represented by Griffith 
Rutherford and Matthew Locke. This Congress was 
fully aware that the General Congress at Philadelphia 
was continuously moving towards a general declara- 
tion of independence, and was in full sympathy with it. 
The North Carolina statesmen were well aware that 
independence could not be achieved except by a fear- 
ful struggle against the military power of Britain. In 
order to be ready for this emergency, the judicial dis- 
tricts were made into military districts, and a Briga- 
dier-General appointed for each. Griffith Rutherford 
was appointed General for the Salisbury district. In 
Rowan County there were two regiments and two 
sets of field officers. Of the first regiment, Francis 
Locke was Colonel; Alexander Dobbins, Lieutenant- 
Colonel; and James Brandon and James Smith, Ma- 
jors. Of the second regiment (up the Catawba 
River), Christopher Beekman was Colonel; Charles 
McDowell, Lieutenant-Colonel; and Hugh Brevard 
and George Wilfong, Majors. Among the Company 
officers, we notice Captains Robert Smith, William 
Temple Coles, Thomas Haines, and Jesse Saunders,, 


with Lieutenants William Brownfield, James Carr, 
William Caldwell, David Craige, Thomas Pickett, Wil- 
liam Clover, John Madaris, and Pleasant Henderson. 
Among the officers of Light Horse Companies, we 
notice Martin Phif er, Captain ; James Sumner, 
Lieutentant; and Valentine Beard, Cornet. These 
were all^ or nearly all, from Rowan County. This 
military organization was intended for active service, 
whenever emergencies should arise. And the emer- 
gency for calling out the soldiers of the Salisbury dis- 
trict soon arose. Early in July of the same year, 
General Rutherford led nineteen hundred men across 
the mountains to scourge and hold in check the Chero- 
kees. This was more of an excursion than a war, for 
there was no open enemy to face, nothing but hills and 
mountains and rivers to be overcome, and a secret 
enemy waylaying their march and firing upon them 
from the wilderness, or from inaccessible crags along 
their way. But the object was accomplished, and the 
Cherokees were compelled to sue for peace. 

In the organization and drill of these military com- 
panies strange scenes were sometimes enacted. Min- 
gled among the patriots there were often men dis- 
affected to the cause of freedom. Some of these men 
had been Regulators a few years before, and at the 
conclusion of that contest, terrible oaths had been im- 
posed upon them, which now entangled their con- 
sciences. When the Declaration of Independence had 
been made, and it was understood that they might 
soon be called to fight against the troops of England, 
the disaffected began to draw back, while the \\^higs 


were for moving forward. In the Company from the 
forks of the Yadkin one of these strange scenes was 
once enacted. Captain Bryan of that Company was 
disaffected, while the Heutenant, Richmond Pearson, 
was a \\'hig. On the muster, a dispute arose upon 
poHtical matters between these two officers, and the 
Company decided that this great national question 
should be decided by a fair fist-fight between the cap- 
tain and the lieutenant, and that the Company should 
go with the victor. The fight came off in due time and 
manner, and Lieutenant Pearson succeeded in giving 
Captain Bryan a sound thrashing. The Forks Com- 
pany after that became zealous Whigs, while the 
crowd from Dutchman's Creek followed Captain 
Bryan and became Tories. Captain Pearson with his 
Company took the field against Lord Cornwallis as he 
passed through North Carolina. They were present 
at Cowan's Ford on the first of February, 1781, when 
General Davidson fell. Captain Pearson was the 
grandfather of the Hon. Richmond 'M. Pearson, the 
distinguished Chief Justice of North Carolina for so 
many years. 

Captain Bryan became a confirmed loyalist, and was 
the notorious Colonel Bryan, who according to Dr. 
Caruthers, on the spur of the moment collected eight 
hundred Tories in the Forks of the Yadkin, and 
marched them off to Anson Courthouse to the British. 
While Colonel Fanning headed the Loyalists in the 
region of Deep River and the upper Cape Fear, and 
Colonels ^IcNeil, Ray, Graham, and McDougal did 
the same for the region of the lower Cape Fear and 


Pee Dee, and Col. Johnson Moore, with ]\Iajor Welch, 
and Captains Whitson and Murray, sustained the 
Loyalists' cause in Lincoln, Burke, and Rutherford 
Counties, Colonels Bryan and Hampton, and ]\Iajor 
Elrod were the Tory leaders of Rowan County. The 
chief field of their operations was the region called 
the Forks of the Yadkin. This was an extensive tract, 
lying between the main Yadkin and the South Fork, 
beginning at the junction of these two streams about 
five miles from SaHsbury, called "The Point,'' and 
extending from "The Point" northward and westward 
for a distance of forty or fifty miles. There Colonel 
Bryan ranged over plains and hills, through the 
Brushy Mountains, to the foothills of the Blue Ridge. 
He was connected with Colonel Fanning's troop only 
in a general way, and does not seem to have been, like 
him, a cruel and bloodthirsty man. In 1781, Colonel 
Bryan headed his troop of Loyalists in the partisan 
warfare in South Carolina. He was under Major 
Carden, at the military post established by Lord Raw- 
don, at Hanging Rock, in South Carolina, in 1781. 
Major William R. Davie, of North Carolina, with his 
cavalry troop and some ^Mecklenburg militia, under 
Colonel Higgins, hastened to attack this post at Hang- 
ing Rock. As he was approaching he learned that 
three Companies of Bryan's Loyalists were encamped 
at a farmhouse, on their return from a foraging ex- 
pedition. He immediately went in search of them, 
and soon made a vigorous attack upon them in front 
and rear, completely routing them, and killing or 
wounding all of them but a few. The spoils of this 


victory were sixty horses and one hundred muskets. 
Major Davie, though an EngHshman by birth, was a 
law student in Salisbury during the first years of the 
war. In 1779 he was elected Lieutenant in a troop 
of Horse raised in Mecklenburg and the Waxhaws, 
and was attached to Pulaski's legion. He soon rose to 
the rank of Major; but being wounded in the battle of 
Stono, below Charleston, he returned to Salisbury and 
resumed his studies. In the winter of 1780 he again 
raised a troop of cavalry, and in the absence of any 
statement to the contrary we would naturally infer 
that his Company was raised in Rowan County, es- 
pecially since Lieut. George Locke, of Rowan, was in 
it. It was with these troops, and the Alecklenburg 
militia, that he cut to pieces Colonel Bryan's Com- 
panies at Hanging Rock. It was thus that our people 
were arrayed against each other in this terrible strug- 
gle for liberty. 

Colonel Bryan was afterwards tried by the Courts of 
North Carolina for disloyalty to his country, but no 
act of inhumanity was proved against him, and no 
charge was made out except that of being in arms 
against his country. 

From the time that Lord Cornwallis left the lower 
Cape Fear, in the early part of 1775, until 1780, there 
were few if any British troops in North Carolina. 
But during all these four years the flower of the 
North Carolina soldiery were far from their homes — 
in the north under General Washington, or in the 
South under General Lincoln, Gates, or other National 
Commanders. Thus we read in history that the North 


Carolina Continentals and a brigade of militia under 
Gen. John Ashe were present at Charleston, June 8, 
1776, when Sir Peter Parker was beaten off from Fort 
Moultrie on Sullivan's Island. At the same time. Gen- 
eral Rutherford of Rowan, with Colonels Polk of 
Mecklenburg, and Martin of Guilford, marched nine- 
teen hundred men against the Indians in what is now 
Tennessee. Early in 1777 the North Carolina Con- 
tinentals went to the support of General A\'ashington 
in the North. The whole of the North Carolina Con- 
tinentals were with General Washington at the battle 
of Brandywine, September 11, 1777. North Carolin- 
ians were also at the battle of Princeton. At German- 
town also North Carolina troops made for themselves 
a glorious record, and on that fatal field was poured 
out some of the best blood of the State. There Gen. 
Francis Nash, of Orange County, brother of Gov. 
Abner Nash, commanded a brigade under General 
^\'ashington, and fell in battle. There too fell Col. 
Edward Buncombe and Colonel Irwin, besides a 
large number of subalterns and privates. In 1778 the 
North Carolina Continentals were found engaged in 
the battle of ]\Ionmouth. Shortly after this time all 
the North Carolina battaHons, except the third and 
fifth, were transferred under General Lincoln to 
Charleston, S. C. In 1779, we find two thousand 
North Carolina militia, under General Ashe, at the 
battle of Brier Creek, in Georgia. In consequence of 
the precipitation of General Lincoln in rushing un- 
trained militia upon dangerous ground, this affair of 
Brier Creek was a sad defeat. But immediately 


after this disaster, the North Carolina Assembly or- 
dered the enrollment of eight thousand new levies. 
These were placed under the command of Gen. Rich- 
ard Caswell. In the year 1779, General Lincoln's 
forces at Charleston consisted chiefly of six North 
Carolina battalions. These, by years of service, had 
become veterans. General Lincoln placed these bat- 
talions in the center, while Major William R. Davie 
with his mounted troops led on the right, at the bloody 
battle of Stono. And when, on the twelfth of ]May, 
1780, General Lincoln surrendered Charleston to Sir 
Henry Clinton, all the North Carolina Continentals 
and a thousand of her militia became prisoners of 
war. This was a terrible blow to North CaroHna, at 
this particular juncture. Lord CornwaUis at once 
assumed charge of the British forces and marched to- 
wards North Carolina, at the very time when her en- 
tire forces of trained soldiers were consigned to an 
enforced military inactivity. But to make matters 
worse, General Caswell, with a considerable portion of 
the North Carolina militia, became connected with 
General Gates' army, and on the fifteenth and six- 
teenth of August of the same year, sustained the dis- 
astrous defeat near Camden, S. C. General Ruther- 
ford with Colonels Lockhart and Geddy were among 
the captives. Alajor Davie with his small band of 
troopers still hovered around the \\'axhaws, while 
Gens. Jethro Sumner and William Davidson still kept 
the field with a few North Carolina militia on the bor- 


ders of the State. But even these were pressed back 
as far as Charlotte by the British forces. With one 
hundred and fifty cavalry, and fourteen volunteers 
under Major Graham, Colonel Davie gave Tarleton's 
legion a warm reception at Charlotte Courthouse. But 
they could not hold their ground against overwhelm- 
ing numbers. Retreating on the Salisbury Road, a 
skirmish occurred between Charlotte and Sugar 
Creek Church, at which Lieut. George Locke was slain. 
Lord Cornwallis did not remain long at Charlotte. So 
hostile were the people, and so much did bodies of 
armed men harrass his troops on their foraging ex- 
cursions, that Cornwallis bestowed upon that section 
the name of the ''Hornets' Xest," a name that every 
patriotic son of Mecklenburg cherishes as fondly as 
an EngHshman does the titles of knighthood, or the 
decorations of the Star and Garter. Colonel Tarle- 
ton says : ''It was evident, and had been frequently 
mentioned to the King's officers, that the Counties of 
Mecklenburg and Rohan (Rowan) were more hostile 
to England than any others in America. The vigilance 
and animosity of these surrounding districts checked 
the exertions of the well affected, and totally destroyed 
all communications between the King's troops and 
Loyalists in other parts of the Province. Xo British 
commander could obtain any information in that posi- 
tion which would facilitate his designs, or guide his 
future conduct." Steadman says that the only way 
they could secure their foraging parties from destruc- 


tion was for Lord Rawdon to take one-half of the 
army one day, and Colonel Webster the other half the 
next day, to protect them from the inhabitants. 

Owing to these causes, and further, to the destruc- 
tion of Ferguson at King's Mountain, on the seventh 
of October, Lord Cornwallis determined to return to 
South Carolina. 

Such was the condition of matters in North Carolina 
at the time when Lord Cornwallis re-entered the 
State, the twentieth of January, 1781. 

During this time the able-bodied men were either in 
the troops of Colonels Davie, Locke, or Gen. William 
Davidson, or were prisoners of war, or on parole, and 
therefore prevented from taking up arms. As a con- 
sequence the women of that day were left at home, 
often entirely unprotected, or with only the old men 
and the boys, the former too old, the latter too young, 
for military duty. But these ladies were the mothers, 
wives, daughters, sisters, and sweethearts of heroes 
on the tented field, and their hearts burned with 
patriotic feelings. Those whom they loved were ex- 
posed to hardship and danger in behalf of their homes 
and families, and thus the love of the patriots' cause 
was not with them an abstraction, or a sentiment, but 
an undying passion. As an illustration of this, we 
quote from Lossing's 'Tictorial Field Book (Vol. II, 
p. 626. note 2) : **On one occasion, the young ladies 
of Mecklenburg and Rowan entered into a pledge not 
to receive the attentions of young men who would not 


volunteer in defense of the country, they being of the 
opinion that such persons as stay loitering at home, 
when the important calls of the country demand their 
military services abroad, must certainly be destitute of 
that nobleness of sentiment, that brave and manly 
spirit, which would qualify them to be the defenders 
and guardians of the fair sex." (From South Caro- 
lina Gazette, February, 1780.) As early as May 8, 
1776, the young ladies of Rowan had taken important 
action upon this subject. At a meeting of the Com- 
mittee of Safety of that date, we have the following 
entry upon the Minutes, viz. : "A letter from a num- 
ber of young ladies in the county, directed to the 
chairman, requesting the approbation of the committee 
to a number of resolutions enclosed, entered into, and 
signed by the same young ladies, being read ; 

''Resohed, That this Committee present their cordial 
thanks to the said young ladies for so spirited a per- 
formance, look upon their resolutions to be sensible 
and polite ; that they merit the honor, and are worthy 
the imitation of every young lady in America." 

What a pity that we have not a copy of these spirited 
resolutions, and the names of the fair signers ! They 
were probably similar to those entered into by the 
Mecklenburg and Rowan ladies four years later, in- 
cluding perhaps a resolution in behalf of simplicity in 
dress, abstinence from luxuries, and sympathy with 
the cause of independence, not yet declared at Phila- 
delphia. And then the names! Who were they? 


Daughters of the Brandons, Lockes, Youngs, Cham- 
berses, Gillespies, Osbornes, Davidsons, Winslows, 
Simontons, Brevards, Sharpes, no doubt; but the 
dainty signatures to the "spirited performance" are 
lost, and the fair signers that signed them have mol- 
dered away. For is it not one hundred and four years 
since all this was done? A further illustration of 
matronly zeal and self-denial in behalf of the cause of 
liberty will be recited in its proper place. 



Lossing, in his ''Field Book," says that ''the village 
of Salisbury is the capital of Rowan County, a portion 
of the 'Hornets' Nest' of the Revolution. It is a 
place of considerable historic note. On account of 
its geographical position it was often the place for the 
rendezvous of the militia preparing for the battle- 
fields of various regular corps, American and British, 
during the last years of the war, and especially as the 
brief resting-place of both armies during Greene's 
memorable retreat" (Vol. II, p. 615). The writer is 
not aware that the British troops were ever in Salis- 
bury, except once, when Lord Cornwallis was in pur- 
suit of General Greene. Mr. Lossing seems to have 
been peculiarly unfortunate in his visit to Salisbury. 
He seems to have seen nothing there that had any his- 
toric interest, although the house occupied by Corn- 
wallis, as his headquarters, was still standing there 
(January, 1849), besides other buildings where the 
British officers congregated, as we shall see. He seems 
however to have heard of the famous Rowan "Natural 
Wall, " which he locates in Salisbury, and supposes to 
be "a part of the circumvallation of a city of the 
Mound Builders !" The fact is that about three miles 


from Salisbury, and again about nine miles from Salis- 
bury, in the direction of Mocksville, there are "trap 
dikes," or natural walls of trap rock, beneath the sur- 
face of the ground, from twelve to fourteen feet deep, 
and twenty-two inches thick, as Lossing says, that have 
the appearance of being laid in cement. But this 
cement is nothing but a fine decomposition of the trap 
rock itself, or an infiltration of fine material from 
without. Air. Lossing does however give us in his book 
a beautiful little moonlight sketch of Trading Ford, 
showing the point of the island, and the row of stakes 
that then stood there to guard the stranger from the 
deep water below. There General Greene, with Gen- 
eral Alorgan and his light troops, crossed the Yadkin, 
February 2, 1781. 

After the unfortunate battle of Camden, August 16, 
180, General Gates was superseded by General 
Greene, who immediately proceeded to his field of 
labor. Passing through Delaware, ^Maryland, and Vir- 
ginia, and ascertaining what suppHes he was Hkely to 
obtain from these States, he hastened on to Charlotte, 
the headquarters of the Southern Army, where he 
took formal command, December 3, 1780. Corn- 
wallis had fallen back to \\'innsboro. Greene divided 
his little army, sending the larger portion to the Pee 
Dee, near Cheraw, about seventy miles to the right of 
Lord Cornwallis. The other portion, consisting of 
about one thousand troops, he sent under General 
Morgan about fifty miles to the left of Cornwallis, to 
the junction of Broad and Pacolet Rivers, in Union 
District, S. C. General IMors^an with his little force 


gained the memorable battle of the Cowpens over 
Colonel Tarleton, January 17, 1781. Colonel Tarleton, 
with the remnant of his troops, retreated precipitately 
to the main army of Cornwallis, while General Morgan 
with his prisoners hastily crossed the Broad River, 
and pressed towards the Catawba, to effect a junction 
with General Greene. This brought on the famous 
retreat of Greene, a military maneuver that will not 
compare unfavorably with Xenophon's famous "Re- 
treat of the Ten Thousand." iMortified at the disaster 
that had befallen his favorite officer, Tarleton, and 
hoping to recover the prisoners carried away by Gen- 
eral Morgan, Cornwallis began his pursuit on the 
twenty-fifth of January. At Ramsour's Mill — Lin- 
colnton — he destroyed all his superfluous baggage, and 
hastened towards the Catawba River, hoping to over- 
take Morgan, encumbered as he was with prisoners, 
before he could effect a junction with General Greene's 
main army, supposed to be now hastening up from 
Cheraw. But we will probably get a clearer idea of 
this affair by following each party in succession, one 
at a time. 

On the same day that Cornwallis began his pursuit 
— January 25, 1781 — General Greene was apprised of 
IMorgan's victory at Cowpens, and ordered General 
Stevens, with his body of Virginia militia, whose term 
of service was almost expiring, to hasten to Charlotte, 
relieve Morgan of his prisoners, and convey them to 
Charlottesville, Va., while he himself left the camp on 
Pee Dee under Generals Huger and Williams, and 
hastened, with one aide and two or three mounted 


militia, to meet ^Morgan on the Catawba. On the route 
he was informed of the pursuit of Cornwallis, and im- 
mediately sent orders to General Huger to break up 
the camp on the Pee Dee and meet ^lorgan in Salis- 
bury or Charlotte. General Greene reached Sherrill's 
Ford on the Catawba, ten or fifteen miles above Beat- 
tie's Ford, on the thirty-first of January, meeting Gen- 
eral Morgan there, and taking charge of the future 
movements of his detachment. General Greene im- 
mediately placed the prisoners in the hands of Mor- 
gan's militia, to be carried to Virginia by a more 
northern route, while Morgan, with his five hundred 
regulars, was left unencumbered, and ordered to 
guard the Fords of the Catawba. On the same day 
General Greene issued a stirring appeal to Colonel 
Locke of Rowan, urging him to embody the militia 
and hasten to his assistance. But so many of the sol- 
diers of Rowan were prisoners of war at this time, 
and the Fords of the Catawba were so numerous, and 
the enemy so near, that very little could be done to 
stay their progress. Gen. \\'illiam Davidson suc- 
ceeded in collecting three hundred militia, and was 
posted at Cowan's Ford, a few miles below Beattie's 
Ford, while Morgan with his regulars was higher up 
the river. In order to create the impression that the 
British would cross at Beattie's Ford, Cornwallis sent 
Colonel A\'ebster with his brigade to that point, while 
he with the main body of his army decamped at mid- 
night, and hastened to Cowan's Ford, which he 
reached a little before dawn, February i, 1781. 
Plunging into the stream, nearly five hundred yards 


wide, and waist deep, the British soon reached the 
Mecklenburg shore, where they were received by Gen- 
eral Davidson and his three hundred militia with a 
galling fire. The guide having deserted the British 
at the first shot of the sentinel, they missed the ford, 
and came out a considerable distance above the place 
where General Davidson was stationed. Davidson at 
once led his men to that part of the bank which faced 
the British. But by the time of his arrival, the Hght 
infantry had reached the shore, and quickly forming, 
they soon dispersed the handful of patriots. General 
Davidson was the last to leave the ground, and as he 
was mounting his horse to make his escape, he re- 
ceived a mortal wound. Dr. Caruthers states that 
General Davidson was killed by a shot fired by Fred- 
erick Hager, a German Tory, who piloted the British 
across the river; but this statement does not agree 
with the generally accredited story, that the pilot de- 
serted at the sentinel's first fire. He was killed in Dr. 
Samuel E. McCorkle's great coat, which he had bor- 
rowed the day before. The Rev. Thomas H. Mc- 
Caule, another Presbyterian minister, with Col. Wil- 
liam Polk accompanied General Davidson to the river 
that morning. And when Cornwallis, after tarrying 
about three hours for the purpose of burying his dead, 
had proceeded in the direction of Salisbury, David 
Wilson and Richard Barry, both of whom were at the 
skirmish that morning, returned, and secured the body 
of General Davidson, and buried it in Hopewell 
churchyard that same night by torchlight. The Con- 
gress on the following September ordered a monu- 


ment, costing not more than five hundred dollars, to be 
erected to his memory, but the resolution was never 
carried out. But it is a pleasing fact that a half-cen- 
tury later there was established near that place an in- 
stitution of learning that was named Davidson College, 
after the brave and patriotic General. His son, Wil- 
liam Lee Davidson, Esq., was an early friend and pa- 
tron of the College, gave the lands upon which it is sit- 
uated to the trustees, and when leaving this State 
placed his father's trusty sword in the College. There 
it hangs today in the College Museum. 

From Cowan's Ford, the British pressed on and 
soon met Colonel \\'ebster's division, which had 
crossed at Beattie's Ford, at Torrence's Tavern ; which 
Lord Cornwallis in his general orders styles "Cross- 
roads to Salisbury/' and Tarleton in his map desig- 
nates as "Tarrant's." This place is about two miles 
above Davidson College, and within a quarter-mile 
from where "Center Depot, on the Atlantic, Ten- 
nessee, and Ohio Railroad, now stands. They burned 
the house of Mr. Torrence, of John Brevard, General 
Davidson's father-in-law, and set fire to Moses Win- 
slow's house ; but the fire was extinguished by order 
of Lord Cornwallis. At Torrence's Tavern, Colonel 
Tarleton with his light horse found about three hun- 
dred American militia, with a motley company of ref- 
ugees in their wagons, from South Carolina and else- 
where, fleeing for safety. Tarleton made an onslaught 
upon these, killed a few of the militia, less than ten, 
and scattered the refugees. He sustained a loss of 
seven men and twenty horses in this action. This 


was about two o'clock in the afternoon. From Corn- 
wallis* order book we learn that the British army en- 
camped at Torrence's that night, and began its march 
in pursuit of Greene at half-past five o'clock on the 
morning of the second of February. From Tarleton's 
map we learn that the route of the army was almost 
directly eastward for some fifteen or twenty miles, to 
a point which is called "Grimes," southeast of Salis- 
bury. This was probably Graham's plantation, on the 
west side of Grant's Creek, near "Wiseman's Mill." 
This was in the immediate neighborhood of General 
Rutherford's residence, among the Lockes, Grahams, 
Brandons, Nesbits, and Allisons. Lord Cornwallis 
designates his headquarters for that day "Canthard's 
Plantation." As the Registry of Deeds shows no such 
name as "Canthard," this is probably a mistake for 
some other name. And since the "Order Book," as 
well as Tarleton's map, is full of errors in the spelling 
of names, arising from the fact that their information 
as to localities was frequently derived from ignorant 
persons, the better class keeping out of the way — it is 
easy to see how a stranger in hot pursuit of an enemy 
would confound familiar names. Or perhaps the 
printer might easily misread a manuscript written in 
haste by a busy secretary. It is probable therefore 
that instead of "Canthards" we should read "Ruther- 
ford's Plantation." From "Wiseman's Mill," there 
may be seen at many places the deep-cut bed of an 
old road, crossing the County westward, and passing a 
little southward of Villa Franca, the residence of the 
late Dr. F. N. Lucky. This road probably led on past 


"Atwell's" old place, past General Kerr's, now Mr. 
Hedrick's residence, and so on past Spring Grove, 
Cross Keys, and on to Torrence's. This was once 
called the "Old Wilmington Road." Having left Tor- 
rence's at half-past five that morning, February 2, 
a march of fifteen or eighteen miles would bring them 
to "Rutherford's Plantation." Anyone acquainted 
with these roads in midwinter, after a hard day's rain,, 
will consider this a good half-day's march. 

General ]\Iorgan was ahead of them, and the Yad- 
kin was about fifteen miles from this post. There was 
therefore but a short rest, and they were on the march 
again. In a few miles they fell into the old "Trading 
Path," five or six miles south of Salisbury. And as 
darkness gathered around them, we conceive that they 
would be passing along that old "Pathway," then the 
Great South Road, somewhere about the western 
slopes of Dunn's ^Mountain, in haste to reach Trading 
Ford before ^Morgan should cross. Lord Cornwallis 
appears to have halted at a place which he styles 
"Camp Cassington," a fanciful name perhaps. This 
place may have been at a point about four miles east of 
Salisbury, between the residence of Dr. I. \\'. Jones 
and the railroad. We are led to this conjecture from 
the fact that there are quite a number of graves in the 
forest at that point, and none can account for their 
being there except on some such hypothesis. But while 
Cornwallis halted, he sent forward General O'Hara, 
Colonel Tarleton, and the Hessian Regiment of 
Bose, to the Trading Ford, hoping to find ^lorgan on 
the western bank. But the hope was a vain one. 


Morgan had crossed early in the evening, securing all 
the boats and flats on the eastern side. When there- 
fore O'Hara and Tarleton reached the Ford at mid- 
night, they found only a small detachment of Ameri- 
can riflemen, left there to guard some wagons and 
stores belonging to the frightened country people, who 
were fleeing from the British army. A slight skir- 
mish ensued, but the Americans escaped in the dark- 
ness. It was those who were killed at this skirmish, as 
well as some wounded ones that were brought from 
Cowan's Ford and Torrence's, that we suppose to 
have been buried at "Camp Cassington." 

During the night, the river, already swollen by re- 
cent rains, and always pretty deep in winter, arose to 
an impassable height, and cut off all hope of pursuing 
the American troops on that route. It was now the 
third of February, and the British troops, after can- 
nonading across the river from the "Heights of 
Gowerie," at the rear of the Americans, turned to re- 
trace their steps, and either wait till the river fell or 
seek another route. 

The following extract from the minutes of the 
Inferior Court of Rowan fixes these dates beyond 
dispute : 

"Be it remembered that the British army marched 
into Salisbury on Saturday, preceding the February 
term, 1781, and continued in town until Monday night 
or Tuesday morning following; therefore the Court 
was not called according to last adjournment. 


The minutes of this term were transcribed from ^Ir. 
Gifford's rough minutes." 

(Signed) "Adlai Osborne, C. C. C." 

A calculation, carefully made from the Court rec- 
ords, shows that the ''Saturday preceding the February 
term of 1781 fell on the third day of February, and 
coincides with the foregoing account of the march, as 
well as the 'Order Book' of Lord Cornwalhs. There 
has been some confusion of dates upon this point by 
various writers — Dr. Hunter, in his Sketches, bring- 
ing the British to Salisbury on the night of the first of 
February, and Lossing on the night of the second. The 
truth appears to be that the main army of the British 
passed near Salisbury on the evening of the second, 
and returned and occupied the town on Saturday, the 
third. It is however probable that a squadron of 
dragoons passed through the town on the second, 
where Tarleton says 'some emissaries informed him 
that Morgan was at the Trading Ford, but had not 
crossed the river.' " 



Having followed the track of the British army from 
the Catawba River to Salisbury, thus giving a con- 
tinuous narrative of their march, let us now return 
and trace the course of Generals Greene and Morgan 
over nearly the same ground. Unfortunately we have 
not in this case the benefit of journals, maps, and 
''order book," as before, but still we shall be able to 
ascertain some facts concerning this day's march. 

General Morgan crossed the Catawba River at the 
Island Ford, on the northern border of Lincoln 
County, on the twenty-eighth of January, 1781, only 
two hours ahead of the British vanguard, under 
Brigadier-General O'Hara. It was just at the hour of 
sunset when the British came to the banks of the 
broad stream, sweeping onward with its wintry cur- 
rent from the foot of the Blue Ridge. In the darkness 
there was danger in crossing the stream, especially 
with the courageous IMorgan and his army on the 
other side to receive them. But with a trained army 
of two thousand, unencumbered with baggage or 
prisoners, the British commander could confidently 
calculate upon overtaking the Americans, numbering 
only about one thousand in all, half of whom were 
militia, and embarrassed with the five hundred prison- 


ers lately captured at Cowpens. The passage of the 
Catawba was therefore postponed until the next morn- 
ing. That delay was the salvation of ^lorgan and his 
little army. During the night the rain fell in torrents, 
and by morning light the river was brimful and un- 
fordable, in which condition it remained for forty- 
eight hours. For two days the British were compelled 
to linger on the western banks, while ^Morgan and 
Greene were on the other side planning the details of 
the retreat. Sending the five hundred prisoners off, 
under the care of the five hundred militia, by a route 
higher up the country towards Mrginia, General ]\Ior- 
gan with his regulars seems to have remained on the 
east bank of the Catawba, watching the British, and 
prepared to dispute their passage. But when it was 
ascertained that they had crossed below him, at Cow- 
an's Ford, on the first of February, General ^lorgan 
began his retreat towards the Yadkin. xA.s he was 
higher up the river, we conjecture that his route was 
along one of the upper roads, either the Beattie's Ford 
or Sherrill's Ford Road to Salisbury. His forces ap- 
pear to have reached Salisbury late the same after- 
noon, and were not concerned in the skirmish at 
Cowan's Ford, or at Torrence's Tavern. There is a 
tradition in Salisbury that, as ^Morgan's troops filed 
past George Murr's house, at the east corner of Main 
and Franklin Streets, where Charles Gordon now 
lives, some of the men mischievously punched out 
some panes of glass with their bayonets. This must 
have been late in the afternoon, for Morgan's troops 
encamped that night about a half-mile east of Salis- 


bury, on the Yadkin Road. Xo doubt the prospect of 
a good night's rest, and a bountiful repast, developed 
in the bosoms of those veterans the exuberance of 
spirit that suggested the mischief. The encampment 
must have been in the grove where the residence of 
John S. Henderson, Esq., now is. There they would 
have the advantage of two or three excellent springs 
of water, abundance of fuel, while at the same time 
they would be near enough to the town for convenience 
of supplies, and directly on the line of march for an 
early start in the morning. 

It appears that Dr. Read, the surgeon of Morgan's 
army, with the hospital stores, and some wounded and 
disabled British officers, who were prisoners, had 
reached Salisbury some time in advance of the troops. 
He was stopping at the tavern of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Steele. This tavern was on the northwest side of 
Main Street, between the old courthouse and the cor- 
ner where the present courthouse now stands, proba- 
bly at the corner of Main and Liberty Streets, ad- 
jacent to the present courthouse corner. Dr. Read 
was sitting in the apartment overlooking :\Iain Street, 
engaged in writing paroles for such British officers as 
were unable from sickness or debility to proceed fur- 
ther, w^hen he saw riding up to the door General 
Greene, unaccompanied by his aides or by any person 
whatsoever, and looking quite forlorn. 

''How do you find yourself, my good General?'* 
eagerly inquired Dr. Read. 

"Wretched beyond measure — without a friend — 
without money — and destitute even of a companion," 


replied Greene, as he slowly dismounted from his 
jaded horse. The General had dispatched his aides to 
different parts of his retreating army and had ridden 
through the rain and mud of Rowan winter roads, over 
thirty miles in a direct line, not allowing for excursions 
to the right and left, during this exciting day. Be- 
sides this, he had for themes of sad meditation the two 
disastrous skirmishes of the day, and apprehensions of 
the near approach of Colonel Tarleton and his light 
dragoons. This condition was truly a discouraging 
one. But help was nearer than he imagined. ^Irs. 
Steele, the patriotic and kind - hearted hostess, had 
overheard his desponding remarks upon alighting, and 
determined that he should obtain such relief as she 
was able to afford. 

In due time a bountiful repast was spread before 
her distinguished guest, while a cheerful fire crackled 
on the hearth and shed its genial warmth throughout 
the room. A"\'hile General Greene was sitting at the 
table, and the discouragement engendered by hunger, 
fatigue, and cold was disappearing before the comfort- 
ing influences of his environment, ^Irs. Steele ap- 
proached him, and reminding him of the desponding 
words he had uttered upon his arrival, assured him of 
her sympathy and friendship. Then drawing two 
small bags of specie from under her apron she pre- 
sented them to him, saying gracefully: "Take these, 
for you will want them, and I can do without them." 
Mrs. Steele was not poor, as the remarks of some 
writers upon this subject would lead us to infer, and 
perhaps could have filled his pockets with "proclama- 



tion money," worth less than Confederate notes were 
in the beginning of 1865. But silver and gold were 
scarce in those days, and no American officer or gentle- 
man would have complained of the burden of carrying 
it along with him. The General accepted this timely 
gift with gratitude, and doubtless it was all the more 
welcome because accompanied by graceful words of 
kindness and encouragement. The hero's heart was 
lightened by this opportune kindness, and after a few 
hours of rest he went forth to superintend and direct 
the retreat of his little army, and provide for their 
transportation across the Yadkin. 

Just before the departure from Salisbury, General 
Greene left a memorial of his visit of a peculiar kind. 
His eye caught sight of a portrait of George III. hang- 
ing on the walls of the room. This portrait had been 
presented to a connection of Mrs. Steele by a friend 
in the Court of England, some years before. The 
sight of this picture recalled to the mind of the General 
the sufferings which at that moment his countrymen 
were enduring, and the blood that had been shed in the 
struggle to throw off the shackles of slavery which the 
English king and Parliament were trying to fasten 
upon the American people. In a moment he took 
down the picture, and with a piece of chalk wrote on 
the back of it; "O George! hide thy face and moume." 
He then replaced it, with the face to the wall, and 
mounting his horse rode away. The picture, with the 
writing still visible, is the property of the family of 
the late Archibald Henderson, Esq., of Salisbury, a 
descendant of Mrs. Steele; but it has not been in pos- 


session of the family for many years. When Dr. 
Foote wrote his Sketches of North CaroHna, in 1846, 
it was in the postoffice at Charlotte. When Colonel 
Wheeler published his History of North Carohna, in 
185 1, it was in the possession of Governor Swain, the 
president of the University, at Chapel Hill. It is 
thought to be now in the hands of the widow of Gov- 
ernor Swain, in Raleigh. 

Mrs. Steele's first husband was Robert Gillespie, 
who in partnership with Thomas Bashford purchased 
a large number of lots in Salisbury, about 1757, and 
among them the lot on which they carried on a village 
inn, the same that was afterwards owned and occupied 
by Mrs. Steele. Mr. and Mrs. Gillespie had two chil- 
dren. One of these was a daughter, named Margaret, 
who became the wife of the Rev. Samuel Eusebius 
McCorkle, D. D., so long the pastor of Thyatira 
Church, and principal of the ''Zion Parnassus 
Academy," where he educated so many men during the 
closing years of the last century. The other child was 
a son, named Richard Gillespie, who was a captain in 
the Revolutionary War, and died unmarried. He was 
of a peculiarly bold and defiant spirit, and when the 
British entered Salisbury he rode in sight of them, 
waving his sword towards them in a menacing manner. 
As he had but one companion, "Blind Daniel," so called 
from having lost one eye, a kind of hanger - on in 
Salisbury, of course he did not remain to carry out 
his menaces. After the death of Mr. Gillespie, his 
widow married Mr. William Steele of Salisbury, by 
whom she had an only son, the distinguished General 


John Steele, who was an ornament to his native town, 
and to his whole country. His services were rendered 
at a later day. 

During the day of the second of February, Generals 
Greene and Morgan proceeded to the river, at Trading 
Ford, and succeeded in crossing that stream, and 
securing all the flats and boats that had been used in 
carrying over the baggage and infantry on the other 
side. About midnight, as before related, General 
O'Hara, with the vanguard of the British army, 
reached the river, and had a slight skirmish with the 
detachment left behind to guard some refugees with 
their wagons and household stuff. But Morgan's 
cavalry had forded the stream long before, and his 
infantry had passed over in a batteau. Another 
copious rain in the mountains had swollen the Yadkin 
to a mighty river, and the British commander, like a 
lion robbed of its prey, stood chafing on the western 
bank of the stream. From the Heights of Gowerie — 
generally known as the "Torrence Place" — the British, 
with their field glasses, could sweep their vision far 
over the famed ''J^i'sey Settlement," with its rich 
lands and substantial farmhouses. The Torrences, 
the ]\Iacnamaras, the Smiths, the Pottses, and other 
prominent families dwelt in that region. General 
Greene himself seemed in no hurry to leave that re- 
gion. From this height the British opened a furious 
cannonade across the river. Dr. Read, the x\merican 
surgeon, before mentioned, has left this record of the 
scene, as given in Colonel Wheeler's History. ''At a 
little distance from the river was a small cabin in 


which General Greene had taken up his quarters. At 
this the enemy directed their fire, and the balls re- 
bounded from the rocks in the rear of it. But little of 
the roof was visible to the enemy. The General was 
preparing his orders for the army and his dispatches 
to the Congress. In a short time the balls began to 
strike the roof, and the clapboards were flying in all 
directions. But the General's pen never stopped, only 
when a new visitor arrived, or some officer for orders ; 
and then the answer was given with calmness and 
precision, and Greene resumed his pen." This cabin 
stood about two hundred yards east of Holtsburg 
depot, and a rod or two to the north of the county 
road, at the foot of the hill. 

The reader will recollect that it was a part of 
Greene's original plan that the larger part of his army, 
which he had stationed at Cheraw, should hasten to 
join Morgan's division at Charlotte or Salisbury. But 
the rapidity of their movements effectually prevented 
the accomplishment of this purpose. Instead of meet- 
ing Morgan's division. General Huger marched up on 
the eastern side of the Pee Dee, past the Grassy Is- 
lands, through Richmond, ^Montgomery, and Randolph 
Counties, to meet General Greene at ^lartinville, or 
Guilford Courthouse, where he arrived on the evening 
of the seventh of February. 

From Trading Ford, General Greene moved on to 
Abbott's Creek meeting - house, still in Old Rowan, 
and halted for two or three days to rest his troops and 
await further developments. During his stay there he 
made his headquarters at the house of Colonel 


Spurgen, a Tory, who of course was not at home to 
receive him. But his wife, Mary Spurgen, was as 
true a Whig as her husband was a Tory, and Hke Mrs. 
Steele in SaHsbury she show^ed him all the kindness in 
her power. While staying there he was naturally 
anxious to know whether the British were still in Salis- 
bury, or w^hether they were moving up the river. In 
this state of perplexity, he inquired of Mrs. Spurgen 
whether she knew anyone whom he could trust to send 
back to the river for information. Mrs. Spurgen 
promptly recommended her son John, a mere youth, 
as perfectly trustworthy. After convincing himself 
that this was the best he could do, he mounted John 
on his own horse, directing him to go to Trading Ford, 
and if he could not hear of the British to go up the 
river until he could gain information. John went, 
and hearing nothing at the Ford went several miles up 
the river. Still hearing nothing he returned home and 
reported. Greene started him off again, and told him, 
that he must go as far up as Shallow Ford, if he could 
hear nothing before that time. John took the road 
again, and actually w^ent as far as Shallow Ford, some 
thirty miles from home, where he saw the British 
crossing the river. Hastening home with all speed he 
reported his discovery to the General. Instantly Greene 
ordered his horse and was off for ]\Iartinville, where 
he met General Huger and the eastern division of his 
army, as mentioned above, on the evening of the 
seventh of February. 



General Greene having escaped across the Yadkin, 
Lord Cornwallis with the main body of his troops re- 
turned to SaHsbury and remained at that place two 
days. They reached the town on Saturday and con- 
tinued there until Monday night or Tuesday morning. 
Monday was the time for opening the sessions of the 
Quarterly Inferior Court, but as may well be supposed, 
the magistrates who presided, being ardent Whigs, had 
no disposition to place themselves in the hands of the 
British. Adlai Osborne, the clerk, was absent in the 
Patriot army, and had been for some time, Mr. Gif- 
ford acting as deputy clerk, and taking notes of pro- 
ceedings which were afterwards written up by Mr. 

There still remain among our people several tradi- 
tions of the period of British occupation, which though 
trivial in themselves, are yet of interest to the citizens 
of Salisbury and vicinity. Let it then be understood 
that the greater part of this chapter is founded upon 
local tradition; but so direct and constant is that 
tradition, that it is thought to be entirely trustworthy 
in its main features. 

Upon entering the town Lord Cornwallis took up his 
headquarters at the house of Maxwell Chambers, a 


prominent and wealthy Whig, a merchant of Salisbury, 
a former member of the Rowan Committee of Safety, 
and its treasurer. After the war, Maxwell Chambers 
moved to Spring Hill, about three miles east of Salis- 
bury. His eldest son was named Edward Chambers, 
who was the next owner of "Spring Hill." The late 
William Chambers, whose monument stands near the 
wall in the Lutheran graveyard, was the son and heir 
of Edward Chambers. During the Revolution, Max- 
well Chambers lived on the west corner of Church 
and Bank Streets — the corner now occupied by the 
stately and substantial mansion of S. H. Wiley, Esq. 
The house of ]\Ir. Chambers used by the British Com- 
mander remained standing until about ten years ago, 
and its old-fashioned and quaint appearance is familiar 
to everyone whose recollection can run back ten or 
twelve years. It is surprising that none was found 
to show Mr. Lossing, in 1749, this relic of the Revolu- 
tion. During these two days of occupation the British 
buried some soldiers on the spot known as the "English 
Graveyard," and from this circumstance it is said to 
have derived its name. But it was a burying-place 
before that time. Near the center of it, leaning against 
a tree, there is an ancient headstone of some dark ma- 
terial, that says that Capt. Daniel Little, who died in 
1775, lies buried there. It is more probable that it was 
called the "English" in distinction from the "Luth- 
eran" or "German" graveyard, on the eastern side of 
town. Colonel Tarleton stopped at John Louis Beard's, 
in the eastern part of town, the north corner of Main 
and Franklin Streets. Mr. Beard, being a well-known 


Whig, was absent in the army at the time, and so the 
entertaining devolved upon Airs. Beard. But Colonel 
Tarleton, it seems, was perfectly able to take care of 
himself, and made himself quite at home. When he 
wanted milk he ordered old Dick — the negro servant — 
to fetch the cows and milk them. Mrs. Beard had a 
cross child at the time, whose crying was a great an- 
noyance to the dashing colonel. Upon one occasion 
his anger overleaped the bounds of gentlemanly 
courtesy, and he ordered the child to be choked to stop 
its crying. Airs. Beard was very much afraid of him, 
and we may well suppose that she did all she could 
to please him. 

It is said that Lord Rawdon put up at the residence 
of Thomas Frohock, at his place called "The Castle," 
about two miles northwest of SaHsbury, on the hill 
just east of Frohock's (afterwards Macay's) pond; 
and that he had charge of Frohock's mill upon that 
occasion. The writer has looked in vain, in the his- 
tory of the campaign, for the name of Lord Rawdon. 
He was present in Charlotte the previous summer, and 
fell back with Cornwallis to \\'innsboro in the fall. 
But neither the histories, nor the "General Order 
Book," mention his name in this pursuit of Greene. 
Still the grandmother of Miss Christine Beard, one 
of our oldest citizens, whose memory is stored with 
these ancient traditions, and is never at fault, was 
often heard to state that Rawdon was at Frohock's. 
Mrs. Eleanor Faust, the lady in question, was the 
daughter of John Dunn, Esq., and her memory was 
excellent. The same statement was also made by 


Mrs. Giles, the sister of Mrs. Faust, who was a tem- 
porary inmate of Frohock's family at the time. On 
the other hand, we learn from Lossing and other his- 
torians that Lord Rawdon was left in command of the 
Southern Division of the Royal army, with head- 
quarters at Camden, when Comwallis marched into 
North Carolina. And there General Greene found 
him when he marched into South Carolina after the 
battle of Guilford Courthouse, and engaged in the 
unfortunate battle of Hobkirk's Hill, on the twenty- 
fifth of April, 1 781. The only solution of the apparent 
contradiction between tradition and history is that 
Lord Rawdon may have proceeded with Lord Corn- 
wallis as far as Salisbury, and then returned to his 
field of operations in the South after Greene had been 
extricated from their grasp by the rise of the Yadkin 

Another distinguished personage was along with 
Lord Cornwallis in Salisbury, though we hear little of 
him. This was no less a personage than Josiah Mar- 
tin, the last Royal Governor of North Carolina. The 
day after the British crossed at Cowan's Ford, an 
elegant beaver hat, made after the fashion of the day, 
and marked in the inside, "The property of Josiah 
Martin, Governor," was found floating on the Catawba 
River about ten miles below Cowan's Ford. In his 
dispatches after the battle of Guilford Courthouse, 
Cornwallis reports that Governor Martin had accom- 
panied him in his campaign through North Carolina, 
cheerfully bearing all the hardships of camp life, 
hoping by his presence to aid in the work of restoring 


the Royal authority in the State. Though he was 
along with the troops, he does not appear conspicuous. 
"Inter arma leges silent" is an old maxim, and the 
powerless governor was completely overshadowed by 
the plumed and epauletted chiefs of the march and of 
the battlefield. Had he not lost his hat in the Catawba, 
and had not Cornwallis kindly mentioned his name in 
his dispatches, we would have been entirely ignorant 
of his last visit to Salisbury. We do not know where 
he "put up" while in town. At the northeast corner of 
Innes and Church Streets, now the property of Mr. 
Philip P. IMeroney, stood the law office of John Dunn, 
Esq., and in the same yard, a little back of it, was the 
residence of his daughter, Mrs. Eleanor Faust. These 
premises were occupied as the headquarters of the 
British commissary department. The encampment of 
the army was two or three hundred yards to the north 
of the courthouse, somewhere in the neighborhood of 
the English graveyard, perhaps on the line of Fulton 
Street, not far from the present residence of Dr. 
Whitehead and that of the Hon. F. E. Shober. The 
commissary headquarters would thus be between the 
camp and center of town. It is related that Mrs. 
Faust owned a favorite calf that grazed in the yard, 
w^hich the commissary took a fancy to, and tried to 
purchase for Lord Cornwallis' own table. But Mrs. 
Faust refused to sell upon any terms. The commis- 
sary thereupon proceeded to "impress" the calf, and 
after killing it he laid down a piece of gold before 
Mrs. Faust as pay. Irritated and indignant, she 
pushed away the money, and left his presence. 


During the stay of the British, Mrs. Faust lost a 
child, that died of smallpox. As all things were in 
confusion, and none could be hired to perform such 
services, her father, John Dunn, took the coffin upon 
his horse, and interred the body at the family burying- 
ground, three miles south of Salisbury. 

Dr. Anthony Newnan, familiarly called Dr. 
Anthony, was then a citizen of Salisbury. He lived 
in the house that still stands on the southeast side of 
Main Street, next to "Cowan's brick row." The 
building is now occupied as a harness and boot and 
shoe shop, and is very old and dilapidated. It has 
undergone many changes, but is still substantially the 
same. Parts of the old heavy molding and the 
wainscot and paneling are still to be seen, as well as 
the hard oaken cornerposts and studding, and the 
weatherboarding fastened with home - wrought iron 
nails. It is reported that the builder of this house 
got drunk, and rolled from the roof of the piazza into 
the street and was thereby killed. At all events Dr. 
•Newnan, a good Whig, lived in this house, and enter- 
tained some of the British officers. One day while 
Colonel Tarleton and some other British officers were 
enjoying the hospitality of Dr. Xewnan, the Doctor's 
two little boys were engaged in playing a game with 
white and red grains of corn, perhaps after the style 
of "Fox and Geese," or ''Cross the Crown." Having 
heard much talk in the past five days of the battle of 
Cowpens, the British, Colonel Tarleton, and Colonel 
Washington, it occurred to the boys to name their 
white and red grains of corn Americans and British, 


with Washington and Tarleton as leaders, and "play" 
the battle of Cowpens. All at once, and forgetful of 
Tarleton's presence, one of the boys shouted out 
''Hurrah for Washington! Tarleton is running! Hur- 
rah for \\'ashington!" The fiery Tarleton looked on 
awhile in silence, but his temper was too hot to restrain 
him from uttering a curse against the rebel boys. 

Dr. Xewnan married a daughter of Hugh ^Mont- 
gomery, a wealthy citizen, who owned much property 
in lands and cattle in Wilkes County. ^Montgomery 
lived in the old ''Yarboro House," then standing upon 
the site of :\Ieroney's Hall, but now rolled back and 
standing in the rear of it, and occupied as a hotel for 
colored people. Montgomery was the ancestor of the 
Stokeses and \\^elborns of Wilkes County. Dr. John 
Newnan was the son of Dr. Anthony Xewnan, and 
lived on the lot now occupied as the residence of Dr. 
Julius A. Caldwell. The burying-ground of the Xew- 
nans may still be seen on the lot in the rear of ]\Ir. 
Alexander Parker's residence, not far from the rail- 
road depot. Quite a number of old and prominent 
citizens of SaHsbury He buried just behind Meroney's 
Hall, under and around the colored hotel. t 

Incidents at the Stone House 
About three miles southeast of Salisbury, and near 
the supposed line of the old ''Trading Path," stands 
a remarkable rehc of the early settlement of Rowan. 
It is known far and wide as the "Old Stone House." 
A smooth stone tablet over the front door tells the 
visitor that Michael Braun (Brown), erected this 


house in 1766. It is built of native, unhewn, but 
rather well-shaped blocks of granite, laid in cement so 
durable that it still stands in ridges between the stones. 
The lower story was pretty well finished with plaster, 
and contained five rooms. At one end of the house 
there is a double chimney, with fireplaces in corners 
of two rooms. At the other end there is a huge chim- 
ney facing outwards, and around which is built a 
wooden kitchen. This kitchen chimney is eight feet 
in the clear, and four feet deep. Michael Braun not 
only provided a solid house to live in, but he had en- 
larged ideas of cooking facilities, and no doubt many 
a big dinner was cooked there in the olden time. But 
the most curious part of the arrangements was a won- 
derful firebox or stove in the east room, that was fed 
through an opening in the back of the kitchen chim- 
ney. The plates of this ancient firebox or stove, are 
still lying there, massive and highly ornamented with 
curious figures, circular, oval, and diamond shaped, 
with flower vases filled with lillies and lanceolate 
leaves. On one plate is this inscription : 



Another plate contains the following : 




It appears that George Ross and ]\Iary Ann's ''Com- 
banni" (Company), wherever it was located, had 


some original methods of spelling, and "^lary Ann" 
had practical ideas about woman's rights, and has suc- 
ceeded in transmitting her own name along with 
George's to posterity. 

The north side of the building, it is said, is covered 
with the original cypress shingles put there in 1766. 
They are decayed in some places, but generally 
covered with lichen and moss, and have turned the 
rains and upheld the snows of one hundred and four- 
teen summers and winters. 

It is conjectured that the main body of the British 
army passed by this stone house on the evening of the 
second of February, 1781, on their march to the Trad- 
ing Ford. It has been constantly reported that on that 
occasion, an American officer, who was probably on a 
reconnoitering expedition, was nearly overtaken by 
British dragoons near this house. He turned and 
fled for life. As the party came thundering down the 
hill the American rode full tilt into the front door of 
this house, leaped his horse from the back door, and so 
escaped down the branch bottom and through the 
thickets, towards Salisbury. 

Another local tradition tells of a furious hand-to- 
hand encounter between an American and a British 
soldier in the front door of the stone house. The deep 
gashes of the swords are still shown in the old walnut 
doorposts. There can be little doubt that some such 
conflict took place there. It is true that the cuts and 
gashes might have been made with any other kind of 
instrument. But the descendants of Michael Braun 
still live there, and they, as well as the neighbors, still 


tell the tale as they heard it from their forefathers, 
substantially as above written. 

In a little graveyard, walled in with stones, a few 
hundred yards from the stone house, lie the remains 
of Michael Braun, and his wife, with quite a number 
of his descendants. The following is the inscription 
on a plain old-fashioned headstone, dedicated to the 
memory of the wife and mother. 







3 D. ALT 37 JAHR 2 MO. 

The above inscription is in the dialect known in 
North Carolina as ''Pennsylvania Dutch." The fol- 
lowing is perhaps a good translation of the epitaph : 

1 77 1, Died July 20 

Here lies the body of ^Margaret Braun, ]\Iichael 
Braun's wedded wife. She had nine children, six 
sons and three daughters. Aged thirty-seven years 
and two months. 

As Michael Braun had an extensive family, and his 
descendants in this and adjoining counties are numer- 
ous, the reader may not object to see an account of 
this family as far as known. 


Michael Braun was married several times, and the 
following is a list of his children so far as known. 
In the absence of complete records we depend to a 
large extent upon the memory of one who knew per- 
sonally most of the individuals named. It is not 
postively certain that the sons of ]\Iichael Braun are 
mentioned in the order of seniority. They were named 
John. Peter, ^Moses, James, and Jeremiah. 

1. John, the eldest, for some reason or other, was 
called ''Continental John," probably because he served 
in the Continental army during the Revolution. He 
was the father of the late ]\Irs. Jacob Myers of Salis- 

2. Peter married Miss Susanna Bruner, a daughter 
of Mr. George Bruner, who lived at the place which is 
the present residence of Dr. Albert Powe, now known 
as the 'Towe Place/' formerly called the "Bruner 
Place." This couple were blessed with a number of 
children. Their daughter Elizabeth married Thos. 
L. Cowan of Salisbury, and was the mother of the late 
Airs. Charlotte Jenkins and Mrs. Mary Hall. Mary, 
another daughter, married Barny Bowers. Susan 
married a Mr. Thompson, of Randolph. Margaret 
married Joseph Chambers, of Iredell County, and was 
the mother of Alajor P. B. Chambers, now of States- 
ville. Sally married Dr. Satterwhite. 

Besides these daughters, Peter and Susanna Brown 
had two sons, the late Michael and George Brown, of 
Salisbury. These two sons married daughters of 
Alexander Long, of Yadkin Ferry, and sisters of the 
late Dr. Alexander Long, of Salisbury. 


Peter Brown first settled about two miles east of 
Salisbury, but soon moved into town. He purchased 
the building on the west corner of Main and Innes 
Streets, where he carried on a store for many years. 
The place was occupied by his son, Michael Brown, 
after him, until about i860. The place is commonly 
known as McNeely's corner, and is now occupied by 
the firm of Ross & Greenfield. 

3. Moses, the third son in the above list, was bom 
February 24, 1773, and married Catherine Swink. 
The oldest son of Moses and Catherine Brown was 
named Michael S., and was born December 28, 1797. 
He lived near his birthplace, and left a large family. 
He died November 28, 1849. 

A second son was the late Moses (L.) Brown of 
Salisbury, who lived where Martin Richwine now 
lives, and his daughters, Mrs. Richwine and Mrs. 
Johnston are residents of Salisbury. 

A third son of Moses (son of Michael Braun) was 
the late Peter (M.) Brown, of Charlotte. Peter (M.) 
Brown was first married to Elizabeth Pool, of Salis- 
bury, by whom he had two children, John L. Brown, 
Esq., of Charlotte, and Margaret C. Brown, who was 
married to Dr. John R. Dillard, of Virginia. John L. 
Brown, of Charlotte, married Miss Nancy I, daughter 
of the late Jennings B. Kerr, of Charlotte, and has 
represented his County — Mecklenburg — three sessions 
in the Legislature; each time being elected almost 
unanimously. Moses Brown (son of Michael) had 
also another son, Alfred Brown, who settled in Con- 
cord; and two daughters, Sophia and Sally. 


4. The fourth son of Michael Braun, of the "Stone 
House," was named James. He continued to live in 
the old neighborhood, and his descendants are found 
scattered around the place of their nativity. 

5. Another, the youngest son of Michael Braun, of 
the "Stone House," was Jeremiah. He married the 
widow of Tobias Furr. Mrs. Furr was the mother of 
three children by her first marriage — Mary Furr, who 
married John Murphy; Elizabeth Furr, who married 
Samuel Lemly; and Louisa Furr, who married 
William H. Horah, all of Salisbury. By her marriage 
with Jeremiah Brown she had also three children — 
Margaret, who married Thomas Dickson ; Delia, who 
married John Coughenour; and the late Col. Jeremiah 
M. Brown, whose widow and children still live in 

6. The last wife of Michael Braun of the ''Stone 
House" was Mrs. Eleanora Reeves. Mrs. Reeves was 
a Maryland lady, named Wakefield, and was first mar- 
ried to William Reeves, when quite young, by whom 
she had four children — Thomas, Samuel, Sally, and 
Nancy. Samuel was the late Samuel Reeves, the 
father of Dr. Samuel Reeves and of Mrs. Sarah 
Johnston. Nancy Reeves married a Mr. Kiestler, and 
was the mother of Mrs. Jane Price, and the grand- 
mother of Robert W^akefield Price and others, now of 

By her marriage with Michael Braun, Mrs. Reeves 
had one child, Clementine, who was married to Charles 
Verble. Their daughter Eleanora is the wife of Mr. 
Thomas E. Brown, and mother of Lewis V. Brown 


of Texas, and Frank Brown of Salisbury. Of the 
daughters of Michael Braun the writer has no knowl- 
edge, nor has it been thought fit to extend the notice of 
other descendants to a later period. It is perhaps 
necessary to remark in closing this notice that the 
German word "Braun" signifies dark or brown, and 
that it was pronounced in German exactly as our En- 
glish word, ''brown." Old ^Michael's descendants 
therefore discarded the German spelling and signed 
themselves ''Brown." 

Dunn's Graves 

On the north side of the Stone House farm, and ad- 
joining it, were John Dunn's country farm and resi- 
dence. The house was built of wood and has long 
since disappeared, but a depression in the ground still 
marks the spot where the old lawyer's cellars once ex- 
isted. Not far from this spot there is a small cluster 
of graves, known in the neighborhood as "Dunn's 
Graves." The plow of the farmer has gone over the 
spot, the wheat and the corn have grown rankly over 
it, and the eye of the stranger would never detect the 
place. But aged citizens, who may not linger long 
to hand down the tradition, are still able to point out 
with precision the spot where their fathers said John 
Dunn is sleeping his last sleep, side by side with some 
of his own race and kindred. As a general guide to 
the locality, it may be stated that the spot is a short dis- 
tance — say a half-mile — from ]\Ir. Asa Ribelin's house, 
in the direction of Salisbury. It is a pity that so many 
of these country burial-grounds are allowed to fall into 


decay, to pass into the hands of strangers, leaving no 
trace of the spot where the pioneers of this land are 
laid in their last resting-place. 

Capt. Alexander Shannon 

was an officer in General Greene's army, who lost his 
life in Salisbury in 1781. He was engaged in some 
unrecorded skirmish, or reconnoitering expedition, 
somewhere on the slope of the hill now covered by the 
South Ward of Salisbury, where he was slain by the 
British. Twenty years ago some of the older citizens 
could remember, in one of our cemeteries, a headstone, 
marked with his name. But it has either fallen down, 
been removed, or sunk beneath the turf. Captain 
Shannon was from Guilford County, a brave soldier 
and a true patriot. He was the grand-uncle of our 
fellow-townsman, S. H. Wiley, Esq. 

Joseph Hughes and Col. David Fanning 

Colonel Fanning, the notorious Tory marauder, 
who kept Randolph, Orange, and Moore Counties in 
terror for several years, is said to have paid SaHsbury 
at least one visit during the war. The reader of North 
Carolina annals will remember his atrocious murder of 
Col. Andrew Balfour, of Randolph County, on the 
ninth of March, 1782. About that time, an EngHsh- 
man by the name of Joseph Hughes was keeping a vil- 
lage inn, at the place afterwards known as "Slaughter's 
Hotel," in Salisbury. This place was afterwards known 
as the "Robard's Hotel," and the place is now occupied 
as a residence by Mr. Theo. F. Kluttz. Having heard 


that Fanning was crossing the Yadkin, somewhere 
about the Island Ford, and having lost an arm, and 
being thereby disabled from fighting, Hughes deter- 
mined to save himself and family by a stratagem. 
Accordingly he rolled some barrels of whiskey into 
the street in front of his inn, knocked the heads out, 
and placed a number of tin cups conveniently around. 
The bait took, and Fanning's myrmidons got beastly 
drunk, and so were disabled from doing the mischief 
they intended to do. Hughes seized the opportunity 
to escape through the thickets and brushwood in the 
rear of his house. It is not known that these desper- 
adoes did any serious mischief in the town. Joseph 
Hughes left one son, Hudson Hughes, who married 
the daughter of Col. Andrew Balfour. The daughter 
of this couple, Mary, became the wife of Samuel 
Reeves, Esq., and the mother of the late Dr. Samuel 
Reeves, and of Mrs. Sarah Johnston, now of Cin- 

The Oldest Tree 

Before quitting this ramble among the antiquities of 
Salisbury and vicinity, it may not be uninteresting to 
call attention to the "oldest inhabitant" of Salisbury, 
in the shape of a venerable sassafras tree — the "Big 
Sassafras" of John Beard. It stands very near the 
embankment of the W^estern North Carolina Railroad, 
just after leaving the Company's workshops, on the 
town side of the embankment, on the same square on 
which Mr. Charles Gordon's house is located. A re- 
cent measurement of the tree, two feet from the 


ground, makes it fourteen feet two inches in circum- 
ference — nearly five feet in diameter. It was standing 
there in 1806, and seemed then almost as large in the 
body, and much larger in the crown than at present. 
At that day John Beard had extensive orchards all 
around in the neigborhood, and he chose the sassafras 
as the fulcrum of a cider press. It was on the hill- 
slope of a beautiful meadow, and just above a crystal 
spring. Here on the green grass lay heaps of blushing 
apples, which were crushed and pressed beneath the 
powerful lever until the golden-colored cider gushed 
out in great streams. The children from the whole 
settlement — for Salisbury was then a mere village, and 
most of its families connected with each other — 
gathered in the grassy valley, and drank to their 
heart's content of the beverage, so sweet to their sim- 
ple tastes. That was three-fourths of a century ago. 
Nearly all the children that played there then have 
passed away, while the old tree still stands, with trunk 
decaying, but leaves glossy and aromatic as in early 
days. How old is it ? Everyone who knows the slow 
growth of that species of tree, will think that it would 
require more than a hundred years to attain such a 
size. It is probably two hundred years old, or more, 
and began its growth long before the first white settler 
pitched his tent or built his cabin between the Yadkin 
and the Catawba. Long may it stand ! 

"Woodman ! spare that tree, 
Touch not a single bough; 
In youth it sheltered me. 
And I'll protect it now," 

232 history of rowan county 

Lord Cornwallis Departs 

But it is time to return from these sketches, that 
have Httle or no connection with the occupation of the 
British army, to the departure of Lord CornwaUis. 
Having remained in SaHsbury part of three days, he 
took his departure early on Tuesday morning, the 
sixth of February. His march was up the Wilkes- 
boro Road, crossing Grant's Creek, Second Creek, 
Third and Fourth Creeks. A march of about fifteen 
or eighteen miles brought them to their first encamp- 
ment, on the west side of the South Fork of the Yad- 
kin, not far from Rencher's (or Renshaw's) Ford. 
A little stream, called Beaver Dam, would furnish 
them water, and the well-to-do farmers of South 
River and Fourth Creek — the Johnstons, Luckeys, 
Grahams, Gillespies, and Knoxes — had capacious and 
well-filled barns, cribs, and granaries. It was at this 
encampment that \\'illiam Young, mentioned in a pre- 
vious chapter, had his adventures with the British 
soldiers. On the seventh, the British crossed the Shal- 
low Ford of the main Yadkin, where little John Spur- 
gen caught sight of them, and hastened with the news 
to General Greene. They there passed out of Rowan 
County. The general histories of the State will in- 
form the reader of Greene's retreat across the Dan, 
Lord Cornwallis' march to Hillsboro, the return of 
both armies to Guilford, where the battle of Guilford 
Courthouse was fought on the fifteenth of IMarch fol- 
lowing; of Lord Cornwallis' march to Wilmington, 
and Greene's hasty march to Camden, and his battle 


with Lord Rawdon at Hobkirk's Hill on the twenty- 
fifth of April. But these movements do not fall within 
the scope of these papers. The great armies had 
swept on, and Rowan County was left to herself. But 
it was an uneasy and unsettled time, for many were the 
Tories that hung around her borders, and depredations 
were frequently committed upon the peaceful families 
of the Whigs. The men who were able for war were 
absent, and the feeble noncombatants were unable to 
resist the violence of Tory raiders. But brighter days 
were near at hand. Cornwallis surrendered at York- 
town, October 19, 1781. On the fourth of March, 
1782, the British House of Commons passed a resolu- 
tion in favor of peace, and active hostilities ceased. 
This day has been chosen as the day for the inaugura- 
tion of the Presidents of the United States. 



On the nineteenth of October, 1781, Lord Cornwallis 
surrendered to General Washington, at Yorktown, in 
Virginia. It was in the middle of the night, a day or 
two after, that the news of this closing scene in the 
mighty drama reached Philadelphia. A watchman in 
the street called out. ''Twelve o'clock, and a cloudy 
morning — Cornwallis taken/' In a short time the 
whole city was aroused, and the wildest manifestations 
of joy were displayed. The same news ran rapidly 
over all the States, and the people in every village 
and hamlet were filled with gladness. In England, 
all hope of subjugating the States was abandoned, and 
Lord North retired from the Ministry and the Whigs 
took charge of the government. Negotiations for 
peace were entered into, and five commissioners from 
the United States met a like number from England in 
Paris, and a provisional treaty of peace was signed 
September 3, 1782. A final treaty was signed at the 
same place, on the third of September, 1783, and each 
of the original Thirteen Colonies was acknowledged 
by Great Britain to be an Independent and Sovereign 

But though peace with England was declared, there 
were many bitter heartburnings in the breasts of the 


people among themselves. The army was unpaid, and 
efforts were made to array it against Congress, and 
thus turn over the public civil government into a mil- 
itary despotism. Nothing but the courage and patriot- 
ism of General Washington averted that sad calamity. 
Besides this there were many Loyalists in every 
part of the country, some of whom had taken up arms 
in behalf of Great Britain, and many others had re- 
mained neutral in the struggle. When peace came the 
Whigs could scarcely feel that their Tory neighbors 
ought to enjoy equal rights and privileges with them- 
selves, and no doubt were easily provoked to taunt 
them with insulting epithets. These were days of 
violence, and he who had the brawniest arm, or was 
most active of limb, came out conqueror. T^Iany of 
the Loyalists voluntarily removed to distant parts of 
the countr}^ while others received legal notice to de- 
part. Besides this, suits were brought against many 
for the confiscation of their property for disloyalty, 
according to Act of the x\ssembly of North Carolina. 
This Act was adopted at the first meeting of the Gen- 
eral Assembly under the Constitution, at Newbern, 
April 8, 1777, and declared it to be treason and pun- 
ishable with death and confiscation of goods, to take 
commission in the army of Great Britain in North 
Carolina, or to aid or assist in any way the enemies of 
the State. The law was terribly severe, and was never 
fully executed. Still, in 1782, twenty-two persons 
were summoned to appear before the Rowan Inferior 
Court charged with disloyalty. Some were found 
guilty and some were acquitted. But the sale of the 


property of those found guilty was postponed. At 
the Inferior Court of Rowan for February, 1783, no 
less than one hundred and sixty persons were cited to 
appear and show cause why their estates should not be 
confiscated. Though the citation was signed with 
the names of Griffith Rutherford, James Macay, Wil- 
liam Sharpe, and Robert Alackie, magistrates, holding 
the Court, it is recorded that the entire lot made de- 
fault, and thereby ignored or defied the Court. The 
curious reader will find a list of their names on Minute 
Docket of Rowan Inferior Court for February, 1783, 
volume 1778-86. It has been supposed that a con- 
siderable part of the German population of Rowan 
were neutral or averse to the war. But if such was 
the case not many of them committed any overt act 
bringing them within purview of the law provided 
against disloyalty. Out of one hundred and eighty- 
two names but a small part — about one-fifth — are 
German names ; the rest are common English names. 
The revolutions of one hundred years have softened 
the asperities and rounded off the sharp prejudices en- 
gendered by the great conflict, and we are now able to 
see that it could be possible for a man to be con- 
scientiously convinced that it was his duty to main- 
tain his loyalty to the king to whom he had given his 
oath of allegiance. But it was more than could be reas- 
onably expected of the suffering patriots of that day 
to see it in that light. Still — slowly, imperceptibly — 
better days came on, and the husbandman could again 
devote his whole time to the improvement of his farm, 
and the good housewives to their domestic affairs. In 


those days the farmer's hfe was far more independent 
and self-sustaining than at present. With the excep- 
tion of a few articles, such as iron, salt, a little sugar 
and coffee or chocolate, pepper and spice, the farm, 
the flocks and herds yielded all that was consumed at 
the homes of our people. The table was loaded with 
home productions. 

The operations of the farm were carried on with 
rude and simple implements and in a primitive way. 
The market for grain and flour was several hundred 
miles distant, and the expense of transportation was 
too great to justify the raising of more than was 
needed on the farm. The rich new grounds and bot- 
tom lands with their virgin soil brought forth a 
bountiful crop with little labor, and left a large margin 
of time for fishing and hunting. There was always a 
"slack season" between the "laying by" of crops and 
fodder-pulling time. That was the time to hunt squir- 
rels, and the crack of the rifle might be heard around 
the cornfields on all sides. And then fishing expedi- 
tions were organized to some favorite pond or stretch 
of the river, where with long circling seine the jump- 
ing trout and the blushing redhorse were captured. 
The farmers' boys knew where the sweetest wild 
grapes or the most tempting muscadines grew, or 
where the thinnest-shelled scalybarks, or fattest 
hickory nuts, or the plumpest and juiciest black haws 
were to be found, and visited them accordingly. Those 
same farmers' boys also knew the haw trees, persim- 
mon trees, and grapevines in all the country around 
that were likely to be frequented by the fat opossums 


in the later fall, and they had their 'possum dogs in 
good training by the time the first hard frost ripened 
the persimmons and the opossum himself, and made 
his flesh fit for eating. But before that time came 
around, even the "slack season" had some work to be 
done. No circulating threshing machine or separator 
was then to be found, to clean up the wheat and oats 
of a farm in a single day. Instead of that the farmer 
built his double log-barn with a threshing or tramping 
floor between the stables. The wheat and oats were 
hauled from the harvest fields and packed on the sta- 
ble lofts, and on the loft over the barn floor. This 
floor was usually twenty-five or thirty feet square, and 
was shut in on both sides with huge folding doors. 
When the tramping time came a floor of wheat was 
thrown down, bundles untied and laid in a circle 
around the center of the floor. The folding doors were 
thrown open, and several spans of horses were put in 
to walk around and around upon the wheat until it 
was separated from the straw and chaff — the attend- 
ants in the meantime turning over the straw as re- 
quired. At first the wheat was winnowed with a 
sheet, or coverlet tied up by two corners, and briskly 
swung by two men, while one slowly poured down the 
mixed wheat and chaff. But wheat fans were soon 
introduced, and their clatter could be heard at a great 
distance, doing up the work neatly and rapidly. 

The oats, being more easily crushed by the hard 
hoofs, and the straw being used to make "cut feed" for 
the horses, were usually threshed out with flails, the 
bundles being kept entire. No matter if the grain was 


not entirely taken out — the horses would get it in 
their feed. 

Later in the fall was the time for pulling and shuck- 
ing the corn. A huge long heap, or straight or cres- 
cent-shaped, containing thirty, fifty, or a hundred loads 
of corn in the shucks, was piled up in the barnyard. 
On a given day a boy was sent out to ask hands to 
come in to the shucking on a night appointed. Fifty 
hands perhaps, might come just at dark. A rail would 
be placed in the middle, and the hands divided by two 
captains who threw up "cross and pile" for first choice 
of hands. Then came the race, the shouting, the hur- 
rahing, and the singing of corn songs if any negroes 
were present. And generally a bottle of brandy was 
circulated several times and was sampled by most of 
those present. Quite a number would sometimes get 
excited by the liquor, but it was considered disgraceful 
to get drunk. Sometimes a fight would occur, espe- 
cially if the race was a close one. The winning side 
would try to carry their captain around the pile in 
triumph, but a well-directed ear of corn, sent by some 
spiteful hand on the beaten side, would strike a mem- 
ber of the triumphal procession, and thereby bad 
blood would be excited, and a promiscuous fight occur. 
But these were rare accidents. After the corn was 
shucked, and the shucks put into a pen, came the 
shucking supper — loaf, biscuits, ham, pork, chicken 
pie, pumpkin custard, sweet cakes, apple pie, grape 
pie, coffee, sweet milk, buttermilk, preserves, in short 
a rich feast of everything yielded by the farm. It re- 
quired a good digestion to manage such a feast at ten 


or eleven o'clock at night, but the hardy sons of toil 
had a good digestion. Or if anything were wanting, a 
tramp of four or five miles, on an opossum or coon 
hunt, lasting till one or two o'clock in the morning, 
would be sufficient to settle the heartiest shucking sup- 
per that ever was spread on the farmers' tables in 
bountiful Old Rowan County. 

The tanner and the shoemaker, the hatter, the black- 
smith, and the weaver plied their vocations all over 
the county. The wandering tinker came around at in- 
tervals, with his crucible and his molds for spoons, 
plates, and dishes, and melted and transformed into 
bright new articles the old broken pewter fragments 
that were carefully preserved. How the youngsters 
would stare at him as he stirred the molten pewter 
with his bare finger! And how diligently the boys 
hunted the rabbit, mink, muskrat, otter, and raccoon, 
and preserved their skins, to be taken to the hatter at 
Jumping Run or Cross Keys or Dutch Second Creek, 
to be made into a sleek and shining beaver, to be worn 
as their first "fur hat," instead of the old heavy, hard 
''wool hat," that was now to be used only as an every- 
day hat. Every house had its pairs of cards for wool 
and cotton, its large and small spinning wheel, revolv- 
ing rapidly under the pressure of deft fingers or strong 
and elastic foot, while the thread or yarn, by the "cut" 
and "hank," hung on pegs on the wall. As the visitor 
approached the house, as soon as the morning chores 
were "done up," he would hear the deep bass rumbling 
of the large wheel, or the buzzing of the little flax 
wheel, with its hooked "flyers" whirHng the thread 


around until sufficiently twisted, and then letting the 
thread skillfully in on the spool. Or perhaps he 
would hear the creaking of the reel, with its sharp 
click, as it told when a "cut" was reeled from the 
spool. Or perhaps he would see a pair of huge "warp- 
ing bars," or "winding blades" slowly revolving, as 
they measured off the "chain" or "filling" of the next 
six hundred "slaie" of plain white shirting or copperas 
cloth, or it may be of "Hnsey" or perhaps "jeans." 
And then what efforts were put forth to secure the 
most brilliant dyes, and the fastest colors! The gar- 
den contained a bed of "madder," whose roots gave the 
brown or red dye. A patch of indigo furnished the 
blue. Walnut roots and bark, or maple bark, with a 
little copperas, supplied the tints of black and purple, 
or a little logwood gave a lustrous black. No "aniline 
dyes" were known, but roots, barks, and leaves lent 
their essential colors to the fabrics spun and woven by 
fair maidens and hearty matrons. The Fourth of July 
in those days was the grand holiday of the year. An 
orator was procured, and the Declaration was im- 
pressively read, and the daring deeds of the illustrious 
statesmen of 1776 were commemorated. It would be 
varied with now and then a military parade, with 
screaming fife and rattling drum, and now and then a 
barbecue. Early in the spring the good wives began to 
get up the Fourth of July suits for their husbands, 
each priding herself on having the most nicely dressed 
husband on that gala day. Old silks were cut up into 
shreds, picked to pieces, and carded with cotton to 
make a "silk mixed" coat. Vests with "turkey red" 


stripes, cut bias, and pointing like chevrons to the but- 
tons, were in the height of fashion. Knee breeches, 
with long stockings tied with garters, and shoes with 
huge silver buckles had not gone out of style in those 
days. The material of the breeches was not infre- 
quently a soft, pHant, yellow buckskin, very ''stretchy" 
of a rainy day. The wife of a distinguished citizen 
of Salisbury in those days is said to have excelled all 
the rest by rigging her husband out on a certain 
Fourth of July in a full suit of "nankeen cotton," 
carded, spun, woven, and made in her own house. 
Another textile fabric of those days was flax. The 
flax patch, with its delicate blue blossoms, was a pleas- 
ing spectacle. And the flax was skillfully pulled, the 
seed threshed out, and in due time laid out to "rot." 
When the inner stem was sufficiently "rotted," the pon- 
derous strokes of the huge "flax brake" could be 
heard, and the swish of the scutcher as he cleaned the 
fiber with his sharp-edged paddle. And lastly, the 
heckhng process separated the tow from the perfect 
linen. The flax-wheel with its "rock" wound with 
flax required the highest skill, and the product when 
bleached furnished the beautiful linen whose snowy 
whiteness was the pride of the most ambitious and 
thrifty housekeepers of Rowan. Her own attire was 
also made by her own fingers, and she was an adept in 
stripes and checks, knew how to insert gores and 
gussets, and if tall, how to eke out the cloth to the 
proper length. But finer articles were often needed 
for female attire than these home-made fabrics. 
Ribbons and laces, with satin and brocade, were also in 


demand from the looms of France and Italy. A leg- 
horn or dunstable, or perhaps a silk gig bonnet, 
prunella or morocco shoes, bound on with ribbons 
crossing coquettishly over the foot and around the 
ankle, and peeping shyly beneath the short dress, com- 
pleted her attire. And then, mounted on a spirited 
horse of her own, or may be on a pillion behind, she 
was ready to accompany her escort for a ten or twenty 
mile ride to church, to a wedding, a party, or a quilt- 
ing frolic. Those were active, healthful, buoyant, 
blithesome times, those early days of American Inde- 
pendence, and it is probable that the sum total of social 
and domestic happiness was greater than in these ad- 
vanced days. The more people help themselves, as a 
general rule, the happier they are. There is gladness 
in the successful ingenuity required to supply the real 
and artificial wants of domestic and social Hfe. Some- 
one has recently said that the American is the only 
man that has ever had enough to eat. And now that 
he has got to the W^est, and can go no further without 
going to the East, he is turned back upon himself to 
grow and to prove what can be made of a man in a 
land of plenty. And those were days of plenty. The 
virgin soil brought forth bountifully. Herds of 
cattle and droves of swine fed at large, unrestrained by 
any stock law. Bears, deer, turkeys, wild geese, and 
ducks abounded. The Yadkin and the Catawba were 
filled with shad, trout, redhorse, pike, bream, perch, 
catfish, and eels, and the fisherman seldom returned 
without a heavy string of fish. 


Besides this, the early Rowan man was a man of 
faith. He may have been a little rough and free in 
his manners, but he had his religious behefs, and his 
religious obser^^ances. On the western side of the 
county the Presbyterians had their churches — Thya- 
tira, Third Creek, and Bethphage, where Dr. ^IcCorkle, 
Rev. Joseph D, Kilpatrick, and Rev. John Carrigan 
preached and taught the people the strong Calvinism 
of their creed. In the eastern division, at the Organ 
Church, the Lower Stone, and elsewhere, the devout 
Lutheran and German Reformed churches and minis- 
ters led the people in the way of life. SaHsbury could 
boast of but one church, the Lutheran ; standing where 
the Lutheran graveyard now is. It did not always 
have a pastor, but it was open to all evangelical minis- 
ters. Salisbury Presbyterians were a branch of 
Thyatira, and here Dr. McCorkle often officiated, and 
married his wife in this place. Schools were kept up 
and eminent teachers were employed to give instruc- 
tion to the young. In this way matters moved on with 
nothing more exciting than a popular election or a 
general muster, for several years after the close of the 



The most distinguished visitor that Salisbury has 
ever welcomed was Gen. George Washington — the 
President of the United States. Wishing to see for 
himself the whole country, and no doubt hoping to 
grasp by the hand many of the war-worn veterans who 
had followed his standard in a hundred marches and 
battles, he planned and accomplished a southern tour 
in the spring of 1791. Irving, in his Life of Washing- 
ton, states that the whole tour was accurately planned^ 
the places to be visited, and the times he would reach 
and leave each place, before he left Mount Vernon, 
and that he carried out his plan with the utmost pre- 
cision, not failing a single time. He traveled in his 
family carriage, perhaps the one that was on exhibi- 
tion at the Centennial in Philadelphia. He passed 
down from Virginia through North Carolina, South 
Carolina, and Georgia, near the coast, as far as Savan- 
nah, and returned through Augusta, Columbia, Cam- 
den, Charlotte, Salisbury, Salem, and so on to his 
home. Several incidents of this trip are worth record- 
ing. Upon his arrival at Charleston, it is related that 
someone unrolled a bolt of carpeting on the ground 
for him to walk upon. His severe republican sim- 
plicity revolted at such homage paid to a man. He 


rebuked them for their adulation, informing them that 
such tokens of honor were due from man to his 
Creator alone. He, of course, refused to walk upon 
it. Many years after Washington's visit to Camden, 
the Marquis de LaFayette, ''the Nation's Guest," paid 
a visit to the same town. The committee of arrange- 
ments were anxious to have every article of the finest 
quality for the distinguished Frenchman. A certain 
lady offered a quilt, somewhat faded, as a covering for 
his bed. The committee rejected it as quite unfit for 
so important an occasion. Gathering up her quilt in 
her arms, the lady began to retire, but repeating with 
indignant tones these words, "a. greater and better man 
than LaFayette slept under this quilt. If it was 
good enough for Washington, it was good enough for 
General LaFayette." The astonished committee 
would fain have recalled their hasty decision, but the 
indignant lady, with her precious quilt in her arms, had 

As General Washington approached the borders of 
North Carolina, Capt. John Beard, of Salisbury, with 
the Rowan ''Light Horse Company," set out for Char- 
lotte to meet and escort him to Salisbury. As the 
cavalcade was approaching Salisbury a little incident 
occurred of pleasing character. Richard Brandon, 
Esq., then lived six miles southwest of SaHsbury, at 
the place known by our older citizens as the Stockton 
place, now owned by C. H. McKenzie, Esq. The old 
buildings stood, till a few years ago, on the west side 
of the road, near a little meadow, about halfway 
between St. Mary's Church and Mr. McKenzie's pres- 


ent residence. As the party neared this place early in 
the day, the President being then sixty years old, and 
wearied with his journey, and knowing too that a long 
and fatiguing reception awaited him in Salisbury, be- 
thought him that a little refreshment would strengthen 
him for the day's work. So he drove up to the farm- 
er's door, and called. A neat and tidy lass of some 
twelve or fourteen summers — a daughter of Squire 
Brandon, answered the call. The President immediately 
asked whether she could give him a breakfast. She 
replied that she did not know — that all the grown 
people were gone to Salisbury to see General Washing- 
ton. The President kindly assured her that if she 
would get him some breakfast, she should see General 
Washington before any of her people, adding pleas- 
antly, "I am General Washington." The breakfast 
— for the President alone — was prepared with great 
alacrity, and the blushing maiden had the pleasure, 
not only of seeing, but of conversing with General 
\\'ashington, as she dispensed to him her bountiful 

This little girl's name was Betsy Brandon, the 
daughter of Richard Brandon. Her mother's maiden 
name was Margaret Locke, the sister of Gen. Matthew 
Locke, and the aunt of Judge Francis Locke. A few 
years after this, Betsy Brandon was married to Francis 
McCorkle, Esq., of Rowan, and some of their descend- 
ants still reside in Rowan, Iredell, and Catawba 
Counties. James M. McCorkle, Esq., of Salisbury, 
and Matthew Locke McCorkle, Esq., of Newton, are 
grandsons of Francis and Betsy McCorkle. The 


Brandons came originally from England, and the 
Lockes from the North of Ireland. 

As General Washington approached Salisbury, on 
the Concord Road, some half-mile from town, and 
at a point near where Mr. Samuel Harrison now lives, 
he was met by a company of the boys of Salisbury. 
Each of these boys had a bucktail in his hat — a symbol 
of independence, and their appearance was quite neat 
and attractive. The President expressed himself much 
pleased by the boys* turnout, saying that it was "the 
nicest thing he had seen." 

The illustrious visitor was of course the guest of 
the town, and lodging was provided for him at Capt. 
Edward Yarboro's residence. This house is still 
standing, on East Main Street, a few doors east of 
the Public Square, and nearly opposite the entrance of 
Meroney's Hall. The house is now marked by a set 
of semi-circular stone steps. Many have supposed 
that Washington stood on those steps and addressed 
the people. It is almost a pity that this is not the 
truth, but the fact is that those stone steps were placed 
there since 1830, by Sam Jones, who kept a hotel there. 
But the President did occupy that house for a 
night, and he did stand on steps where those semi- 
lunar steps now stand. And as he stood there the 
people from all the country around stood packed and 
crowded in the street, gazing with reverence and ad- 
miration at the soldier and patriot who was ''first in 
the hearts of his countrymen.'* x\nd as the people 
gazed the President stood bareheaded, while the after- 
noon sun illumined his hoary locks. And this was 


what he said : "My friends, you see before you noth- 
ing but an old, gray-headed man/' Lifting his hand, 
with his handkerchief he shielded his head from 
the rays of the sun, in silence. That night there was a 
grand ball given to the President at Hughes' Hotel, at- 
tended by the prominent gentlemen and ladies of Salis- 
bury and vicinity — Maxwell Chambers and his wife, 
Spruce Macay, Esq., Adlai Osborne, Esq., Capt. John 
Beard, Edward Chambers, Joseph Chambers, Lewis 
Beard, Hugh Horah, Edward Yarboro, Miss Mary 
Faust, Mrs. Kelly (nee Frohock), Mrs. Lewis Beard, 
Mrs. Giles, Mrs. Torrence, and many others whose 
names are no longer preserved in a vanishing tradition. 
There is still in the county a relic of this ball — a brown 
satin dress, worn by Mrs. Lewis Beard — the daughter 
of John Dunn, Esq. It is in the possession of Mrs. 
Mary Locke, granddaughter of Col. Moses A. Locke, 
and great-granddaughter of the lady who wore it. 
How far the "Father of His Country" participated in 
the amusements and festivities of the occasion, tradi- 
tion saith not. It was probably a mere occasion for a 
reception on his part, and we may well imagine that 
the "old, gray-headed man," as he claimed to be, hus- 
banded his strength by retiring early, and thus secur- 
ing the rest needful to fit him for his next day's jour- 
ney to Salem. Captain Beard and his Company of 
"Rowan Light Horse" escorted the Presidential party 
as far as Salem. 

As the reader has incidently learned the names of a 
few of the citizens of Salisbury one hundred years 
ago, it will probably be of some interest, especially to 


those of antiquarian tastes, to have a Hst of the princi- 
pal householders of our city in those early days. 
Fortunately the mayor of the city, Capt. John A. 
Ramsay, has succeeded in securing a number of the 
old records of the ''Borough of Salisbury," the earhest 
dating back as far as 1787. On the twelfth of ]March 
of that year, Messrs. Maxwell Chambers, ^lichael 
Troy, John Steele, and John Blake were duly qualified 
as town commissioners, and Matthew Troy as Justice 
of police. James McEwen was elected clerk, and 
Thomas Anderson, constable. The records are quite 
fragmentary, those of several years being lost. In 
1793, the commissioners adopted several ordinances. 
One ordinance forbade the citizens to allow their hogs 
or goats to run at large in the streets, and any person 
was allowed to kill any hog or goat so found, and the 
owner sustained the loss. Another ordinance forbade 
the keeping of any hay, oats, straw, or fodder in dwell- 
ing-houses. Another ordinance required each house- 
holder to keep on hand, for use at fires, a number of 
leather water buckets, holding not less than two gal- 
lons each. And in this connection we have the first 
list of householders of Salisbury, graded according to 
the number of buckets they were supposed to be justly 
required to furnish. As the Chinese mandarin is 
graded by the number of buttons, and the Turkish 
pasha by the number of ''tails" he wore on his cap, so 
the Salisbury citizen was graded by the buckets he was 
required to keep on hand. Richmond Pearson was ex- 
pected to keep four, and Dr. x\nthony Xewnan three. 
The following were rated at two each, viz. : Richard 

Washington's visit to Salisbury 253 

Trotter, Joseph Hughes, Conrad Brem, Tobias Forrie, 
Michael Troy, Andrew Betz, John Patton, Lewis 
Beard, Henry Giles, Edward Yarboro, David 
Cowan, Albert Torrence, Charles Hunt, \Mlliam 
Alexander, Maxwell Chambers, M. Stokes, John 
Steele, \\'illiam Nesbit, Peter Fults, and Michael 
Brown. The following householders were let off with 
one bucket each, viz. : Henry Barrett, Robert Gay, 
Matthew Doniven, Richard Dickson, Daniel Cress, 
George Lowman, John Mull, Hugh Horah, George 
Houver, Charles \\^ood. Fed. Allemong, David 
Miller, Mr. Stork, George Moore, John Beard, Mrs. 
Beard (widow), Leonard Grosser, Martin Basinger, 
Peter Faust, John Blake, Henry Young, John Whith, 
George Kinder, Jacob Utzman, Barna Cryder, Wil- 
liam Hampton, Samuel Dayton, and Charles Shrote. 
It seems that at a subsequent meeting of the com- 
missioners, iMr. Pearson at his own request was re- 
duced to the grade of two buckets, and Dr. Newnan, 
Peter Fults, and Evan Alexander to the grade of one 
bucket. These commissioners enacted stringent laws 
against "Bullet Playing" — whatever that was — horse 
racing, and retailing liquors on the streets. The taxes 
for 1793 were four shillings (50c.) on every hundred 
pounds ($250.00) value of town property, and four 
shillings (50c.) on every white poll that did not hold 
one hundred pounds (£100) value of town property. 
It was certainly not much of a privilege to be a poor 
man in Salisbury, in those days. 


According to the above list there were fifty house- 
holders in Salisbury in 1793. It has been usual to 
estimate an average of five inhabitants to each family. 
This would make a population of two hundred and 
fifty. But besides these white families, there were a 
few families of free negroes as well as the household 
servants in the various wealthier families. There were 
also a number of ordinaries, or village inns, in the 
borough, with their attendants and boarders. From 
these sources we may suppose there might be counted 
probably one hundred and fifty or two hundred more, 
making a total population of four hundred, or four 
hundred and fifty, in Salisbury at the close of the last 

About the close of the Revolutionary War, in 1782, 
the records of the Inferior Court show the following 
Hcensed ordinary keepers in Salisbury, viz. : David 
Woodson, Valentine Beard, Archibald Kerr, Gasper 
Kinder, William Brandon, and Joseph Hughes. In 
those days the Inferior Courts fixed the tavern rates. 
The following are the rates for 1782: For a half-pint 
of rum IS. 4d; do. of whiskey 8d; do. of brandy is.; 
one quart of beer 8d; for breakfast is.; for dinner 
IS. 6d; for supper is; for a quart of corn 2d; for hay 
or blades per day for a horse is; for lodging per night 
6d. A shilling was I2>4 cents. According to these 
rates, a dinner, supper, breakfast, and lodging, not in- 
cluding any spirits or horse feed, would amount to the 
sum of fifty cents. And, speaking of money, we notice 

Washington's visit to Salisbury 255 

that the commissioners begin, about 1799, to speak 
about dollars and fourths of a dollar, instead of pounds, 
shillings, and pence, indicating the substitution of the 
Federal currency for the sterling. About this time an 
ordinance was adopted disallowing sheep to run at 
large in Salisbury between eight in the evening and 
sunrise in the morning. The same year an "order" 
is directed to be published in The Mercury^ thus in- 
dicating that a paper of that name was published in 
town. The location and the size of a market-house 
engaged the attention of the commissioners for several 
years. At different times it was ordered to be built on 
three different sides of the courthouse. In 1803 it was 
ordered to be erected on Corban Street southwest of 
the courthouse, between the courthouse and the next 
cross street ; to be thirty-two feet wide, and to be set on 
eight or more brick pillars. In 1805 the commissioners 
resolved to issue forty-two pounds and ten shillings 
(£42/10) in bills of credit, and employed Francis 
Coupee to print the bills. In 1806 they required every 
dog to be registered, and allowing every family to keep 
one dog free of tax laid a tax of one dollar on each 
surplus dog. Provided a dog should become mis- 
chievous, the magistrate of police was to issue a war- 
rant against him, and the constable was to kill him. 
None of these laws, however, were to apply to dogs 
"commonly called foists or lap dogs." 

In 181 1 the following citizens were divided into 
classes for the purpose of patrolling the town : 


1. Samuel S. Savage, captain; Peter Brown, John 
Murphy, Ezra Allemong, James Huie, John Trisebre, 
Jacob Smothers, and WilHam Hinly. 

2. George Miller, captain ; John Utzman, John 
Wood, John Smith, John Bruner, Christian Tarr, and 
Horace B. Satterwhite. 

3. Moses A. Locke, captain ; John Paris, Henry 
Crider, Abner Caldwell, William Moore, George 
Rufty, and Henry Poole. 

4. Jacob Crider, captain ; Joseph Chambers, Peter 
Bettz, Edwin J. Osborne, Hugh Horah, Archibald 
Ruffin, and Samuel Lemly. 

5. John Smith (hatter), captain; Lewis Utzman, 
George Utzman, Robert Blackwell, Epps Holland, 
Benjamin Tores, and Peter Crider. 

6. Henry Sleighter, captain ; Jacob Utzman, Daniel 
Jacobs, Abraham Brown, Andrew Kerr, Epps Robi- 
son, William Horah. 

7. Robert Torrence, captain ; Alexander Graham, 
Michael Brown, Horace B. Prewit, George Goodman, 
James \Mlson, Robert Wood. 

8. William Hampton, captain; John Albright, 
Willie Yarboro, Jacob Stirewalt, John L. Henderson, 
John Fulton, and William C. Love. 

9. WilHam H. Brandon, captain; Benjamin Pear- 
son, Michael Swink, Francis Marshall, Joshua Gay, 
Abraham Earnhart, John Giles. 

10. Daniel Cress, captain; Abraham Jacobs, Peter 
Coddle, George Bettz, William Dickson, David Nes- 
bit, Stephen L. Ferrand. 


11. Thomas L. Cowan, captain; Joseph Weant, 
James Gillespie, William Pinkston, Francis Coupee, 
William Rowe, and William Davenport. 

12. Francis Todd, captain ; Thomas Reeves, Jere- 
miah Brown, Henry Ollendorf, Henry Allemong, 
George Vogler, and Charles Biles. 

These were the able-bodied men of Salisbury in 
181 1 — sixty-nine years ago. 




Amid the ever-shifting scenes of domestic and social 
life, it is extremely difficult to get a picture of any one 
neighborhood. During the period of current life, 
events are regarded as of so little importance, and they 
are so numerous and crowded, that nobody takes the 
time and trouble to make a record of passing events. 
But when a generation or two has gone by, and chil- 
dren or grandchildren would love to know the history 
of their ancestors, only fragments remain. Xow and 
then a curious chronicler arises, and by searching into 
records in family Bibles, old wills and deeds, and by 
the aid of some survivor of past generations stranded 
on the shores of time, succeeds in sketching an out- 
line of the old days. But the picture can never be 
complete, and seldom absolutely accurate. With such 
aids as these, the author of these pages proposes to 
give a running sketch of the people who lived in a part 
of Rowan County at the close of the last century. 

About six miles northeast of Salisbury, where 
Grant's Creek pours its yellow waters into the Yadkin, 
there was a large farm and spacious dwelling, owned 
by Alexander Long, Esq. Somewhere about 1756, 
there appeared in Rowan County a man who is desig- 


nated in a deed, dated October 7, 1757, as John Long, 
gentleman. He purchased a tract of land — six hundred 
and twenty acres — on the ridge between Grant's Creek 
and Crane Creek, adjoining the township land. In 
1758 he received a title from the Earl of Granville 
for six hundred and eight acres on the "Draughts of 
Grant's Creek." Also six hundred and forty acres on 
Crane Creek, adjoining his own. Also six hundred 
and four acres on Second Creek ; besides some town 
lots in Salisbury — altogether between twenty-five 
hundred and three thousand acres of land. Accord- 
ing to records on minutes of the Inferior Court for 
1756, p. 400, John Long had some transactions with 
William and Joseph Long, of Lancaster County, Pa. — 
perhaps brothers, or other relatives of his. According 
to deeds and letters of administration, his wife's name 
was Hester. These were the parents of Alexander 
Long, Esq., of Yadkin. In the year 1760, the Chero- 
kee Indians were on the warpath, and Col. Hugh Wad- 
dell was stationed with a regiment of infantry, at the 
new village of Salisbury, for the protection of the 
western settlements. Tradition says that John Long 
was killed by the Indians in an expedition against a 
settlement of them in Turkey Cove, on North Fork of 
the Catawba River, not far from Pleasant Gardens. 
The records of the Inferior Court of 1760, p. 293, have 
this entry: L^pon motion of ]\Ir. Dunn, ordered that 
Hester Long, relict of John Long, deceased, have ad- 
ministration of the estate of her late husband, John 
Long [and that] Martin Pipher, John Howard, and 
Thomas Parker be bound in six hundred 


pounds (i6oo). She took the oath of admin- 
istratrix." Tradition states that Hester Long 
afterwards married George Magoune, by whom she 
was the mother of a daughter who became the wife of 
Maxwell Chambers. The Court records for April, 
^I^Z, P- 461, have this entry: "William Long vs. 
George Magoune et uxor., administrator of John 
Long." Alexander Long, probably the only child 
of John Long, was born January i6, 1758, and be- 
came heir to the vast area of fertile lands entered and 
purchased by his father. When he became of age he 
added to this large estate. In 1783 he purchased a 
tract on both sides of the road from Salisbury to 
Trading Ford, and in 1784 he entered six hundred 
and sixty-five acres on the north side of the Yadkin 
River. He first married a sister of Gov. Montfort 
Stokes, by whom he had one daughter, named Eliza- 
beth, who became the wife of Alexander Frohock, 
Esq., who was the sheriff of Rowan County. He was 
married a second time to Miss Elizabeth Chapman, a 
lady from Virginia, October 12, 1786. Besides his 
extensive landed estate, Alexander Long was the 
owner of a hundred or more slaves, and had a valuable 
ferry over the Yadkin at the mouth of Grant's Creek, 
besides valuable fisheries on the river. In those days 
the Yadkin abounded with shad, and immense quanti- 
ties were caught in Mr. Long's fisheries. He had a 
large family of sons and daughters — John, Alexander, 
William, Richard, James, Nancy, Maria, Rebecca, Har- 
riet, and Caroline. 


The second son, Dr. Alexander Long, late of Salis- 
bury, whose memory is still fresh in the minds of our 
citizens, spent the larger part of his Hfe in Salisbury. 
He was for many years the leading physician in the 
county, and his practice was very extensive. He mar- 
ried Miss ]\Iary Williams, of Hillsboro. At the or- 
ganization of the Presbyterian Church of Salisbury, 
Dr. Long became one of its original members, and one 
of its first ruling elders. He continued to be an elder 
until his death in 1877, in the eighty-ninth year of his 
age. Maria Long, daughter of Alexander Long, Esq., 
became the wife of the late ^Michael Brown, of Salis- 
bury, so long a prominent merchant and ruling elder of 
the Presbyterian Church. The houses of Dr. Long and 
Michael Brown were for many years the abodes of a 
bountiful hospitality. ^Ministers and agents for reli- 
gious objects always found there a cordial welcome 
and a generous entertainment. Harriet, another daugh- 
ter of Alexander Long, was married to the late George 
Brown, for a long period a leading merchant of Salis- 
bury. Rebecca Long married Capt. Edward Yarboro. 
The others were all well known, and exerted an in- 
fluence in their day. In the large family of Alexander 
Long, Sr., we have an element of Rowan society as it 
existed at the close of the eighteenth and beginning of 
the nineteenth century. The family burying-ground 
of the Longs was on a high bluff near the river bank, a 
short distance below the ferry. 

2. The next plantation on the Yadkin, and just be- 
low the Long place, was originally called the ''Stroup 
Place," and in late vears, the ''Bridge Place." It was 


owned in those early days by Lewis Beard, son of John 
Lewis Beard, one of the first settlers of Salisbury. 
Some misunderstanding having arisen between Mr. 
Long and Mr. Beard concerning the right of the latter 
to keep a ferry on his lands, Mr. Beard secured from 
the Legislature the right to build a bridge over the 
river on his own lands. He therefore secured as an 
architect, Ithiel Towne, and erected a magnificent 
bridge, at a cost of thirty thousand dollars. For many 
years this bridge stood there, and spanned the stream, 
affording passage at all heights of the river. It was 
known in later years as 'Xocke's Bridge." Its piers 
may still be seen rising in their ruins above the waters, 
from the railroad bridge a half-mile below. 

Lewis Beard married Susan, the daughter of John 
Dunn, Esq., of Salisbury. Of their children, Mary 
married Major Moses A. Locke, for many years 
president of the bank in Salisbury. The grandchil- 
dren of Major Locke still reside at the Bridge place, 
near the river. Christine, another daughter of Lewis 
Beard, married Charles Fisher, Esq., a lawyer of Salis- 
bury. From 1818 until his death in 1849, for nearly 
forty years, Charles Fisher was a leading man in 
Rowan County in public affairs, serving often in the 
State Legislature, and several times in the United 
States Congress. His son, Col. Charles F. Fisher, 
was a leading man. He volunteered at the beginning 
of the late war, and fell in the first battle of Manassas, 
courageously fighting in front of his regiment. An- 
other child of Lewis and Susan Beard, was Major 


John Beard, who died about five years ago at his home 
in Tallahassee, Fla. 

3. The third plantation on the Yadkin, going down 
the stream, was owned by Valentine Beard. It was af- 
terwards known as Cowan's Ferry, and at present as 
Hedrick's Ferry. Valentine Beard was a Continental 
soldier in the Revolutionary War, and fought at the 
battles of the Brandywine and Germantown, and 
others, under General Washington. He married 
Margaret Marquedant. of Philadelphia, and at the 
close of the war settled at this place. Valentine Beard 
had three daughters. Elizabeth married Benjamin 
Tores. Maria married Dr. Burns, of Philadelphia, 
who was a sea captain. Dr. Burns settled in Salis- 
bury about 1819, and remained a few years, when he 
returned to Philadelphia. Dr. Burns' daughter, ^lar- 
garetta, married the late Horace Beard of Salisbury, 
and their descendants still reside here. 

Next below the place last named was one called the 
"Island Ford" place, including the island of one hun- 
dred acres lying above Trading Ford. This island is 
probably the one that is called the ''Island of Aken- 
atzy," in the journal of Lederer's explorations, as 
found in Hawks' History of North Carolina. This 
place belonged to Lewis Beard, who owned the bridge 

4. The next place, still going down, was the prop- 
erty of Capt. Edward Yarboro, of Salisbury. The 
house, occupied by tenants or overseers, stood just 
back of where St. John's mill now stands. Captain 
Yarboro lived in Salisbury, and had three daughters 


and two sons. Sally Yarboro was the second wife 
of William C. Love, and the mother of \Mlliam and 
Julius Love. She and her husband he buried just in 
the rear of ^leroney's Hall. Nancy Yarboro mar- 
ried Colonel Beatty, of Yorkville, S. C, and Mary 
married Richard Long. Edward Yarboro, Jr., was the 
owner of the Yarboro House in Raleigh, and gave his 
name to it. 

5. Just below Trading Ford, on a high bluff, stood 
the residence of Albert Torrence. The house is still 
conspicuous from afar, and has been named of late 
years by a poetical friend, "The Heights of Gowerie." 
It was from these heights that Lord CornwaUis' artil- 
lery cannonaded General Greene, w^hile writing his 
dispatches in the cabin on the other side of the Yad- 
kin. Albert Torrence, an Irishman, chose this airy 
situation for his residence, and from the edge of the 
bluff he could watch the windings of the silver stream, 
dotted with a cluster of beautiful islets, and beyond 
could see lying the fertile farms of the famed Jersey 
Settlement. Albert Torrence married Elizabeth 
Hackett, of Row^an County. In this family there grew 
up four sons and one daughter. Hugh the eldest son 
married a Miss Simonton, of Statesville, and died 
early. Albert married a daughter of Judge Toomer, 
of Fayetteville, and settled in that city. James died 
young. Charles married first ^liss Elizabeth L. Hays, 
of Rowan County, and after her death, ]\Iiss Philadel- 
phia Fox, of Charlotte. His residence was southeast 
of Charlotte, on the Providence Road, about a mile 
from the Public Square. The daughter of Albert 


Torrence married William E. Powe, of Cheraw, and 
settled at the Bruner place, five miles east of Salis- 
bury, on the Chambers' Ferry Road, where they reared 
a large family of sons and daughters, only two of 
whom remain in Rowan — Dr. Albert Torrence Powe, 
and his sister, Mrs. Hackett, who reside at the family 
homestead. At the organization of the Presbyterian 
Church in Salisbury, Albert Torrence became a mem- 
ber, and one of the first bench of elders. His re- 
mains, with those of his wife and several of their 
children, and of Air. Powe, are sleeping in the En- 
glish graveyard in Salisbury, under broad marble 
slabs, near the entrance. Albert Torrence died in 
1825, aged seventy-two years. 

6. Next to the Torrence place was the farm of 
Gen. John Steele, of Salisbury. General Steele was 
the son of W^illiam and Elizabeth Steele, and was one 
of the most distinguished native-born citizens of Salis- 
bury. His mother's maiden name was Elizabeth Max- 
well, and she was a native of \\^est Rowan. She was 
first married to Mr. Gillespie, by whom she had a son 
and daughter, as mentioned on a former page. Her 
son, John Steele, was born in Salisbury, November i, 
1764, and was educated in the schools of the town. 
He commenced life as a merchant, but soon turned 
his attention to farming, in which he was eminently 
successful. In 1787 he became a member of the Leg- 
islature of North Carolina. In 1790 he was a member 
of the first Congress of the United States under the 
Constitution. He was appointed by General W^ash- 
ington, first Comptroller of the Treasury of the 

Gex. John Steelk 


(From Miniature by Peale) 


United States, which office he held until 1802, when 
he resigned, though solicited by ]\Ir. Jefferson to con- 
tinue. He occupied many other prominent stations, 
and filled them all with faithfulness and success. On 
the day of his death — August 14, 181 5 — he was 
elected to the House of Commons of North Carolina. 
A singular story is told of a circumstance that oc- 
curred at his death. During the time he was comp- 
troller he presented to his native town a clock — the 
one now on the courthouse — and a bell. The night of 
General Steele's death, the clock commenced striking, 
and continued to strike many hundreds of times, until 
it was run down. Hugh Horah, a watchmaker, had 
the clock in charge, but he could do nothing with it. 
It was doubtless, all things considered, a singular co- 
incidence, and calculated to beget a superstitious awe 
in the minds of the people. In 1783, John Steele mar- 
ried Mary Nesfield, of Fayetteville. Three daughters 
lived to grow up and marry. Ann married Gen. 
Jesse A. Pearson. ]\Iargaret married Dr. Stephen 
L. Ferrand, and was the mother of Mary, the wife of 
the late Archibald Henderson, Esq. ; and Ann, who 
married the late John B. Lord, Esq., afterwards the 
late Rev. John Haywood Parker, and lastly T. G. 
Haughton, Esq. 

Eliza, daughter of Gen. John Steele, married Col. 
Robert MacNamara, a native of Ireland, but for a 
time a prominent citizen of Salisbury. Colonel Mac- 
Namara's children are all dead except Louise, now in 
a convent, and Eliza, who married Dr. Lynch, of Co- 
lumbia, S. C. General Steele erected the house oc- 


cupied by the late Archibald Henderson, Esq. There 
he died, at the age of fifty, and near his residence he 
was laid to his rest, where a memorial stone, con- 
secrated by conjugal and filial affection, testifies to his 
character "as an enlightened statesman, a vigilant pa- 
triot, and an accomplished gentleman." General Steele's 
wife survived him for many years. Salisbury has 
special reason to be proud of the exalted character 
and faithful services of her honored son. Second to 
a sense of duty, there is probably no higher incentive 
to the faithful discharge of public trusts than the 
hope of transmitting an honored name to posterity; 
but if posterity forgets their honored ancestors, then 
neither the dread of shame nor love of honor is left to 
inspire men to an honorable course of life. 



Before leaving this part of the History of Rowan 
County it is necessary that the reader should become 
acquainted with a number of distinguished men who 
made their homes in Salisbury for a longer or shorter 
time. One of these was a permanent citizen ; the 
others tarried here for a season. Among these we 
mention first 

Waightstill Avery, Esq. 

The University of Xorth Carolina Magazine for 
1855 contains a sketch of 'Mv. Avery, and his private 
Journal for 1767; and Colonel Wheeler's Sketch of 
Burke County contains a brief biography, from which 
we condense the following account. 

Waightstill iVvery was of Puritan stock, and was 
born in Norwich, Conn. He completed his literary 
studies at Princeton College, in 1776. Erom this place 
he went to ^Maryland, and studied law under Littleton 
Dennis, Esq. It is stated that he was tutor for a year 
in Princeton. This was probably his last year as a 
student, and he was doing double duty, and at the 
same time was reading law, for we find him in the be- 
ginning of 1767 setting out for X'orth Carolina. His 
journal shows that he was a diligent student of his- 


tory and law after he began his course as a lawyer 

On the fifth of February, 1767, he rode into Eden- 
ton, X. C. On the third of March he reached Salis- 
bury, and made the acquaintance of Associate Judge 
Richard Henderson, Samuel Spencer, Esq. — after- 
wards Judge Spencer, John Dunn, Esq., Alexander 
Martin^ Esq. — afterwards Governor ]\Iartin, Wil- 
liam. Hooper, Esq., Major Williams, and Edmund 
Fanning, Esq. Colonel Frohock entertained him at 
his plantation two miles from Salisbury, and Avery 
describes his house as ''the most elegant and large 
within one hundred miles." On the first Sunday 
after his arrival he ''heard the Rev. 'Mr. Tate preach." 
After going to Hillsboro he journeyed to Wilmington, 
and thence to Brunswick, where he obtained from 
Governor Tryon license to practice law in this Prov- 
ince. From Brunswick he passed by Cross Creek, 
and thence to Anson Courthouse. Anson Courthouse 
was not then at \\^adesboro. but at a place called 
IMount Pleasant, about a mile west of the Pee Dee 
River, and a short distance below the Grassy Islands. 
Here Avery took the attorney's oath, April 13, 1767, 
and the next day began his work by opening a cause 
against a hog thief. From ]\Iount Pleasant he went 
to ^lecklenburg, met Adlai Osborne, Esq., and on 
Sunday, April 23, heard Rev. Joseph Alexander 
preach — probably at Sugar Creek. Here he engaged 
board with Hezekiah Alexander. On the fourth of 
May we find him again in Salisbury, where he en- 
gaged a year's board with ]\Ir. Troy at twenty pounds 


(£20) a year, deducting for absences. On the six- 
teenth of ^lay "he rode out five miles to Dunn's 
Alountain, in order to enjoy an extensive prospect of 
the country." At the August term of Rowan Court 
he was employed in no less than thirty actions. 
Again in November he was in Salisbury, and was 
chosen King's Attorney, in the absence of Major 
Dunn. During this year Mr. Avery practised law at 
Salisbury. Anson Courthouse, Charlotte, and Tryon 
Courthouse, and at once obtained a large number of 
cHents. In 1775 and 1776 he was a member of the 
Provincial Congress, and was appointed on the com- 
mittee to revise the statutes of the Province. In 1778 
he was made Attorney-General of the State, and 
shortly thereafter he married and moved to Jones 
County. But finding that his health was impaired by 
the climate of the eastern country, in 1781 he removed 
to Burke County, and settled on a beautiful and fer- 
tile estate on the Catawba River, known by the name 
of Swan Pond, afterwards the home of his son. Col. 
Isaac T. Avery. 

Waightstill Avery devoted himself to his profes- 
sion, but was chosen to represent Burke County in the 
Legislature a number of times. He was industrious 
and methodical, and he was the owner of the most ex- 
tensive and best selected library in Western North 
Carolina. "He died in 182 1 in the enjoyment of an 
ample estate, the patriarch of the North Carolina Bar, 
an exemplary Christian, a pure patriot, and an honest 


In 1778, Mr. Avery married ^Nlrs. Franks, a widow 
lady of Jones County, near Xewbern, by whom he had 
three daughters and one son. The son, Col. Isaac T. 
Avery, occupied the paternal estate at Swan Pond, 
and reared a large family there, among whom were 
the late Col. A\'aightstill \\\ Avery, Col. ^Moulton 
Avery, and Judge Alphonso C. Avery, now on the 
bench of North Carolina. These all deserved well of 
their country, but their history belongs to Burke, and 
not to Rowan County. 

Hon. Spruce ^Macay 

As early as the year 1762 we have accounts of the 
Macay family in Rowan County. In that year James 
Macay obtained from Henry McCulloh a grant of 
four hundred and thirty acres of land on Swearing 
Creek, near the Jersey Meeting-house. This was part 
of a vast body of land, amounting to one hundred 
thousand acres, which George 11. , in 1745, granted to 
Henry ]\IcCulloh, Esq., of Turnham Green, County 
of Middlesex, England. These lands are described 
as situated in the Province of North Carolina, lying 
on the "Yadkin or Pee Dee River or branches 
thereof," and called Tract No. 9. This tract lay in 
Earl Granville's division of land, but the Earl and 
his agents recognized McCulloh's title, and the fact is 
recited at large in many old grants. On this tract 
James Macay settled and reared his family. 

In 1775, William Frohock executed a deed to James 
Macay, Esq., Benjamin Rounceville, and Herman 
Butner, trustees of the United Congregation of the 


Jersey Meeting-house, consisting of the professors of 
the Church of England, the Church of Scotland, and 
the Baptists, for three acres and twenty poles of land, 
including the meeting-house and the burying-ground. 
The witnesses to the deed are James Smith and Peter 
Hedrick, and the land was part of a tract devised by 
John Frohock to his brother, William Frohock. 
Though the meeting-house had been standing since 
1755, it appears that they had no legal title until the 
above date. If we may judge from the order of the 
names, compared with the order of denominations, we 
would conclude that Macay represented the Episco- 
palians, Rounceville the Presbyterians, and Butner 
the Baptists. 

Spruce Macay was probably a son of James Macay. 
At all events he was from that neighborhood, and was 
buried there, with others of his family. At that early 
period, the Rev. David Caldwell, D. D., was conducting 
his classical school, on Buffalo, in Guilford County — 
then a part of Rowan, about forty miles from the Jer- 
seys. Thither young Spruce Macay was sent for his 
literary training. He probably read law under John 
Dunn, Esq., of Salisbury, or it may be Waightstill 
Avery, who practised in these Courts. He was licensed 
to practice law about the beginning of the Revolu- 
tionary War, and devoted himself with energy to his 
profession, and soon became such a proficient that 
students came to him for instruction. In 1776, Wil- 
liam R. Davie, just graduated at Princeton College, 
commenced the study of law in Salisbury, and the 
current opinion is that his preceptor was Spruce 


Alacay. His residence was on lot Xo. 19, of the West 
\\^ard, the property now owned by ^Irs. Nathaniel 
Boyden, and his law office was in front of his dwelling 
on Jackson Street. In 1784, Mr. Macay had another 
pupil, who was in after years honored with the highest 
office in the United States. This was Andrew Jack- 
son. Parton, in his Life of Jackson says : ''At Salis- 
bury, he (Jackson) entered the law office of ]\Ir. 
Spruce ]\Iacay, an eminent lawyer at that time, and, 
in later years, a judge of high distinction, who is still 
remembered with honor in North Carolina." In 1790, 
Spruce Macay was appointed Judge of the Superior 
Courts of law and equity. 

By his marriage he became connected with a family 
distinguished as lawyers and judges in North Caro- 
lina. He married Fanny, the daughter of that emi- 
nent jurist of Colonial times Judge Richard Henderson, 
and sister of the Hon. Archibald Henderson of Salis- 
bury, and Judge Leonard Henderson of the Supreme 
Court of North Carolina. By this marriage Judge 
Macay had one child, a daughter named Elizabeth, 
who married the Hon. William C. Love, of Salisbury, 
and was the mother of the late Robert E. Love, Esq., 
of Salisbury. After the death of his first wife, 
Judge Macay married Elizabeth Hays, of Halifax, 
N. C, by whom he had three children — Alfred ]\Iacay, 
who died early, in Salisbury ; Fanny, who married 
George Locke, son of Richard Locke, and moved to 
Tennessee ; and William Spruce Macay, who first 
married ]\Iiss Belle Lowry, daughter of Richard 
Lowry, Esq., of Rowan; and after her death ]\Iiss 



Annie Hunt, daughter of Aleshack Hunt, Esq., of 
Yadkin County, and granddaughter of Hon. Aleshack 
Franklin. The only daughter of this union, Annie, 
died recently, and with her death the family became 
extinct in this county. 

Judge :\Iacay bought the Frohock lands and mills, 
near Salisbury, on Grant's Creek, and owned lands in 
Davidson County. By inheritance with his wife, by 
industry and economy, he accumulated a large estate. 
He died in 1808, and his remains lie interred in the 
graveyard of Jersey fleeting - house, in Davidson 
County, by the side of his kindred. 

Gen. \\'illiam Richardsox Davie 

Another distinguished gentleman who resided for a 
season in Salisbury was William Richardson Davie, 
afterwards Governor of the State of North Carolina. 
General Davie was born at Egremont, England, but 
came to America at five years of age, and was adopted 
by his maternal uncle, the Rev. William Richardson, 
the Presbyterian pastor of the W^axhaw and Provi- 
dence Churches. Davie was graduated at Princeton 
College in 1776, and the same year commenced the 
study of law in Salisbury— it is believed under the di- 
rection of Spruce Alacay, Esq. In 1779 he raised a 
Company of cavalry, principally in the ''Waxhaws," 
of which he was lieutenant. After the battle of Stopo. 
where he was wounded, he returned to Salisbury and 
resumed his studies. In 1780, Davie raised a Com- 
pany of horse in Rowan County, which he led in the 
battle of the Hanging Rock, and with which he con- 


fronted the British in their northward march at Char- 
lotte, where he and his "Rowan Boys" made a bril- 
Hant display of courage. He was with General 
Greene at Guilford Courthouse, Hobkirk's Hill, and 
Ninety-Six. After the war he began his professional 
career, as a brilliant and powerful orator and states- 
man. He was on the committee that fixed the location 
of the University of North Carolina. The gigantic 
poplar tree is still standing in the University Campus, 
under which General Davie was resting when his 
negro servant reported that he had found a fine spring 
near by, and lots of mint growing by its side, and that 
he thought that was the very place for the college. As 
Grand ]\Iaster of the Masonic Fraternity, in October, 
1793, General Davie laid the cornerstone of the col- 
lege, while Dr. Samuel E. McCorkle, of Rowan, made 
the address. In 1798, Davie was elected Governor of 
North Carolina, and the succeeding year was ap- 
pointed ambassador to France. It is said that he 
was introduced to Napoleon as General Davie, and 
that the haughty emperor sneeringly remarked in an 
audible aside, ''Oiii, Generale de melish." His mis- 
sion to France was the close of his public Hfe. On 
his return he brought certain articles of costly furni- 
ture, and fitted up his residence in handsome style. 
Being a candidate for office shortly after, his opponent 
taunted him in public with aping the aristocracy of 
the old world, and so excited the prejudices of the 
people as to defeat him. He became disgusted with 
politics, and retired to his estate of Tivoli, near Lands- 
ford, S. C, where he died in 1820. He was regarded 



as the most polished and graceful orator in North 
Carolina, in his day. Had he not quit public life at 
the early age of forty-seven, he might have shone as a 
star of the first magnitude along with Jefferson, Madi- 
son, ]\Ionroe, John O. Adams, Burr, and Crawford. 
But such is public life, where the demagogue often 
supplants the patriot and the statesman. 

Andrew Jackson 

Foremost among the distinguished men who 
resided for a season in Salisbury was Andrew Jack- 
son. The reader, acquainted with his public career as 
a soldier and a statesman, will not object to a brief 
account of his early life, and especially of his sojourn 
in Salisbury. In 1765^ Andrew Jackson, with his wife, 
two sons, and three neighbors — John, Robert, and 
Joseph Crawford — emigrated from Carrickfargus, Ire- 
land, to America, and settled in the "Waxhaws," on the 
boundary between North and South Carolina. While 
some of the company settled in South Carolina, Jack- 
son settled on Twelve Mile Creek, in Mecklenburg 
(now Union) County, N. C. In the spring of 
1757, Andrew Jackson died, and in a rude farm 
wagon his body was carried to the Waxhaw Church 
and deposited in the graveyard. The family did not 
return to their home on Twelve Mile Creek, but went 
to the house of George McKemie, a brother-in-law, 
not far from the church, and a quarter-mile from 
the boundary of the States, but in North Carolina. 
There Andrew Jackson, the younger, was born, the 
night after his father's funeral, March 15, 1767. 


Evidence for all this, most conclusive and convincing, 
was collected by Gen. Samuel H. Walkup, of Union 
County, in 1858, and may be found in the first volume 
of Parton's Life of Jackson. Three weeks after his 
birth, his mother removed with the family to the resi- 
dence of her brother-in-law, ]\Ir. Crawford, in South 
Carolina. Here Andrew grew up, wild, reckless, 
daring, working on the farm, riding horses, hunting, 
going to old-field schools, and picking up a little edu- 
cation here and there. He also attended a school of 
a higher grade at Waxhaw Church, kept by Rev. Dr. 
Humphries, and he claimed to have attended the 
Queen's Museum College, in Charlotte, X. C. In these 
schools he acquired the rudiments of an English edu- 
cation, and perhaps "a little Latin and less Greek." 
Though only fifteen years old at the close of the Revo- 
lution, young Andrew Jackson took part in several 
skirmishes and other adventures in his neighborhood. 
At the close of the war he was an orphan, without 
brother or sister — without fortune — a sick and sor- 
rowful orphan. After a year or two of a reckless 
career, he began to look at life in earnest, and prepare 
for it. He taught school for a while, and gaining a 
little money he came to Salisbury in 1785, and entered 
as a law student in the office of Spruce IMacay, Esq. 
He lodged in the "Rowan House," but he studied in 
the office of Air. Alacay, along v.-ith two fellow-stu- 
dents — Crawford and McXairy. The reader may re- 
member this little office on Jackson Street, as it stood 
until four years ago, immediately in front of the 
residence of the Hon. Nathaniel Boyden. Parton 


•describes it as "a little box of a house fifteen by sixteen 
feet, and one story high," and built of "shingles," i. e., 
a framed and weatherboarded house, covered with 
shingles. This little house was purchased by an enter- 
prising individual and carried to Philadelphia to the 
Centennial Exposition, in 1876, as a speculation, 
though it proved to be a very poor investment. While 
Jackson certainly devoted a good part of his time to 
study, yet he was no doubt, as Parton describes him, 
"a roaring, rollicking fellow, overflowing with life 
and spirits, and rejoicing to engage in all the fun that 
was going." He played cards, fought cocks, ran 
horses, threw the 'long bullet' (cannon ball, slung in 
a strap, and thrown as a trial of strength), carried off 
gates, moved outhouses to remote fields, and occa- 
sionally indulged in a downright drunken debauch." 
Upon a certain occasion the three law students and 
their friends held a banquet at the tavern. At the 
conclusion it was resolved that it would be improper 
that the glasses and decanters that had promoted the 
happiness of such an evening should ever be profaned 
by any baser use. Accordingly they were smashed. 
The same reasoning led to the destruction of the table. 
The chairs and the bed were all broken and torn to 
splinters and ribbons, and the combustible parts 
heaped on the fire and burned. Of course there was 
a big bill to settle next day. But it is said that Jack- 
son's landlord was fond of cards, and that Jackson 
won large sums from him, which were entered as 
credits against his board bill. Jackson was certainly 
not a model young man, and not one in ten thousand! 


young men who begin life as he did ever attain to dis- 
tinction. But there was in him indomitable will, tireless 
energy, and unflinching courage. He was always willing 
to "take the responsibility," and he moved on to his 
aims with a purpose that could not be turned aside. 
After spending less than two years in the office of 
Spruce Macay, Jackson completed his studies for the 
bar in the office of Col. John Stokes, a brave soldier of 
the Revolution. After this he lived a while at ]\Iartins- 
ville, Guilford County, and from that place he re- 
moved to Tennessee, in 1788, and settled in Nashville. 
The reader may follow his course in the legal pro- 
fession, in the Indian wars, in the battle of New 
Orleans, in the Presidential chair, by perusing the 
racy and readable volumes that record his life, by 
James Parton; but these sketches of him must close 
at this point. 



While the territory now comprehended in Rowan 
County was a part of Anson County, or further back 
still, while it was a part of Bladen County, there were 
settlers in this region. It was in 1745 that Henry 
McCuUoh obtained his grant of one hundred thousand 
acres of land on the Yadkin and its tributaries. This 
was probably about the beginning of the settlement. 
The deeds and grants between this date and 1753, if 
recorded, would be registered in these counties. 
Hence it is not always possible to determine the date 
of the settlement of a family by the date of its oldest 
deed, since the oldest deeds may have been registered 
elsewhere. But among the earliest grants registered 
here are those of the 

Brandon Family 

This family came to Rowan from Pennsylvania, but 
they were originally from England, where for many 
centuries the Brandons played a conspicuous part in 
public affairs, as every reader of English history 

Upon coming to Rowan County they settled in three 
different neighborhoods. In 1752, John Brandon 
obtained a grant of six hundred and thirty acres of 


land from Earl Granville upon the waters of Grant's 
Creek. In the same year Richard Brandon obtained 
a grant of four hundred and eighty acres on the South 
Fork of Grant's Creek. In 1755, John Brandon pur- 
chased from Carter & Foster, Lot Xo. 4, in the South 
Square of Salisbury, adjoining the Common, and near 
the courthouse — near where the stocks and pillory 
then stood. This was near what was known as Cowan's 
Corner, now Hedrick's Block. It is not certain 
whether the above-named John and Richard Brandon 
were brothers, or father and son, or more distant 

Another member of the family, William Brandon, 
said by tradition to be the youngest son, purchased 
from James Cathey, in 1752, a tract containing six 
hundred and forty acres on Sill's Creek, beyond 
Thyatira Church — then Cathey's Meeting-house. He 
also procured a grant of three hundred and fifty acres 
adjoining the meeting-house lands and between the 
lands of John Sill and James Cathey. William 
Brandon married a ]\Iiss Cathey. He was perhaps 
a brother of John Brandon of Grant's Creek. 

Another branch of the Brandon family settled on 
the north side of Fourth Creek. Here James Brandon, 
in 1760 and 1762, obtained grants from Granville and 
deed from Patrick Campbell for one thousand five 
hundred and ninety-two acres of land. Among the 
Brandons of Fourth Creek there was one George 
Brandon whose will, dated 1772. names the following 
persons, to wit: His wife ^larian, his sons John, 
George, Christopher, and Abraham (the latter residing 


at Renshaw's Ford on South River), and his 
daughters Jane Silver, jMary McGuire, EHnor 
Brandon, and Sidney Witherow. Of these families 
the writer has no knowledge. 

\\'ith regard to the Brandons of Grant's Creek, we 
have more definite historical and traditional knowl- 

John Brandon appears among the Justices who pre- 
sided over our County Courts in the year 1753, along 
with \\^alter Carruth, Alexander Cathey, Alexander 
Osborne, John Brevard, and others. We would infer 
from this fact that he was somewhat advanced in life, 
and of prominence in his neighborhood and the county. 
When the Rev. Hugh ]\IcAden passed through Rowan, 
he stopped a night with Mr. Brandon, whom he styles 
"His Own Countryman," that is from Pennsylvania, 
where McAden was born. From a deed dated 1753, 
we learn that John Brandon's wife's name was Eliza- 

John Brandon had three sons, namely : Richard, 
William, and John. Richard Brandon married Mar- 
garet Locke, the sister of Gen. Matthew Locke. The 
children of Richard Brandon and Margaret Locke 
were John Brandon, Matthew Brandon, and Eliza- 
beth Brandon. The latter is the fair maiden who 
furnished the breakfast for General Washington, and 
who married Francis McCorkle, Esq. John and 
Matthew Brandon resided in the same neighborhood. 

Col. John Brandon, brother of Matthew, and son 
of Richard named above, resided about five miles 
southwest of Salisbury, on the Concord Road. 


Among his children was the late well-known Col. 
Alexander W. Brandon, who resided in Salisbury, and 
died here about the year 1853. Col. Alexander W. 
Brandon never married. While in Salisbury he boarded 
with his nephew, James Cowan, in the old historic 
"Rowan House," where General Jackson once boarded 
(the house now owned by Theodore F. Kluttz, imme- 
diately opposite the Boyden House). Colonel Bran- 
don possessed a considerable estate, was a general 
trader, a dealer in money, notes, and stocks. By his 
will be provided that his body should be laid in 
Thyatira churchyard among his kindred, and left 
four hundred dollars to the elders of the church, as 
trustees, for the purpose of keeping the graveyard in 
repair. He also bequeathed three thousand dollars to 
Davidson College for the education of candidates for 
the ministry, besides legacies to his nephews, Thomas 
Cowan, James L. Cowan, James L. Brandon, Leonidas 
Brandon, Jerome B. Brandon, George Locke; and to 
his brother, John L. Brandon. Colonel Brandon was 
an upright, steady, moral man, of fine appearance and 
dignified demeanor. 

Besides Alexander W. Brandon, John Brandon left 
a son named John L. Brandon, and two daughters. 
One of the daughters, named Sally, was married to 
James Locke, son of Gen. Matthew Locke, and after 
his death was married to a ^Ir. Dinkins, of Mecklen- 
burg. The other daughter, named Lucretia, was the 
first wife of Abel Cowan, Esq., of Thyatira. 

To return a generation or two, we find that Richard 
Brandon had another son, besides Col. John Brandon, 


whose name was Matthew. This Matthew Brandon 
was the father of two daughters. One of these 
daughters, named EHzabeth, became the wife of Gen. 
Paul Barringer, of Cabarrus, and the mother of the 
late Hon. D. M. Barringer, Gen. Rufus Barringer, 
Rev. William Barringer, Victor C. Barringer, Mrs. 
Wm. C. Means, Airs. Andrew Grier, Mrs. Dr. Charles 
W. Harris, and Mrs. Edwin R. Harris. All these were 
well-known and honored citizens of Cabarrus and 
Mecklenburg Counties. 

The other daughter of Matthew Brandon, named 
Elvira, became the wife of the Rev. James Davidson 
Hall, then pastor of Thyatira Church, and left no 

Not far from Thyatira Church, many years ago, 
there lived two brothers named John Brandon and 
James Brandon. They were the sons of William 
Brandon, who settled there as early as 1752. Wm. 
Brandon's first wife was a Cathey, the mother of John 
and James. After her death he married a Widow 
Troy, of Salisbury, and moved to Kentucky. From 
William Brandon and his second wife there descended 
in the second generation a family of Davises. Two 
ladies of this name, granddaughters of William 
Brandon, lived for a while in Salisbury with Miss 
Catherine Troy, afterwards Mrs. Maxwell Chambers. 
One of these young ladies married George Gibson, 
and moved to Tennessee. The other died in Salis- 
bury, after a short residence here. 

John Brandon, the son of William Brandon, of 
Thyatira, married Mary, the daughter of Major 


John Dunn, of Salisbury. This couple died childless. 
Their residence was on the west side of Cathey's 
Creek, a mile from Thyatira Church. The place was 
known of late years as the residence of Dr. Samuel 
Kerr, and still later as the home of our fellow-citizen, 
James S. McCubbins, Esq. The other son of William 
Brandon, known as Col. James Brandon, married 
Esther Horah, sister of Hugh Horah, and aunt of the 
late William H. Horah. He resided near Thyatira 
Church in his early married life. After the Revolu- 
tionary War he was ''entry-taker," and lost nearly all 
his property by the depreciation of continental money 
in his hands. In his latter days he lived in what is now 
Franklin Township, where William R. Fraley now 
resides. Col. James Brandon died about 1820, and 
left a number of children. 

1. Among these was a son named \Mlliam 
Brandon, who was a merchant in Salisbury, and kept 
his store about the place now occupied by Enniss' drug 
store. He never married, and died young, about the 
same time that his father died. 

2. Priscilla Brandon married William Gibson, and 
their children were Dr. Edmund R. Gibson, late of 
Concord, James Brandon Gibson, now an elder of 
Thyatira, George Gibson, who moved to Tennessee, 
now dead, and Mrs. Margaret G. Smith, now living 
with James G. Gibson. 

3. ]\Iargaret, who never married, and died about 

4. Clarissa Harlowe, who married Thomas Kin- 
caid. These were the parents of ]\Irs. ]\Iary Ann 


Bruner, [Mrs. Jane E. Fraley, and William Mortimer 
Kincaid, Esq. 

5. Sophia Gardner, who never married, and died 
in 1846. 

6. Alary, who married William Hampton of 
Rowan. Their children were Xancy Reed, the wife 
of Hon. Philo White ; Margaret Gardner, wife of 
Montfort S. AIcKenzie, Esq. ; Alary Ann, wife of John 
C. Palmer, of Raleigh; and James, who died young. 

7. Elizabeth, who married Francis Gibson. Their 
children were Clarissa, the wife of Benjamin Julian, 
of Salisbury; Esther, the wife of Jesse P. Wiseman, 
Esq. ; and Emmeline, the wife of Rufus Alorrison. 

Of the Brandons it may be remarked that they were 
a thriving, industrious, and prosperous family in their 
day, devoting their chief attention to agriculture and 
local affairs. Some of them wore the military titles 
of the day, and were doubtless leaders of public 
opinion in their neighborhoods, resembhng the Eng- 
lish country squires, who took deeper interest in the 
sports and institutions of the country than in national 
affairs. Though the Brandons did not generally aspire 
to legislative and judicial honors, yet some of them 
were elevated by their fellow-citizens to places of trust 
and dignity. Alatthew Brandon, son of Richard, and 
brother of the second John, represented Rowan 
County four times in the House of Commons, and 
once in the Senate, of North Carolina. Col. Alexander 
W. Brandon was once a member of the House of 


Though they were generally men of substance they 
did not seem to desire for their sons a college educa- 
tion, preferring that they should walk in the peaceful 
avocations of an independent farmer's life. But they 
were a race possessed of intellectual force, and many 
of the scions of this house have achieved success as 
scholars, as lawyers, legislators, and divines. These 
branches of the family are scattered over many 
counties of North Carolina, though the historic name 
of Brandon has almost disappeared from the land of 
their forefathers. 

John Phifer and George Savitz 

On the headwaters of Grant's Creek, in the 
neighborhood of the present village of China Grove, 
there dwelt in the early times two families very closely 
connected. About 1760, John Phifer, with five 
brothers, came from Pennsylvania and settled in 
Rowan and Cabarrus (then ]\Iecklenburg) Counties. 
The family is said to have been of Swiss origin, and 
the name was originally written Pfeiffer. In 1763, 
John Phifer married Catherine, the daughter of John 
Paul Barringer, and sister of Gen. Paul Barringer, late 
of Cabarrus. He settled about a mile south of China 
Grove, and their union was blessed with two children 
— ]\Iargaret and Paul B. Phifer. While only seven 
years old, little IMargaret Phifer performed a deed of 
heroism worthy of commendation. Some ruffian 
Tories and British soldiers visited her home, and with 
lighted torches ascended the stairs with the purpose 
of setting the house on fire. Little ]\Iargaret fell on 


her knees and, throwing her arms around the nearest 
of the marauders, implored him to spare their home. 
Their hearts were melted by the tender pleading of 
the child, and they withdrew and left the house stand- 
ing. This child, growing up, became the wife of John 
Simianer, of Cabarrus County, and the mother of Mrs. 
Adolphus L. Erwin, of McDowell County. The son, 
Paul B. Phifer, married and died early in life, leaving 
two sons, both of whom removed to the Southwest. 
One of these sons. Gen. John N. Phifer, had an only 
son who was graduated at the University of North 
Carolina. He was a lieutenant in the late war and has 
been widely known as Brig.-Gen. Charles Phifer. His 
father. Gen. John N. Phifer, represented Cabarrus 
County in the Senate of North CaroHna in 1818. 

It is due to the memory of Col. John Phifer, the 
elder, to say that he was a conspicuous and leading 
man in his day, and acted in the foreground of the 
great movement which terminated in our glorious in- 
dependence. Though originally settling in Rowan 
County, it appears that he had such interests in 
Cabarrus (then Mecklenburg County) as drew him 
into co-operation with the patriots of Mecklenburg, 
and his name is found appended to the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of 1775. But he found an early grave, 
passing away during the first years of the Revolution- 
ary War, and after a few years, his widow (Catherine, 
daughter of John Paul Barringer) became the wife of 
George Savitz, commonly called "Savage." In 1768, 
Richard Brandon executed a deed to George Savitz, 
for a tract of land on both sides of Grant's Creek, 


above a certain mill pond. In 1778, George Savitz, 
Jr., and his wife Catherine, executed a deed for a tract 
of land on McCutcheon's Creek, a branch of Cold- 
water, and by purchasing a tract here and there the 
Savitzes became the proprietors of a large body of 
land adjoining the Brandons and Lockes, on the head 
streams of Grant's Creek, in the region of the present 
village of China Grove. From these deeds we learn 
that John Phifer had died before 1778, for at that 
period George Savitz, Jr., had married Katrina, his 
widow, that is Catherine, the daughter of John Paul 
Barringer. Here George Savitz and his wife lived, in 
the house that was saved from the torch by little 
Margaret Phifer. That house was about a half-mile 
west of the place where the two churches, Lutheran 
Chapel and Mount Zion, now stand. The old church 
stood near the graveyard, west of the railroad, and 
was popularly known as Savage's Church. Here the 
Lutherans and Gennan Reformed worshiped to- 
gether. After the disruption of the Lutheran Church, 
in 1819, the adherents of Dr. Henkel built a church a 
mile west, and still later the Lutherans built a house 
where the Chapel now stands, and the German Re- 
formed where Zion Church stands. But to return. 
George Savitz, Jr., and Catherine, his wife, had two 
daughters, named Mary and Catherine. Alary was 
first married to Charles McKenzie (afterwards she 
was the wife of Richard Harris, still Hving). Three 
children were born to this couple — the late Montford 
S. McKenzie, Esq. ; Maria, who became the second 


wife of Abel Cowan ; and Margaret, the wife of the 
late John McRorie, of Salisbury. 

Catherine Savitz, the other daughter, married Xoah 
Partee, Esq., and resided at the home place. Their 
children were Hiram and Charles Partee, who moved 
to the West, and have recently died. A daughter of 
Xoah and Catherine Partee, named Elizabeth, was 
married to the late George McConnaughey, of Rowan. 
Another daughter, named ]\Iaria, married the late 
]\Iajor Robert W. Foard, of Concord, and still sur- 
vives. Still another daughter was married to the late 
Robert Huie, of ^Mississippi, and resides in Concord. 

The Savitz family were of German lineage, and with 
the industry and prudence characteristic of that race 
they amassed a large amount of property. They were 
originally adherents of the Lutheran Church, though 
their descendants have entered different churches — 
some Presbyterians, some Methodists, and some Epis- 
copalians. The Brandons on the other hand, though 
English, and having an affinity for the Church of 
England, appear as a general rule to have been 
Presbyterians. One or more, however, of the family 
of Richard Brandon were adherents of the Episcopal 
Church. The Brandons of Cathey's Creek, especially 
Col. James Brandon's family, were earnest Presby- 
terians. Thyatira in those days was the great rallying 
point of the Presbyterians. In the earlier years of 
this century there was not a church of any denomina- 
tion in Salisbury. The old Lutheran Church had 
gone down, and the Methodists, Presbyterians, and 


Episcopalians had not yet organized their churches. 
Thyatira was the center for the English people. 

While the fertile lands lying on the tributaries of 
the Yadkin were rapidly taken up by the eager 
immigrants from Pennsylvania, or rather by the 
Scotch-Irish and Germans, who came through Pennsyl- 
vania to CaroHna, many drifted on further, attracted 
by the no less fertile lands of the beautiful Catawba. 
Here the Davidsons, Brevards, Whites, \\'inslows, and 
others gathered in the neighborhood of Beattie's Ford, 
and on both sides of the river. This region was peo- 
pled quite early, their title deeds dating from 1752 and 
onward. Among these was 

The Family of the ]\IcCorkles 

A member of this family, Francis Marion ^Ic- 
Corkle, of Tennessee, has gathered up the traditions 
of this family, and his manuscript furnishes the basis 
of this article. 

There lived in Scotland, during the troubles arising 
from the efforts of Charles Edward, the Pretender, to 
seize the throne, a family of McCorkles that sought a 
safer and quieter home in Ireland. Here the parents 
died, and a son of theirs, named Matthew McCorkle, 
married a lady by the name of Givens. Ned Givens, 
a brother of Mrs. McCorkle, was quite a character in 
his way. At the age of fourteen Xed entered the army 
and was redeemed by his father at great cost. He soon 
re-enlisted and was a second time redeemed by his 
father for a large sum, and assured that if he repeated 
the project he should take his chances. About this 


time ^Matthew McCorkle and his wife were about to 
remove to the American Colonies, and Ned, not yet 
tired of adventures, proposed to go with them, but his 
father refused to let him go. \\'hen, however, Mc- 
Corkle arrived at the port from which he was to sail, 
to his surprise he found Ned there awaiting his 
arrival, and determined to go. His persistence was 
rewarded, for McCorkle paid his passage, and the 
party arrived safely in Pennsylvania, and after a short 
stay there proceeded to North Carolina and entered 
lands near Beattie's Ford, some in Mecklenburg, and 
some in Rowan (now Iredell). Here Matthew Mc- 
Corkle and Ned Givens both settled down, and each 
of them raised large families, and here they ended 
their days. Givens had already showed that he had a 
strong will, and he was reputed to have had an un- 
governable temper. From him were descended some 
of the most reputable families of South Iredell, as for 
instance the family of \\'hites. 

Matthew McCorkle had two sons, Thomas and 
Francis, and several daughters. One of these sons, 
Francis, married Sarah W^ork, by whom he had five 
children. As his family increased he entered more 
lands. The second entry was on the west side of 
Catawba River, on one of the tributaries of Mountain 
Creek, in the limits of the present County of Catawba. 
Here he started a farm, planted an orchard, and by 
industry and skill began rapidly to accumulate prop- 
erty. He was said to have been a man of amiable dis- 
position and of a fine personal appearance (of florid 
complexion, auburn hair, and about six feet in height). 


When the Revolutionary \A'ar came on Francis ]\Ic- 
Corkle promptly took his place on the side of the 
patriots. In 1774, he was appointed a member of the 
Committee of Safety of Rowan, along with John 
Brevard, Matthew Locke, and others. (See \\'heeler's 
Sketches, Vol. 2, page 360.) Though full thirty miles 
from his home, he is recorded as present in Salisbury 
at the regular meetings of the committee, and is named 
in the records as the captain of a Company. He was in 
the battles of King's ]\Iountain, Ramsour's Mill, Cow- 
pens, and Torrence's Tavern. His patriotic course 
excited the animosity of the Tories, and he was in 
consequence frequently compelled to keep away from 
his home to escape their vengeance. A morning or 
two before the battle of Ramsour's ]\Iill, Francis ^Ic- 
Corkle and a man by the name of Smith rode out be- 
fore day to learn the whereabouts of the Tories, know- 
ing that they were in the neighborhood. Arriving at 
a neighbor's house near the head of the creek about 
daylight, they inquired of the lady if she knew where 
the Tories were. She replied that she was expecting 
them every moment. Upon this the party wheeled and 
rode home in a hurry to arrange matters. After brief 
preparation they left home, and were scarcely out of 
sight before the Tories arrived, and searched the house 
from garret to cellar for ]\IcCorkle. They found there 
some salt, which they appeared to want, and left word 
if McCorkle would come and bring them some salt all 
would be well, but if not they would come and destroy 
everything in his house. Instead of joining them, 
i\IcCorkle and Smith hastened to the patriotic soldiers 

'jti/i^ £ ,i^.^i^^^/--^^i-^!'^^ 


that were centering at Ramsour's Mill, and were in 
the battle there. 

The tradition of the McCorkle family is that 
Colonel Locke, a friend of Francis McCorkle, fell in 
the battle of Ramsour's Mill. Dr. Foote states that he 
was killed at the Kennedy place, near Charlotte, and 
Dr. Caruthers says he fell at Torrence's Tavern. Dr. 
Foote is evidently mistaken, for it was Lieut. George 
Locke, a brother of Colonel Francis, that fell at Char- 
lotte. It is probable also that the McCorkle tradition 
is a mistake, since Tarleton, in his Memoirs, accord- 
ing to Caruthers, preserves a letter written by General 
Greene to Col. Francis Locke, about the time of the 
affair at Cowan's Ford, dated Beattie's Ford, January 
31, 1781. But the battle of Ramsour's Mill was fought 
on the twentieth of June, 1780, seven months before 
this time. Besides, there is no record of any adminis- 
tration upon his estate, but there is a will of Francis 
Locke on file, dated 1796, with the known signature of 
Col. Francis Locke. He doubtless survived until 
this date. But to return. After the battle of Ram- 
sour's Mill, Smith returned and reported that Mc- 
Corkle was killed. But to the great joy of the family 
he soon rode up alive and unharmed. He then ven- 
tured to sleep in his own house for a few nights. But 
about the third night he was suddenly awakened by 
the sound of horses' hoofs. Hearino- his name called 
he answered, and was told to get up and come to the 
door. He requested time to put on his clothes, but 
with abusive words they told him it was no use, as 
they intended to kill him. They then asked him 


"whom he was for?" He replied that he did not know 
whether they were friends or foes, but if he had to die, 
he would die with the truth in his mouth — he was for 
Hberty. He was then told to put on his clothes, that 
they had more of his sort, and they would slay them 
all together. He went with them, but when he arrived 
at the main body, he was agreeably surprised to learn 
that they were all Whigs, and that they had met for a 
jollification after the battle of Ramsour's, and wished 
to have him in their company. 

After the British crossed the Catawba at Cowan's 
Ford, McCorkle made a narrow escape. He was in 
the affair at Torrence's Tavern, with his friend Smith, 
and these two were either acting as a kind of rear 
guard, or were sent back to reconnoiter, but before 
going far they were discovered by the British, and 
wheeling attempted to rejoin their comrades. Smith's 
horse bolted through the woods, and he was killed. 
The enemy pursued McCorkle until he came up to 
the little band of Whigs, who had formed in Tor- 
rence's Lane. The little party fought the British 
troopers under Colonel Tarleton, until the smoke be- 
came so dense that they could not tell whether they 
were among friends or enemies. As the smoke cleared 
off a little, McCorkle discovered that he was among 
the redcoats, and putting his hands on a stake-and- 
ridered fence he leaped through just as three or four 
sabers struck the rail above him. They all retreated 
and made good their escape — none being killed except 
Smith, before named. Several British soldiers were 
killed and buried east of the Featherston House. Mc- 


Corkle bore the title of Major, whether won during 
the war or after the war in the mihtia is not known. 
He survived all the dangers of the war, and returned 
to his peaceful home, and was respected and esteemed 
by his neighbors. His wife died after the war, and 
some time about 1794 or 1795 he was again married. 
His second wife was Elizabeth Brandon, daughter of 
Richard Brandon, and niece of Matthew Locke. This 
was the lady that furnished the breakfast to General 
Washington in 1791 as he passed through Rowan 
County. By his first marriage to Miss Work, Major 
McCorkle had two sons, Matthew and Alexander 
Work. These men lived on Mountain Creek, but 
never married. Alexander W. McCorkle was a man 
of wealth and of fine judgment and business talents. 
He was frequently called upon to advise his neigh- 
bors in business affairs, and to aid them in making 
deeds and conveyances. 

By his second wife (Elizabeth Brandon), Major 
McCorkle had several children. 

I. Wm. B. McCorkle, who was a merchant in 
W^adesboro for about forty years. This son married 
Mary, the daughter of \\'illiam ^Marshall, of Anson 
County. This William Marshall and his father, James 
Marshall, and his son, Clement ^Marshall, were leading 
men of Anson County, and represented their fellow- 
citizens often in the Legislature. (See Wheeler's His- 
tory of Anson.) The children of \Mlliam B. Mc- 
Corkle were : James Marshall McCorkle, Esq., of 
Salisbury; Dr. John R. McCorkle, of Mooresville; 
^^^iIliam A. ]\IcCorkle, of Jefferson County, Tenn. ; 


and his daughters, Sarah, ]\Iary, Corneha, and 

2. The second son of Francis McCorkle by his 
second wife was Francis ]\IcCorkle, who lived on 
Mountain Creek, and married Elizabeth Abernathy. 
Their children were : Matthew Locke ]\IcCorkle, Esq., 
of Newton; Thomas, David, and Fanny. David died 
during the war, in the Confederate army. 

3. Another son was named Thomas, who moved to 

4. Another son of ]\Iaj. Francis ]\IcCorkle was 
John H., who moved to Tennessee. His son, Dr. 
Francis Marion McCorkle, collected the principal facts 
of this article. 

5. A daughter named Elizabeth married Jephtha 
Sherrill, and was the mother of Henderson Sherrill, 
who lived in Hickory Nut Gap for a long time. He 
served in the Legislature. 

6. A daughter named Agnes married John Kirk, 
and lived in Lincoln County. 

Besides the old families already mentioned, who 
came to Rowan County at its first settlement, there 
were others who came after the War of the Revolu- 
tion, and near the close of the century. Among the 
most distinguished of these was 

The Henderson Family 

This family was descended from Samuel Hender- 
son, of Hanover County, Va., whose ancestors 
were from Scotland, where the name of Henderson 
was conspicuous among the leaders in both civil and 



ecclesiastical affairs for several generations. Samuel 
Henderson married a i\liss Williams, whose ancestors 
came from Wales. A son of this couple was the dis- 
tinguished Colonial Judge, Richard Henderson, who 
came with his father to Granville County, N. C, in 
1745. Richard read law with his cousin, Judge Wil- 
liams, for a year, and was then licensed with en- 
comiums upon his talents and acquirements. He 
soon rose to the highest ranks of his profession. He 
was appointed a Judge of the Superior Court, and 
sustained his dignified position with fidehty and honor 
during the exciting and dangerous period of the Regu- 
lation up to the time when the troubles of the country 
closed the courts of justice. After an honorable and 
eventful career, he closed his life in Granville County 
in 1785. 

By his marriage with Elizabeth Keeling, he left a 
number of children, several of whom became citizens 
of Salisbury. His daughter, Fanny, as already men- 
tioned, became the wife of Judge Macay. His son 
Leonard was distinguished for his knowledge of the 
law, and became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 
of North Carolina. But the son that became the honor 
and pride of Rowan was the 

Hon. Archibald Henderson 

He was born in Granville County, August 7, 1768, 
and was educated in his native county, and studied law 
with his relative. Judge Williams. He came to Salis- 
bury about 1790, and soon rose to eminence in his 
profession. Judge ]\Iurphy, in 1827, said that he was 


the most perfect model of a lawyer that our bar had 
produced. From an elaborate eulogy, written by Hon. 
A. D. Murphy, and found in Colonel W^heeler's 
Sketches, we glean the following characteristics. He 
was a man of great dignity of character, and held him- 
self above the little passions and prejudices of men. 
He delighted in studying the constitution and jurispru- 
dence of his country, and his knowledge assumed a 
scientific cast. He had great respect for authority and 
glorified in the fact that he lived under a government 
of laws. When he entered a Court of Justice he felt 
his responsibility as an expounder of the law, and the 
guardian of the rights of his cUents. To his associates 
at the bar he was courteous, and to the younger mem- 
bers of his profession he was especially kind and in- 
dulgent, rendering them aid when he could in the 
management of their cases. His speeches were gen- 
erally brief, pointed, and conclusive, and in great 
causes his eloquence was irresistible. He did not 
badger witnesses, as third-rate lawyers are in the habit 
of doing, but was as polite and decorous to them as to 
the Court. x\s he advanced in life he became more 
accustomed to interpret the laws by the rules of com- 
mon sense, and lost reverence for artificial rules, be- 
ing desirous to strip ofif the veil of mystery from 
every branch of the law, and root out all the remains 
of a ridiculous pedantry that so often makes the rules 
of justice unintelligible to the common mind." It is 
related that, in 1818, when the Legislature created the 
Supreme Court of Xorth Carolina, Archibald 


Henderson was spoken of as one of the Justices, along 
with John Lewis Taylor and John Hall. Having an 
extensive and lucrative practice at the bar, and taking 
special delight in the active duties of an advocate, he 
went before the Legislature, of which he was a mem- 
ber, and courteously declined the honor, at the same 
time assuring them that his brother, Leonard Hen- 
derson, was better qualified for the duties and respon- 
sibilities of that office than himself, and that it would 
be more congenial to his tastes. The Legislature 
thereupon accepted his declination, and elected his 
brother in his stead. 

Archibald Henderson represented his district in 
Congress from 1799 to 1803, and the Town of Salis- 
burg three times in the General Assembly. He was 
married to Sarah Alexander, daughter of William 
Alexander, of Cabarrus, and granddaughter of Col. 
Moses Alexander, of Colonial times. Her brother, the 
Hon. Nathaniel Alexander, of Mecklenburg, was 
elected Governor of Xorth Carolina in 1805, and is 
represented as a worthy member of a family yet fruit- 
ful in talent and patriotism. From this marriage of 
Archibald Henderson with Sarah Alexander there 
sprang two children — the late Archibald Henderson, of 
Salisbury, and Jane Caroline, now Mrs. Judge Boyden. 

Archibald Henderson studied at Yale College and at 
the L'niversity of Virginia. Returning home, he 
settled down near Salisbury. Possessed of an ample 
estate, and being of a quiet disposition, he did not feel 
the necessity or possess the disposition to enter into 
any of the active and stirring professions of Hfe, but 


devoted his attention to reading and the management 
of his estate. He served his fellow-citizens as a mag- 
istrate, and for a while as a member of the Governor's 
Council. A staunch and intelligent Democrat, his 
opinions had great weight with his political party. 

He married IMiss Alary Steele Ferrand, a grand- 
daughter of Gen. John Steele, and lived at the seat of 
General Steele, near Salisbury. His children were : 
Lieut. Leonard Henderson, who was killed at the 
battle of Cold Harbor in Virginia; John Steele Hen- 
derson, Esq., now a member of the Salisbury bar; 
Richard Henderson, a lieutenant in the L^nited States 
Navy, now in active service; and Mary, still at home. 
Archibald Henderson died within the present year 
(1880), and his remains were interred beside his 
father's grave in the Lutheran graveyard in Salisbury. 

Jane C. Henderson, daughter of the Hon. Archi- 
bald Henderson, was first married to Dr. Lueco 
Mitchell, from the eastern part of the State. Doctor 
Mitchell was a surgeon on the Caroline during the 
siege of New Orleans, in the War of 1812 — a fine 
physician and a courteous and public-spirited gentle- 
man. He was an old-line Whig, and took a prominent 
part in the political afifairs of his day. After the death 
of Dr. ]\Iitchell, his widow became the wife of the 

Hon. Nathaniel Boyden 

then a successful lawyer in full practice. Air. Boyden 
was a native of Alassachusetts, born in Franklin 
Township, August 16, 1796, and graduated at Union 
College, New York, in 1821, and the next year re- 


moved to North Carolina and settled in Stokes County, 
and for a while engaged in teaching school. He 
studied law and was married to Ruth :\Iartin, the 
daughter of Hugh Martin, Esq., of Stokes County. 
Our fellow-citizen, John A. Boyden, Esq., and the late 
Mrs. Ruth Xesbit, wife of Dr. A. M. Nesbit, and 
Nathaniel Boyden, Jr., are children by this marriage. 
Mr. Boyden represented Stokes County in 1838, and 
in 1840, in the Legislature. After the death of his 
first wife, he removed to Salisbury, in 1842. Here he 
rose rapidly in popular favor, and represented his 
adopted county several times in the Legislature, and 
his District in the Congress of the United States. He 
was an industrious, enterprising, and successful law- 
yer, and clients flocked to him wherever he practiced 
law. He possessed a wonderful memory, retaining 
in his mind not only the law bearing upon the case, but 
all the testimony, however voluminous, without noting 
it on paper. His eloquence was peculiar, always 
arresting attention, and his audience were always sure 
that he was saying something to the point. At the 
close of the late war he was again elected to the Con- 
gress of the United States, and in April, 1871, he was 
elected one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of 
North Carolina. After a long and active life, having 
filled many posts of honor, and exerting an influence 
over the minds and acts of his fellow-men, he fell 
asleep November 20, 1873. By his second marriage 
he left one son, :\Ir. Archibald Henderson Boyden, 
now doing business in Spartanburg, S. C. 


A brother of the Hon. Archibald Henderson and 
Judge Leonard Henderson, named John Lawson 
Henderson, resided in Salisbury for a number of 
years. He was also a lawyer, and resided on the lot 
once owned by John Dunn, Esq., now by P. P. 
Aleroney. His practice was not as extensive as his 
brother's, and for a number of years he was Clerk of 
the Supreme Court of Xorth Carolina. He spent 
much of his time in Raleigh, where he died and was 

Another distinguished member of the Henderson 
family residing in Salisbury, was Dr. Pleasant Hender- 
son. Dr. Henderson was the son of Major Pleasant 
Henderson, of Chapel Hill. ]\Iajor Pleasant Hender- 
son was the son of Samuel Henderson, of Granville 
County, and the brother of the Colonial Judge Richard 
Henderson, and the cousin of the Hon. Archibald 
Henderson, of Salisbury. The children of Col. Pleas- 
ant Henderson, were Dr. Alexander Henderson, of 
Salisbury ; Eliza, the wife of Hamilton C. Jones, Esq. ; 
William, and Tippoo Sahib. The latter name, together 
with the fact that Edward Jones, of Chatham, called a 
son of his, Hyder AH, recalls a state of feeling with 
which we are now unfamiliar. Tippoo Sahib and Hyder 
All were two brave and powerful East Indian chiefs, 
who resisted the English authority in Hindustan, and 
so great was the animosity of many of our people 
against England, in the days immediately preceding 
and during the war of 181 2- 14. that these two men 
gloried in calling their sons after these fierce heathen 
chieftains, simply because they were England's ene- 


mies. Dr. Pleasant Henderson was for a long time 
the most popular physician in Western North Caro- 
lina. Handsome, genial, polite, skillful in his profes- 
sion, a jovial companion, and generous to a fault, the 
people loved him dearly. He lived for a long time 
unmarried, but at last married a lady as genial and 
accomphshed as himself, Rebecca Wimbish, of Vir- 
ginia. He died about 1850, and his remains lie in the 
Oak Grove Cemetery, in Salisbury. Xo monument 
marks the spot where he sleeps, and perhaps nobody 
knows where his grave is. He left no children, and 
his widow married Judge Mills, of Texas. 

Dr. Alexander Henderson was a widower when he 
came to Salisbury, leaving a couple of daughters with 
their mother's relatives, near Raleigh, to be educated. 
He afterwards married a Miss Wimbish, sister to his 
brother's wife. After practicing his profession here 
for a number of years, he removed to Alabama. 

Eliza Henderson married, as before stated, 

Hamilton C. Jones, Esq. 

Many of our citizens remember this genial gentle- 
man, who passed from our midst only a few years ago. 
His country home was Como, three miles south of 
Salisbury, on the Concord Road. From Colonel 
Wheeler's Sketches we learn that ^Ir. Jones was a na- 
tive of Virginia, born in Greenville, in 1798, and grad- 
uated from the University of Xorth Carolina in 181 8, 
in the same class with President James K. Polk, Bishop 
Greene, Robert Hall ^Morrison, D. D.. and other dis- 
tinguished men. He read law with Judge Gaston at 


Newbern, and soon entered public life as a member 
of the Legislature, serving a number of terms. For 
some years he was Solicitor and reporter for the Su- 
preme Court of North Carolina. \Miile engaged in 
public affairs he exercised a great influence, and his 
speeches were listened to with attention by all. In July, 
1832, Mr. Jones started The Carolina Watchman, in the 
interest of the Whig Party, and continued to edit the 
same for a period of seven years. His paper rendered 
efficient service, and at one time he was invited to 
transfer it to Raleigh, but declined to do so. In 1839 
he sold the paper to Pendleton & Bruner, and the last- 
named editor has continued, with two or three short 
suspensions, to edit and publish The Watchman ever 
since — a period of forty-one years. 

As a humorist, Mr. Jones was not often excelled, 
possessing an inexhaustible fund of anecdotes, and the 
power to relate them by word or by pen in a manner 
pecuHarly and irresistibly ludicrous. By his marriage 
with Eliza Henderson, he left five children — Col. 
Hamilton C. Jones, a lawyer and brave soldier in the 
late war, now practicing his profession in Charlotte ; 
Capt. Martin Jones ; Martha, married to Mr. Tate, 
of Morganton ; Julia ; and AHce, married to Mr. Broad- 
nax, of Rockingham County. Mr. Jones died a few 
years ago (1887) and the home where he so long 
lived passed into other hands. A short time ago the 
residence was consumed by fire, and nothing but the 
trees and the outbuildings mark the spot once so well 
known among us. 


Another family of Old Rowan was 

The Pearson Family 

Richard Pearson, the founder of this family, was a 
native of Dinwiddie County, Va., and came to 
North Carolina at nineteen years of age, and settled in 
the Forks of the Yadkin, then Rowan, now Davie 
County. At the breaking out of the Revolutionary 
War, Richmond Pearson was a lieutenant in Captain 
Bryan's Company, and settled the political affinity of 
his Company by whipping his captain in a fist fight, as 
related in a previous chapter. Captain Pearson was 
present when Cornwallis crossed Cowan's Ford on the 
Catawba, in 1781, and witnessed the fall of the brave 
Gen. William Davidson. He was a merchant and a 
planter, and at an early day succeeded in navigating 
the Yadkin River. He is said to have established a 
combined land and water route, as follows : From his 
mills on the South Fork, by boat down the Yadkin to 
the Narrows; thence by land below the Grassy Is- 
lands ; then again by the river to Sneedsboro, which 
was then a rival of Cheraw. Perhaps when the Yad- 
kin is opened as far as Bean's Shoals, or Wilkesboro, 
for light draught steamers, according to the plan now 
undertaken, it will be found that communication may 
be practicable to the sea by water, and thus reduce the 
freights now exacted for heavy articles on the rail- 

Richmond Pearson was twice married. His first 
wife was Miss Hayden, and she bore him three sons 
and a daughter, namely : Gen. Jesse A. Pearson, 


Hon. Joseph Pearson, Richmond Pearson, and Ehza- 

By his second marriage Richmond Pearson had six 
children — Sarah, Eliza, Charles, Richmond ]\Ium- 
ford, Giles N., and John Stokes Pearson. ^lost of 
these children occupied prominent and responsible 
positions in their day. Jesse A. Pearson represented 
Rowan County in the Legislature five times. In 1814, 
he was colonel of a regiment that marched against 
the Creek Indians under Gen. Joseph Graham. He 
was first married to a daughter of Gen. John Steele, 
and afterwards to a ^Irs. Wilson, whose daughter by 
a former husband was the first wife of Archibald 
Carter, Esq., of Davie. 

Hon. Joseph Pearson was a lawyer, represented 
the borough of SaHsbury in the House of Commons, 
and was a member of Congress from 1809 to 181 5. 

Richmond Pearson, though never in public life, was 
an active, enterprising man. He is celebrated for 
having passed over the falls of the Yadkin in a boat, 
with two companions. Xobody else is known to have 
attempted this hazardous enterprise. 

But the most distinguished of the family was Rich- 
mond M. Pearson. He was born in 1805, prepared 
for college by John ]\Iushat, at Statesville, and grad- 
uated at the University of North Carolina in 1823. 
He studied law under Judge Henderson, and was 
licensed to practice in 1826. From 1829 to 1832 he 
represented Rowan County in the House of Com- 
mons. In 1836, he was elected Judge of the Superior 
Court, and in 1848 he was transferred to the Supreme 


Court of North Carolina. In 1866, he became Chief 
Justice, with XMlUam H. Battle and E. G. Reade as 
Associate Justices. In 1870, under the Shof¥ner Bill, 
Governor Holden ordered George W. Kirk, with a 
considerable body of troops, to march into Alamance, 
Orange, and Caswell Counties. ]\Iany arrests were 
made, and among others those of Josiah Turner and 
John Kerr, afterwards Judge Kerr. When applied 
to for writ of habeas corpus for some of these im- 
prisoned citizens. Judge Pearson promptly granted it, 
but declined to attach Kirk for disobeying it, declar- 
ing that the "judiciary was exhausted." Though the 
decision bore severely upon the prisoners, it is difficult 
to see how a Judge could enforce the writ, with the 
Governor in command of the troops of the State, and 
hostile to the rights of the citizen. In January, 1878, 
Chief Justice Pearson died on his way to Raleigh to 
hold the January term of the Supreme Court. ]\Ioore 
in his History says of him, that "His strong native 
ability, profound learning, and long judicial career 
have made him immortal in legal circles. It is prob- 
able that he was the profoundest jurist ever born in 
Rowan County. 

For a number of years, Judge Pearson resided at 
Richmond Hill, near Rockford, in Surry County. 
There he conducted a law school, and students from 
all parts of the State flocked to his school for instruc- 

Giles N. Pearson, a younger brother of Chief Jus- 
tice Pearson, was also a lawyer by profession, and re- 
sided in ]\Iocksville. He married a dausfhter of An- 


derson Ellis, St., of Davidson County, a sister of 
Governor Ellis. He died in 1847, leaving a wife and 
five children, several of them still surviving. 

Gov. John \\\ Ellis 

was a native of Davidson County, then Rowan, 
and was born on the twenty-third of November, 
1820. The family of the Elhses, for several 
generations, lived in the famed Jersey Settle- 
ment, on the eastern banks of the Yadkin, and 
several of them accumulated fortunes. Anderson 
Ellis, Sr., gave to his children the advantage of a 
good education, and most of them became prominent 
and useful citizens. John \\'illis was early sent to a 
classical school, taught by Robert AUison, Esq., at 
Beattie's Ford. After spending a season at Randolph- 
Macon College, in A^irginia, he went to the University 
of North Carolina, where he was graduated in 1841. 
His legal studies were pursued under Judge Pearson. 
He opened a law office in Salisbury, and by his dili- 
gence and talents soon won a place in public confi- 
dence. He bore the reputation of a hard student, and 
the passer-by would see the light of Ellis' lamp until 
long after midnight. Two years after his licensure 
he was chosen to represent Rowan County in the 
House of Commons, and he continued in that place 
until 1848, when he was elected Judge of the Superior 
'Court, when only twenty-eight years of age. He 
held this important post with credit to himself and 
honor to the State until 1858, when he was elected 
Governor of North Carolina over John Pool, of Pas- 


quotank. The issue between Ellis and Pool was what 
was called the ad valorem system of taxation, a sys- 
tem defended with great ingenuity by Pool and the 
\\'higs, but which failed to carry the Party into power. 
\\'hen, in 1861, President Lincoln called upon Gov- 
ernor ElHs for troops to serve against South Carolina, 
the Governor called for twenty thousand men — not 
to help to reduce South Carolina, but for whatever 
side the Convention of North Carolina should take. 
The Convention met and passed an ordinance of 
secession. May 20, 1861. Governor Ellis devoted all 
his energies to meet the demands of the hour. But 
his health failed him, and he resorted to the Red Sul- 
phur Springs, in Virginia, to restore his strength. But 
the flame of life flickered only a moment longer, and 
he died on the seventh of July, 1861, only a few weeks 
after the battle of Big Bethel, when Gen. (then Col.) 
D. H. Hill met and defeated Gen. B. F. Butler. Thus 
it was that his brave spirit departed from earth just 
as the storm of war began to burst over the devoted 
South. His remains sleep in quiet, in Oak Grove 
Cemetery, in Salisbury, where a shaft of polished 
marble marks his resting-place. 

Governor Ellis first married Alary, only daughter of 
Hon. Philo W^hite, a scion of the Brandon stock, and 
her remains lie by the side of his, under another mar- 
ble shaft. 

He was married a second time to Aliss Daves, a 
lady of Xewbern, N. C, and left two daughters. 

312 history of rowan county 

The Caldwell Family 

In the eastern part of Iredell County, then Rowan, 
there lived a hundred years ago a substantial citizen 
by the name of Andrew Caldwell. He was of that 
sturdy, Scotch-Irish stock that peopled so much of 
this region of the country. He married Ruth, the 
second daughter of the Hon. W'iUiam Sharpe. He 
was a leading man in his county and often represented 
his fellow-citizens in the Legislature. He had a num- 
ber of children, among them three sons widely known, 
viz. : Hon. David F. Caldwell, Hon. Joseph P. Cald- 
well, of Iredell, and Dr. Elam Caldwell, of Lincolnton. 
But we are more particularly interested in Hon. D. F. 
Caldwell, so long a citizen of Rowan County. 

David Franklin Caldwell 

was born in 1792, and pursued his literary course at 
Chapel Hill. He studied law with the Hon. Archi- 
bald Henderson, of Salisbury, and entered public life 
as a member of the House of Commons from Iredell, 
in 1816, where he served several years. After a time 
he removed to Salisbury, and in 1829, 1830, and 
1 83 1, represented Rowan in the Senate of Xorth 
Carolina. He was Speaker of the Senate in 1829. 
After this he pursued his profession as a lawyer with 
eminent success for a number of years. In 1844 he 
was promoted to the position of Judge of the Superior 
Courts of North Carolina. 

Judge Caldwell was a stern, but impartial judge, 
and presided with great dignity, keeping the witnesses. 


jurors, and lawyers in good order. ]\Iany anecdotes 
are told of his eccentricities, all leaning to the side 
of simplicity, kindness, order, and decency. A 
lawyer, then quite young, was sick during the 
Court in Washington, and was visited very 
kindly by Judge Caldwell. At a Court the next week, 
the young lawyer, still quite feeble, managed to attend, 
and when a case was called in which he was interested, 
rose to speak. "Sit down. Sir," said the Judge, in his 
sternest tones. The lawyer sat down, as if thunder- 
struck. In a moment, however, he rose again to 
speak, and was told to sit down, in still more terrible 
tones. Again he sat down, not knowi^ig what it all 
meant. Then the Judge said, ''You are not able to 
stand up, and I will hear you from your seat." The 
lawyer was amazed at the unexpected turn of affairs, 
and knowing that he would not be allowed to stand, 
addressed the Judge from his seat. Upon a certain 
occasion, it is related, a young lawyer took his seat 
inside the bar dressed in peculiarly dandyish style. 
The Judge surveyed him from head to foot, and mut- 
tered to himself, "Hair parted in the middle," "]Mus- 
tache," "Ruffled shirt," "Striped vest," "Straps," 
"Pumps." Then in thundering tones, "Get out of the 
bar!" Some older lawyer arose and informed the 
Judge that the young man was a lawyer, and had a 
right to a seat in the bar. "I beg pardon," said the 
Judge, "but I did not think that any lawyer had so 
little sense as to dress in that way." 

Upon another occasion, the Judge asked a lawyer 
for a chew of tobacco. The lawyer handed him a piece 


of plug, bitten all around. The Judge turned it around 
and around in his hand, and remarked aloud, "W^hy 
don't you cut off your tobacco, like a gentleman, and 
not gnaw it off in that indecent way?" 

Judge Caldwell had a high respect for honest labor. 
One day while passing the premises of a minister, he 
saw him with his coat off, spading up his garden. 
Lifting his hat in the old-time fashion of courtesy, he 
said: ''Saint Paul used to labor with his own hands, 
and I am glad to see one minister who is not ashamed 
to follow his example." 

His second wife lies buried under the lecture- 
room of the Presbyterian Church in Salisbury. For 
many years Judge Caldwell was in the habit of lifting 
his hat reverently every time he passed the corner. 

In 1858, being then sixty-eight years of age, he felt 
it his duty to resign his seat on the judicial bench, un- 
willing to continue until he would become unfit for his 
duties. He died, in 1867, at the age of seventy-seven, 
and his remains, unmarked by a monument, are lying 
beside the resting-place of his first wife, near the mon- 
ument of the Hon. Archibald Henderson. 

Judge Caldwell was twice married. He first married 
Fanny, the daughter of William Lee Alexander, Esq., 
and niece of Hon. Archibald Henderson. Their 
children were, William Lee, Archibald Henderson, 
Elizabeth Ruth, who married Col. Charles Fisher; 
Richard Alexander Caldwell, Esq., Dr. JuHus An- 
drew Caldwell, and Fanny ]^vIcCoy, married to Peter 
Hairston, Esq. After the death of his first wife, he 
married ]\Irs. Rebecca M. Troy, nee Xesbit, the widow 


of the late ^latthew Troy, Esq., and the half-sister of 
the late Maxwell Chambers, Esq. Her remains are 
interred beneath the Presbyterian lecture-room, near 
to Mr. Chambers' grave. She was an earnest Chris- 
tian woman, of a meek and quiet spirit. During her 
widowhood, she and her half-brother, Maxwell Cham- 
bers, lived east of town, where Capt. John Beard now 
lives. Afterwards, they purchased and lived in the 
residence where Mrs. Dr. Joseph \Y. Hall now lives. 
At the same time, Mrs. Troy, the mother of ^Matthew 
Troy, and her daughter, Catherine Troy, lived in the 
house where R. J. Holmes now resides, on Innes 

The Chambers and Troy Families 
We have already drifted into some account of one 
or two members of these families, but a fuller account 
may be interesting. During the Revolutionary War, 
Maxwell Chambers, the elder, resided in Salisbury! 
He lived on the place where Mr. S. H. Wiley's resi- 
dence now stands. Lord Cornwallis made his head- 
quarters in this house, in 1781. Alaxwell Chambers 
was the treasurer of the Committee of Safety for 
Rowan, in 1775-76, and was a true patriot, though he 
once fell under the censure of the Committee for rais- 
ing the price of powder, and it was ordered that he be 
advertised as an enemy of his country. After the war 
he lived at Spring Hill, about two miles east of Salis- 
bury, where he raised a large family. He was mar- 
ried to the daughter of George Magoune, who had 
married Hester Long, the widow of John Long, and 


mother of Alexander Long, Esq. ^laxwell Chambers 
had nine sons, named William, ]\Iaxwell — who was 
graduated at Chapel Hill in 1809, Henry, Joseph, 
Samuel, Edward, Thomas, Otho, and John. Henry 
became a lawyer, and Maxwell a physician ; the others 
were farmers. They all died early in life, some of 
them unmarried, and it is not known that any of their 
descendants are now living in this county. The late 
\\'illiam Chambers was a son of Edward Chambers, 
but left no children. John Chambers married Pan- 
thea Troy, sister of Matthew Troy, Esq., and of the 
late ]\Irs. Alaxwell Chambers. 

]\Iaxwell Chambers 

the younger, was a distant relative of the family al- 
ready mentioned, and was the son of Joseph and 
Mary Chambers, of Salisbury. Beneath the lecture- 
room of the Presbyterian Church in Salisbury, there 
are ten graves, nine of them covered with marble 
slabs, and one marked by a headstone. As there is 
historical matter inscribed on those slabs, and the gen- 
eral public never see these inscriptions, I will give the 
epitaphs in substance. Commencing next to the wall, 
we find the first monument and the oldest, with this 
inscription : 

1. William Xesbit, died November 22, 1799, aged 
sixty-four years. 

2. Adelaide Fulton, daughter of John and ]\Iary 
Fulton, died at two weeks of age. 

3. ]\Iary Fulton, died January 5, 1806, aged forty- 
five years. 


(a) She was first married to Joseph Chambers, by 
whom she had one son, Maxwell Chambers. 

(b) She was next married to William Nesbit, and 
had two children, David M. and Rebecca AI. Nesbit. 

(c) She was again married, to John Fulton, and 
had one child, Adelaide Fulton. 

4. David M. Nesbit, son of \Mlliam and Mary 
Nesbit, died October 19, 181 1, aged twenty-five years. 

5. Henry M. Troy, son of Matthew and Rebecca 
M. Troy, died July 8, 1824, aged eleven years, eleven 
months, and fifteen days. 

6. Laura Troy, daughter of Matthew and Rebecca 
M. Troy, died November 16, 1828, aged eighteen 
years, one month, one day. 

7. Rebecca M. Caldwell, second wife of Hon. D. 
F. Caldwell, died November 28, 1855, in the sixty- 
fifth year of her age. 

8. Panthea Jane Daviess, daughter of Robert and 
Anne Daviess, of Mercer County, Ky., died May 20, 
i835> SLged sixteen years. 

9. Catherine B. Chambers, consort of Maxwell 
Chambers, and daughter of Matthew and Jane Troy, 
died November 2^, 1852, aged sixty-seven years, seven 
months, and three days. 

10. Maxwell Chambers, died February 7, 1855, 
aged seventy-five years, one month, and fourteen 

From the above figures we gather that Maxwell 
Chambers was the son of Joseph and :\Iary Chambers, 
and was born on the twenty-third of January, 1780. 
Tradition states that he was born in the house now the 


residence of Thomas J. ]\Ieroney,, on ]\Iain Street. 
His early education was probably secured in Salis- 
bury, and he entered into business here with his uncle, 
a Mr. Campbell, from which we infer that his mother's 
maiden name was Campbell. After conducting busi- 
ness here for awhile, Mr. Campbell and ]\Ir. Chambers 
went to Charleston and set up in mercantile business 
there. Here ^Ir. Chambers laid the foundation of 
his fortune, and after awhile he returned to Salisbury 
and lived with his widowed half-sister, ]\Irs. Rebecca 
M. Troy. After a time he married Miss Catherine 
B. Troy, the daughter of ^Matthew Troy the elder, and 
sister of Matthew Troy the younger. It is said that 
an attachment had long existed between this couple, 
but Mr. Chambers had thought himself too poor to 
marry in his younger days. But when he had amassed 
a considerable fortune, of perhaps one or two hundred 
thousand dollars, and she being the owner of about 
thirty thousand dollars, they considered themselves in 
proper circumstances to marry, though both were 
somewhat advanced in life. They settled at the Xes- 
bit place, on Innes Street, now the home of R. J. 
Holmes, and here they ended their days. Mr. Cham- 
bers never entered into regular business again, but be- 
came a general trader, and attended to the manage- 
ment of his large estate. He was eminently success- 
ful in accumulating property, and at his death had 
amassed a fortune of nearly a half-million dollars. He 
made arrangements for the removal and liberation of 
all his slaves at his death, and these plans were faith- 
fully carried out by his executors, and between thirty 


and forty slaves were sent to the Northwest, and 
started in life in their new home. Besides legacies 
to many of his kindred and friends, and to the church 
of his choice, he left a residuary legacy to Davidson 
College, which would have amounted to two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars if the College had obtained 
all he intended for it. But owing to the limitations 
of its Charter, the College could not receive the whole 
amount, and a considerable sum went to his heirs that 
were next of kin. 

The inscription on the marble slab that covers his 
remains is probably as fair a delineation of character 
as was ever put upon a monument, and it is here 
given : 

''In his business he possessed the clearest foresight 
and the profoundest judgment. 

''In all his transactions he was exact and just. 

"In social life, dignified, but confiding, tender, and 

"In his plans, wise, prudent, and successful. 

"In his bestowments his hand was not only liberal 
but often munificent. 

"In the close of his life he set his house in order, 
willed his soul to God, and the greater part of his 
estate to the cause of education, through the church 
of his choice." 

Mr. Chambers was not promiscuously liberal, but 
only to the objects he considered worthy, and in his 
own way. Upon a certain occasion a poor man had 
his house burned down, and the next day some friend 
took around a subscription paper for his benefit. The 


paper was somewhat ostentatiously presented to ]\Ir. 
Chambers, but he utterly refused to subscribe. He 
was of course severely criticized for his illiberality; 
but while the critics were handing his penuriousness 
around, ]\Ir. Chambers quietly ordered one of his 
servants to get ready a cart, and he and his good wife 
filled it with flour, meal, lard, bacon, bed-clothing, and 
other things to the value of nearly fifty dollars, per- 
haps equal in value to the gifts of all the others com- 
bined, and the poor man found himself richer than he 
had been before the fire. Mr. Chambers never mixed 
business and charity together. He would give and 
take the last cent due in a trade, and when he chose 
to give, he gave liberally. His good wife, familiarly 
known as "Aunt Kitty," was the soul of kindness. She 
was an earnest and devout Christian, and full of faith 
and good w^orks. To her pastor, living on a salary 
rather small, and with a large family, and many visi- 
tors, she made weekly, and sometimes daily donations, 
amounting in the year to some hundreds of dollars. 
For some years before her death she was blind, but 
still patient, submissive, and charitable. Her por- 
trait, with that of her husband, hangs in the parlor of 
the manse in Salisbury, as perpetual memorials of 
their benefactions. 

Rowan County has been the home of a number of 
other distinguished men, of whom but little mention 
can be made without swelling these ^lemoirs beyond 
the limits assigned. Among these, brief mention must 
be made of 

old families of rowan 321 

Hon. John Giles 

He was a native of Salisbury, and a descendant, by 
his mother's side, of the early lawyer, John Dunn, 
Esq. He was graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in 1808. He studied law, and settled in his 
native town, where he practiced his profession for 
more than thirty years. The name of Jack Giles, as 
he was familiarly called, was known in the whole 
western part of the State. He was the clerk of the 
Rowan Superior Court for many years ; and was 
elected to Congress from his district in 1829, but was 
compelled to decline because of ill health. He never 
married, but maintained his mother and his sisters 
handsomely while he lived. One of his sisters was the 
second wife of John Fulton, after whom one of the 
streets of Salisbury is named, and also the Salisbury 
lodge of Freemasons. But the last race of the Gileses 
and Fultons has been laid in the grave, 

Hon. William C. Love 

represented the Sahsbury District in Congress in 1815. 
He was a Virginian by birth, and reared at the Univer- 
sity of that State. He studied law and removed to 
Salisbury, where he first married Elizabeth, a daugh- 
ter of the Hon. Spruce Macay, by whom he had one 
child, the late Robert E. Love, Esq. His second wife 
was Sally Yarboro, daughter of Capt. Edward 
Yarboro, and granddaughter of Alexander Long, 
Esq., of Yadkin Ferry, by whom he had two 
children, A\'illiam and Julius Love. William C. Love 


and his second wife both He buried in the private 
burying-ground of the Yarboro family in SaHsbury, 
just in the rear of Meroney's Hall, on the spot where 
the hotel for colored people now stands. 

The Fisher Family 

The Hon. Charles Fisher was a native of Rowan 
County, and was bom October 20, 1779. His father 
came to North Carolina before the Revolution, and 
was an officer of militia during the war. The subject 
of this notice was educated by Rev. Dr. John Robin- 
son, of Poplar Tent, and by the Rev. Dr. IMcPheeters, 
of Raleigh. He studied law and obtained license to 
practice, but soon abandoned the bar for the more 
stirring scenes of political life. He enjoyed the con- 
fidence of the people of Rowan County as fully as any 
man who ever lived in the county, and they delighted 
to honor him with every office for which he ever asked 
their suffrages. In 1819 he represented Rowan in the 
State Senate, and in the same year was elected from 
the Rowan EHstrict for Congress. After this term 
he again served Rowan County in the State Legisla- 
ture, and was a member of the Convention of 1835, 
called to amend the State Constitution. In 1839 he 
was again elected to Congress, over Dr. Pleasant Hen- 
derson, though the latter was a most popular man, and 
the champion of a Party supposed to be in the majority. 
Mr. Fisher was one of the most active and energetic 
men in the State, and an unyielding advocate of State 
rights against Federal encroachments and usurpations. 


Near the close of life he became a member of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, and strove to discharge 
his duty to his Creator, as he had endeavored to do his 
duty to his country. 

After a long and honored and useful life, he died 
far away from home, in Hillsboro, ]\Iiss., on the 
seventh of May, 1849. ^o monument marks his 
grave. His ashes should rest here, in one of the ceme- 
teries among the honored dead of Rowan. Air. Fisher 
married Christina, daughter of Lewis Beard, Esq., of 
Salisbury, by whom he had several children. One 
son died in infancy. His daughter Mary married a 
Mr. Hill, and removing to Georgia died there a few 
years ago. Christine, another daughter, still resides 
in Salisbury. His other son 

Col. Charles Frederick Fisher 

was the noble son of a noble sire. He was born in 
Salisbury in 1816. His preparatory education was 
conducted in the classical schools of Salisbury, and 
from them he was transferred to Yale College. He 
never studied any of the professions, but devoted his 
attention to agriculture and mining, and for several 
years was associated with Dr. Austin in the publica- 
tion of The Western Carolinian. In 1854-55, he was 
a member of the State Legislature from Rowan 
County. He succeeded the Hon. John M. Morehead 
as president of the North Carolina Railroad, in 1855, 
and continued to preside over the interests of that 
great State enterprise, with eminent skill and ability, 
until 1861. 


When the alarm of war rang throughout the land 
in 1861, Mr. Fisher at once proceeded to raise and 
equip a regiment, at the head of which he took the 
field in the early part of July. This regiment, the 
Sixth North CaroHna, had been ordered to Winches- 
ter, Va., where it was in the command of Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston when the army of the Shenandoah was 
ordered to I^Ianassas to reinforce General Beaure- 
gard. Owing to a wreck on the line of railway, there 
was a delay in the transportation of the troops which 
threatened disaster, and gave Colonel Fisher an op- 
portunity to render an important service by repairing 
the track with the aid of the trained railroad men who 
composed a large part of his command. As a reward 
for his efforts, the Sixth Regiment was allowed to 
embark on the next train that left for Manassas, and 
reached there in time to be ordered into battle by 
General Beauregard at the most critical period of the 
action, when their help was greatly needed, shortly 
after two o'clock in the afternoon. Colonel Fisher 
then led his regiment almost immediately to the bril- 
liant charge on Rickett's Battery, which destroyed and 
captured that formidable artillery, and proved the 
turning point of the battle. From that minute, as the 
official reports clearly prove, the Federal army went 
down to defeat, but Colonel Fisher himself died in 
the hour of his triumph, falling gloriously in the charge 
in which he was leading his men. In an address on 
this subject, delivered in Charlotte, N. C, on October 
12, 1901, Hon. John S. Henderson says: ''The 

cor,. CHAS. F. riSHER 


ground where the Sixth Regiment fought and de- 
stroyed jMcDowell's most formidable batteries marked 
the extreme point of the Federal advance towards 
Manassas. This is the truth of history, and Colonel 
Fisher fell in the forefront, at the time when the tide 
of battle had been first turned back, and victory had 
been assured to the Confederate army by the heroic 
and successful fighting of himself and the Sixth 

It was a gloomy day in Salisbury when the remains 
of her chivalrous son were brought home, and sorrow- 
fully laid in their resting-place in the Salisbury ceme- 
tery (Lutheran graveyard). 

Colonel Fisher married Elizabeth Ruth Caldwell, 
oldest daughter of Hon. David F. Caldwell, in July, 
1845, by whom he had several children, who were left 
in the orphanage to the care of his sister, Aliss 
Christine Fisher. The names of these children are 
Frances, Annie, and Frederick. Miss Frances Fisher, 
under the nom de plume of Christian Reid, has 
achieved an enviable reputation as a writer of elegant 
fiction. Her volume, entitled the ''Land of the Sky," 
possesses the merit of being a faithful delineation of 
the choicest scenery in Western North Carolina, 
elegantly and attractively written. This charming 
book has been the means of attracting many visitors to 
our beautiful mountains, and has rendered it quite 
fashionable for tourists to visit this region, where the 
loftiest mountains east of the ^Mississippi stand 
grouped together in stately grandeur. 

^26 history of rowan county 

The Craig Family 

The traditions of this family relate that their 
ancestors came direct from Scotland to Rowan County, 
without stopping, as most of the families did, in the 
Northern States. They were adherents of "Prince 
Charles" in his efforts to regain the throne of his 
fathers, and after the fatal battle of Culloden, April 
i6, 1746, they deemed it expedient to seek safety in 

The name "Craig," in the Scottish dialect, signifies 
a sharp, high rock or crag, and was probably given 
to the family, or assumed by them, because their hall 
or castle was situated upon some high rock, thus se- 
curing safety to life and property in the days of vio- 
lence and lawlessness. In the sixteenth century John 
Craig was one of the Scottish Reformers and a coad- 
jutor of John Knox. It was John Craig that pro- 
claimed the banns of marriage between Queen Mary 
and James Bothwell, but he openly denounced their 
union. Sir Thomas Craig, of Aberdeenshire, was a 
distinguished lawyer and Judge, who lived from 1538 
to 1608, and through his oldest son. Sir Lewis Craig, 
he left descendants, among whom are several well- 
known names in the list of Scottish lawyers. It is 
impossible at this day to connect the Rowan family 
with that of the Reformer or Jurist, but these his- 
torical personages living three hundred years ago in 
Scotland show that the name comes down from olden 
times. The Rowan family seem to have been ad- 
herents of the Church of England, as is evinced both 

Mrs. Frances Christine Fisher Tiernan 
(christian reid) 


by family tradition and from existence of an old 
Book of Common Prayer, Cambridge edition of 1766, 
still in the possession of the family, with family rec- 
ords on its flyleaves. 

About one and a half miles from the Trading Ford, 
near the road leading to Salisbury, is a place still 
known as "Craige's Old Field," where the ruins of old 
chimneys are still to be seen. Here Archibald Craige 
and Mary, his wife, settled about 1750. The title 
deeds taken out before the establishment of Rowan 
County are not registered here, but were probably 
registered at old Anson courthouse, at Mount Pleas- 
ant. But as early as 1756 we find deeds from James 
Carter and Hugh Foster, Township Trustees, to 
Archibald Craige, for lots in Salisbury. In 1758 there 
is a deed from Carter & Foster to Mary Craige. In 
the files of inventories in the Clerk's office we learn 
that Archibald Craige died May 20, 1758, and that 
Mary Craige administered on his estate. In 1764 
there is the first mention of James Craige as the pur- 
chaser of some lots in Salisbury, and in 1779 there is 
the record of a grant from the State to James and 
David Craige for five hundred acres of land on the 
south side of the Yadkin River. Summing up their 
grants and purchases we find that James and David 
Craige were the owners, jointly and severally, of 
nearly two thousand acres of land on the main 
Yadkin, the south fork of Yadkin, and Abbott's 
Creek. Putting these traditions and records together, 
we conclude that Archibald and Mary Craige were the 
founders of the Rowan family; that when Archibald 


Craige died, in 1758, his sons being too young, his 
widow became administratrix of the estate, and that 
the two sons — James, the elder, and David, the 
younger — were grown men before the Revolutionary 
War. James was the purchaser of land in 1764, and 
must have been twenty-one years old at that time. In a 
bundle of settlement papers near the close of the 
Revolution we find the name of James Craige as 
Sheriff of Rowan County. We do not find that he 
ever married here. Perhaps he removed to some 
other part of the country. 

From the record in the old Prayer Book we learn 
that David Craige was married to Polly Foster, July 
23, 1776, nineteen days after the Declaration of In- 
dependence. Hugh Foster, one of the township 
trustees, writes himself as a farmer, and perhaps ]\Irs, 
David Craige was his daughter. This David Craige is 
the one mentioned in Colonel \\'heeler's Sketches (Vol. 
I, page 80), as a lieutenant in Capt. William Temple 
Cole's Company in 1776. Colonel \\'heeler further 
states that David Craige "was distinguished for his 
bravery and patriotic daring" in those stirring times. 
But the history of those daring deeds has been allowed 
to sink into oblivion, with those of his brave com- 
panions in the great struggle for independence. He 
died in November, 1784. 

The children of David and Polly Craige, as recorded 
in the old Prayer Book, were : James Craige, born Feb- 
ruary 2, 1778; David Craige, born January 27, 1780; 
Lucy and Mary, born April, 1782 ; and Thomas Craige. 
born August 5, 1784. 


James Craige settled on the old Mocksville Road, 
six miles from Salisbury, where some of his descend- 
ants are still residing. 

Thomas Craige lived near Dr. Chunn's place, not far 
from the old Mocksville Road, and married Susan 
Jones, the sister of Judge Rowland Jones, late of 
Louisiana. He died in 1845, ^^^ ^^^^ two children — 
Thomas, who died in Shreveport; and Mary, who is 
still living and teaching in St. Louis, Mo. 

David Craige, Jr., married his cousin, Mary Foster, 
and lived on the south fork of the Yadkin, at the place 
now the residence of James Hudson. His children 
were: Robert Newton, Samuel, John, and Burton 
Craige. Robert Newton Craige lived at the home of 
his father, on South River, and died just before the 
late war, leaving two daughters. Samuel left two 
children — Sally, who married Robert Chunn and 
moved to Arkansas ; and Clitus, who was killed at the 
battle of Cedar Run in Virginia. John Craige left 
two sons and a daughter, the latter of whom. Miss 
Bettie Craige, lived with her uncle, Hon. Burton 
Craige, in Salisbury, for a number of years. 

Hon. Burton Craige 

the youngest son of David Craige, Jr., was born in 
Rowan County, March 13, 181 1, at the family resi- 
dence on the south fork of the Yadkin, a few miles 
above the point, or junction of the two rivers. His 
early days were spent on the farm and in attending 
the schools which the neighborhood afforded. About 
1823-25, he attended a classical school taught in SaHs- 


bury by the Rev. Jonathan Otis Freeman. From this 
school he went to the University of North CaroHna, 
where he was graduated in the Class of 1829. Re- 
turning to Rowan, he for three years edited The 
Western Carolinian, and studied law under David F. 
Caldwell, Esq., and was licensed in 1832. The same 
year of his licensure he was elected to the Legislature 
from the Borough of Salisbury. The Borough em- 
braced nearly the same territory comprised in the 
present Salisbury Township, and was a relic of the 
old Colonial times when Newbern, Edenton, \Mlming- 
ton, Bath, Halifax, and Salisbury were each entitled 
to a representative in the Assembly. The convention 
which met in Raleigh, June 4, 1835, to amend the con- 
stitution of North Carolina, abolished Borough repre- 
sentation, and the counties thenceforth sent represen- 
tatives according to population. In the old Borough 
system the free negroes were allowed, by sufferance, 
without specific legal right, to vote at elections, but 
under the revised constitution this was forbidden. ]\Ir. 
Craige was wont to describe with much zest how the 
different political Parties under the old system were in 
the habit of herding and penning the free negroes, and 
low white voters also, in the "Round Bottom" and 
elsewhere, guarding, feeding, and treating them for 
several days before elections, and then marching them 
into town and ''voting" them en masse. Sometimes 
the opposite Party would make a raid upon one of 
these pens, at the last moment, and carry off their 
voters in triumph. These abuses, among other things, 
led to the abolition of the Borough system. 



In 1834, ^Ir. Craige was elected to the Assembly by 
the County of Rowan. In 1836 he was united in mar- 
riage to ]\Iiss Elizabeth P. Erwin, daughter of Col. 
James Erwin, of Burke County, and great grand- 
daughter of Gen. Matthew Locke, of Rowan. The 
same year ]\Ir. Craige, being in a feeble state of health, 
visited Europe, and being much benefited returned 
home and devoted himself to the practice of his pro- 
fession. During these years he gathered around him 
a host of friends, and his practice in the Courts of 
Rowan was extensive. He possessed those qualities 
that endeared him to the people — plainness of speech, 
simplicity of manners, and familiarity in intercourse, 
without the semblance of condescension. He remem- 
bered the names and the faces of people, and the 
humblest man whom Mr. Craige had ever known 
would approach him with perfect assurance of recog- 
nition and cordial greeting. I do not know that Mr. 
Craige was peculiarly successful as a farmer himself, 
but he could talk of farming and of all the interests 
of the farmer with far more intelligence, fluency, and 
accuracy than the farmer could himself. He was as 
perfectly at ease in the homes of the humblest as he 
was polite and courteous in the parlors of the rich and 
fashionable. He was thus eminently qualified for a 
successful politician, and when in 1853 ^^ received 
the nomination for Congress, he was elected, as he was 
also in 1855-57-59 ; and he was a member of Con- 
gress when the late war began. When the convention 
of North Carolina was called, in 1 861, to determine the 
course North Carolina should pursue, ^Ir. Craige was 


sent there from Rowan County, and on the twentieth 
of May he offered the Ordinance of Secession, which 
was adopted, and which placed the State of North 
CaroHna along with her sister States of the South in 
the great struggle against the Federal Government. 
By this convention he was chosen as a member of the 
Confederate Congress, along with \\^ N. H. Smith, 
Thomas Ruffin, T. D. McDowell, A. W. Venable, J. M. 
Morehead, R. C. Puryear, and A. T. Davidson. After 
this he retired to private life, though watching with 
eager interest the mighty struggle in which his country 
was embarked. And when at last the flag which bore 
the blazonry of the ''Stars and Bars" was furled, he 
declined to take any further part in national affairs. 
He would not apply for the removal of his *'dis- 
abilities." He still practised his profession, studied 
the history and recounted the deeds of former days, 
and sought repose from the strife of public affairs in 
the bosom of his family. He died in Concord, in the 
house of his son-in-law, Mr. A. B. Young, where he 
had gone to attend the Cabarrus Court, December 30, 
1875. His remains were laid to rest in Oak Grove 
Cemetery in Salisbury, 

In stature Mr. Craige was herculean — six feet six 
inches in height, and of corresponding proportions. 
Fearless and positive in the assertion of his convic- 
tions, and with a mien and physical form that might 
have awakened the envy and excited the fear of the 
bravest knight of the days of chivalry, he instinctively 
commanded the respect of his associates, while at the 



same time he charmed them with his frank, affable, 
and jovial disposition. 

Mr. Craige left three sons and two daughters who, 
with their mother, still survive. 

James, the eldest, was a cadet at West Point, at the 
opening of the war, but he returned in haste to his 
home, entered the Confederate army, and rose to the 
rank of IMajor in the infantry. 

Kerr, the second son, was in the University of 
North Carolina when the war began, but entered the 
calvary service in Gen. Rufus Barringer's brigade. 
He served through the war, and is now a lawyer in 

Frank, the youngest, also entered the Army and 
served through the war. He now resides in Ten- 

His elder daughter is the wife of Mr. Alfred B. 
Young, of Concord, and his younger, the wife of 
Mr. John P. Allison, of Concord. 

The Stokes Family 

The Hon. John Stokes lived in Rowan County (now 
Davie), near Richmond Hill, the residence of Rich- 
mond Pearson. He was a colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary army, and lost his right hand in the affair of 
Buford's defeat in the Waxhaws. He had a silver 
cup or ''fist" made, which he wore, and in his speeches 
at the Bar he would sometimes bring down this silver 
fist with a ringing sound. 

He married EHzabeth, the daughter of Richmond 
Pearson, and half-sister of the late Chief Justice 


Pearson. He had a son named Richmond Pearson 
Stokes, who was also a lawyer. Colonel Stokes was 
at one time United States District Judge. He died in 


was for a long period a resident of Rowan County. 
He was born about 1760, and was in the Revolutionary 
army, and was taken prisoner near Norfolk in 1776, 
and confined for several months in a prison ship. For 
a number of years he was Clerk of Rowan Superior 
Court, and Clerk of the State Senate. He was elected 
by the General Assembly to the United States Senate, 
but declined to serve. In 1816 he was again elected 
Senator of the United States, and served until 1823. In 
1 83 1 he was appointed by General Jackson, Indian 
Agent in Arkansas. He removed to that State, and 
died there in 1842. 

The historian of North Carolina, Colonel Aloore, 
says of him, that "Few men were so popular as he, 
and his wit and humor were unceasing in their flow." 
Governor Stokes removed from Salisbury about 181 2, 
and settled in Wilkesboro. He was first married to 
Mary, the daughter of Col. Henry Irwin, who fell at 
the battle of Germantown. By her he had one 
daughter, named Adelaide, who became the wife of 
Henry Chambers, of Rowan. Also a son named Mont- 
ford S. Stokes, who was a Major of the North Caro- 
lina Regiment in the War with Mexico. At the open- 
ing of the late War between the States, ^lontford S. 
Stokes was Colonel of the First North Carolina State 


Troops. Colonel Stokes was killed at Ellyson's Mill, 
near Richmond, June 26, 1862. 

His second wife was Rachel ^Montgomery, the 
daughter of Hugh Montgomery, of Salisbury. By her 
he had several children — Hugh 'M. Stokes, David 
Stokes, Thomas Jefferson Stokes, and several 


THE WAR OF 1812-I4 

In tracing the history of Rowan County, it will not 
be expected that we shall enter into a detail of the 
great public affairs of the United States. And yet we 
must glance at them in order to account for events 
that took place in this county. The Barbary States, 
on the north coast of Africa, for a while obstructed 
the commerce of the United States in the Mediterra- 
nean Sea, and this led to a war with TripoH, in 1803, in 
which Commodore Preble, Lieut. Stephen Decatur, 
and Commodore Barron took a conspicuous part, and 
brought the Bashaw to make a treaty of peace, which 
was concluded in 1805. But this matter was scarcely 
settled when a greater difficulty arose. England and 
France were then at war, and the United States be- 
came involved in regard to her commerce. By "Orders 
in Council," the English government declared all 
vessels conveying produce from the United States to 
Europe legal prizes. Again, in 1806, England de- 
clared several European ports in a state of blockade. 
Napoleon, by his "Berlin Decree" and "Milan Decree," 
forbade the introduction of English goods into any 
part of Europe, and confiscated the cargoes of all such 
vessels as should submit to be searched by the Eng- 
lish. But England was in need of sailors, and as many 


of them were supposed to be employed on American 
ships she insisted upon searching the ships of the 
United States. In vain did America protest. The 
''Queen of the Seas" held our power in contempt, and 
continued to search all American vessels by force. As 
the only course left, the Congress of the United States 
passed the ''Embargo Act," by which all United 
States trading vessels were prohibited from leaving 
their ports. This Act operated not only to the dis- 
advantage of England, but was disastrous to the 
shipping interests of this country. All foreign com- 
merce was destroyed, and the people were left to their 
own resources. Coffee and tea, silks, broadcloths, 
ribbons, and all such commodities, became as rare as 
they were in the late Confederate States. This caused 
distress and murmuring, especially in New England, 
where most of the shipping was owned. In the mean- 
time. President Jefferson went out of office, and James 
Madison was inaugurated in 1809. Soon after ^ladi- 
son's inauguration the British Minister at Washing- 
ton gave assurances that England's "Orders in 
Council" would be revoked. Upon this i\Ir. Madison 
issued a Proclamation — April 19, 1809 — that the non- 
intercourse Act would be suspended after the tenth of 
the following June. This Proclamation produced 
great joy throughout the whole country, and the wave 
of gladness rolled over the land and reached the quiet 
town of Salisbury. The citizens of Rowan had a gen- 
eral parade in Salisbury, followed by an illumination 
at night. Capt. John Beard had an immense frame- 
work, something like old-time warping bars, erected in 

THE WAR OF I«I2 339 

front of his house, with candles blazing on every part 
of the structure. At the foot of it was a table filled 
with decanters and bottles containing choice liquors, 
and all his friends were invited to drink to the general 
joy. Air. Edward Chambers, son of the elder Max- 
well Chambers, made a speech to the ladies, in which 
he assured them that now the embargo was raised they 
would have less work to do, inasmuch as they could 
purchase goods from Europe. But all this joy was 
premature. The good news had hardly reached the 
most distant parts of the country before President 
Madison was assured that the British Minister had 
exceeded his instructions, and that the "Orders in 
Council" would not be revoked. And so the President 
at once issued another Proclamation countermanding 
the first. And so matters went on, English ships 
searching American vessels wherever found, with now 
and then a naval battle. 

In the meantime two remarkable natural phenomena 
occurred that filled the minds of many of our people 
with foreboding fears. The first of these was the ap- 
pearance of the celebrated comet of 1811. This comet 
was the most remarkable in appearance of all that have 
been seen in the present century. While its nucleus 
was only four hundred and twenty-eight miles in di- 
ameter, it had a tail one hundred and thirty-two mil- 
lions of miles in length, and had it been coiled around 
the earth like a serpent, it would have wrapped around 
it more than five thousand times. This comet has a 
period of thirty-three hundred and eighty-three years, 
and had not visited our heavens since B. C. 1572. Then 


it may have heralded the birth of ]^Ioses, and Amram 
and Jochebed may have gazed at it in wonder, and the 
cruel Pharaoh may have beheld it with terror, from the 
banks of the Xile. Be this as it may, many of the people 
of Rowan County were very much frightened at its 
terrible appearance, and regarded it as the harbinger 
of evil. It appeared in June, 1811, and continued to 
blaze in the western sky until November. It is related 
that late one afternoon in November, a terrible ex- 
plosion was heard, like a peal of thunder. But the 
sky was clear and serene. After this the comet was 
seen no more. Of course there was no connection 
between the explosion and the disappearance of the 
comet; but the common people naturally connected 
them together. 

On the eleventh of December another remarkable 
event occurred. At two o'clock in the morning an 
earthquake occurred, that shook the houses, toppled 
brick from the chimneys, and caused hanging furniture 
to sway backward and forward like a pendulum, and 
the water would splash out of vessels that stood on the 
floor. The period of agitation lasted from November 
until April, 1812. Sometimes there would be two or 
three shocks in a day, and then only one every two or 
three weeks. Some of the people would feel as if sea- 
sick, and all of them had awful apprehension of some 
dreadful catastrophe impending. 

Meanwhile public affairs were drifting towards a 
declaration of war. The ultimatum of the British 
government was referred in Congress to the Com- 
mittee of Foreign Relations, of which John C. Calhoun 

THE WAR OF l8l2 34I 

was chairman. This Committee reported in favor of 
a declaration of war. The bill to this end was 
adopted by Congress, and received the signature of 
President ^ladison in June, 1812. The plan of the 
war, on the part of the United States, was to seize the 
British Provinces in Canada. This was looked upon 
as an easy method of bringing England to terms, while 
little was expected from the infant navy. As it turned 
out, the navy of the United States made a brilliant rec- 
ord of heroism, while disaster after disaster character- 
ized the land forces. 

But to return to Rowan County, we learn that the 
military spirit pervaded the whole community in 1812 
and 181 3. Great volunteer meetings were held, and 
companies and regiments paraded in the streets of 
Salisbury. Patriotic speeches were made, and volun- 
teers stepped into the ranks of the recruiting officers. 
Barracks were erected on the eastern side of Crane 
Creek, on the plantation owned by the late Samuel 
Reeves, and the barracks were under the command of 
Col. James \\'elborn, of Wilkes County, Most of the 
companies were sheltered in cabins erected for the 
purpose, but it is remembered that Captain Cloud's 
Company, from Stokes County, preferred to live in 
tents. Capt. Jerry Cloud was the father of the Hon. 
J. M. Cloud, and died near Norfolk, in the encamp- 
ment with his Company, from the ravages of disease 
superinduced by measles. 

Besides Colonel \\>lborn, in command, the officers 
were Captain \\'ard, Lieutenant Bearing, and Paymas- 
ter Glenn. I suppose the proper title for the barracks 


would be a "Camp of Instruction." Recruits of vol- 
unteers and enlisted men came here from all Western 
North Carolina, from South Carolina, and from 
Georgia. Here they were drilled, embodied, and sent 
off to the army on the borders of Canada. Some of 
them went to Sackett's Harbor. They marched to 
Portsmouth, in Mrginia, and went thence in trans- 
ports as near to Lake Champlain as they could 
go by water. The camp remained in active operation 
until late in 1813. When news of a victory by Com- 
modore Perry, or Capt. Isaac Hull, or the defense of 
Fort ]\Ieigs by the gallant Harrison, or any other en- 
couraging news came, the event was duly celebrated 
at the barracks, or by a feast or dance in some of the 
parlors of the town. There may have been thanks- 
giving services in some of the churches in the country, 
but Salisbury had no church and no minister in those 

While the war was raging on the northern frontier, 
the Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabama took up 
arms against the white settlers. The celebrated 
Tecumseh made a visit to the Southern Indians in the 
spring of 1812, and excited them to resistance. The 
white inhabitants on the Alabama River, in August, 
1813, having taken refuge in Fort ]\Iimms, in the Ten- 
saw Settlement, were attacked by the Indians, under 
their chief, Billy Weatherford, and out of the three 
hundred men, women, and children there assembled, 
only seventeen escaped. This was August 30, 181 3. 
In this massacre, Dr. Spruce Macay Osborne, son of 
Col. Adlai Osborne, then a surgeon in the army, was 

THE WAR OF l8l2 343 

killed. This unprovoked massacre aroused the whole 
country, and an army of thirty-five hundred men was 
raised, chiefly in Tennessee, and placed under the com- 
mand of Gen. Andrew Jackson. In the meantime, the 
militia from the Salisbury Congressional District were 
ordered to rendezvous in Salisbury on the first day of 
January, 1814, in order to raise a regiment to march 
against the Creek Indians. It rained and snowed all 
that day, but notwithstanding the weather the militia 
flocked in, and were sheltered for the night in the 
houses of the Salisbury people. On the next day 
they were transferred to the barracks, and the work 
of enlistment went on. Some volunteered, others were 
"detached," until a regiment was formed, which was 
placed under the command of Col. Jesse A. Pearson. 
Gen. Joseph Graham was his superior oflicer in com- 
mand of the expedition. To this regiment the ladies 
of Salisbury, headed by Mrs. Moses A. Locke, pre- 
sented a handsome flag of blue silk, bordered with 
fringes and tassels of gold. In the center it bore the 
emblem of the United States, the eagle, painted by 
Wayne Evans, the son-in-law of Barna Krider. Upon 
it was also painted a motto composed by Mrs. Locke, 
as follows : "Let not the rage of war obliterate honor 
and humanity towards the females of our savage foe." 
This flag was presented to the regiment by Mr. John 
Lewis Beard, son of Capt. John Beard, in behalf of the 
ladies, at the old race-track. The Rowan Company in 
this regiment was commanded by Capt. Jacob Krider, 
of Salisbury. James Gillespie was a lieutenant, and 
John Faust, ensign. Many hearts were sad in Rowan 


County when this regiment marched out of SaUsbury 
towards Alabama. But, aside from the fatigues and 
dangers of the march, they were never in peril. While 
they were on their way to join General Jackson, that 
intrepid chief had met and annihilated the Creek war- 
riors at Tohopeka, in the Horseshoe Bend of the Tal- 
lapoosa River. This was March 27, 1814. After 
this victory the submission of the Indians was com- 
plete, and our troops had nothing to do but to turn 
around and march home again. \^ery few incidents 
of this expedition have been handed down. Tradi- 
tion, however, relates Captain Krider's method of re- 
ducing a refractory and disorderly soldier into good 
behavior. He had such a soldier in his Company and 
he used all the plans he could think of for this soldier's 
reformation. At last, while encamped on the banks 
of one of the Georgia or Alabama rivers, a new idea 
struck the captain. He had a forked stake driven 
down near the bank of the river, and procuring a long 
pole, he tied the refractor}^ soldier to one end of it by 
his hands and feet, something after the style of a dip 
net, and balancing the pole on the stake, he caused him 
to be let down into the water. As this was about 
May, in a warm latitude, it first seemed to amuse the 
soldier, and he laughed at the experiment. But his 
open mouth caused him to ship too much water, and 
as the process of dipping went on inexorably and 
seemed about to be endless, he was at last subjugated, 
confessed his errors, and promised to give no more 
trouble. He kept his promise. The names of Captain 

THE WAR OF l8l2 345 

Krider's Company are on file in a printed volume in 
the clerk's ofiice in Salisbury. 

In the meantime the war was drawing to a close, and 
a treaty of peace was agreed upon at Ghent, December 
24, 1814, ratified by the Prince Regent of England, 
the twenty-eighth of the same month, and by the 
United States, the seventeenth of February, 1815. 
The ratification of the treaty was celebrated in Sahs- 
bury on the fourth of March, 181 5, by processions, 
speeches, and by a monster ball. The people danced all 
night, and at sunrise the next morning Mr. Hugh 
Horah rang the courthouse bell as a signal for break- 
ing up. 

At the close of the war, everything settled down into 
the peaceful routine of life. But the flame of patri- 
otism burned brightly in the hearts of the people. Hav- 
ing made sacrifices to maintain their rights as a free 
people, they endeavored to keep themselves reminded 
of the value of their heritage. Hence they celebrated 
two national festivals annually. One of these was the 
twenty-second of February, the birthday of Washing- 
ton. The death of this eminent man occurred on the 
fourteenth of December, 1799, and for a quarter of a 
century afterwards there were many still living who 
had seen the "Father of His Country." His distin- 
guished services were not forgotten, and the people 
loved to do honor to his memory. It is a pity that the 
lapse of nearly a century has so far displaced his 
image from the memory of our people that they have 
forgotten even to notice the day. 


The other anniversary was the Fourth of July. 
Upon this occasion the Declaration of Independence 
was read, patriotic speeches were made, toasts were 
drunk, and as a matter of course the ceremonies wound 
up with a ball, at some spacious hall or public parlor. 

From these scenes we will turn to some of another 
character, in our next chapter. 



The history of society in Rowan County would not 
be complete without a glimpse at the system of do- 
mestic slavery as it existed here from the first establish- 
ment of the county. The early settlers were slave- 
holders, and on the register's volumes you will find 
here and there a "Bill of Sale" for a negro slave, and 
in the volumes of Wills you will see how the fathers of 
the early days bequeathed the negro man Pompey, 
or Caesar, or Ned, or Joe, to one son, and Scipio, or 
Hannibal, or Cato, or Adam to another son, while their 
daughters received bequests of negro girls and women, 
by the names of Bet and Sal, Luse and Dinah. The 
question may sometimes have been raised in their 
minds whether it was right to hold men and women in 
perpetual slavery; but when they opened their Bibles 
and read how Abraham bought slaves and had slaves 
born in his house ; and how Moses, by divine direction, 
provided for the release and redemption of Hebrew 
slaves, but left no provision for the release of the slave 
of foreign birth, but allowed him to be bought and sold 
at the will of their masters ; and when they read how 
slavery was recognized by Christ and his apostles, their 
doubts as to the rightfulness of the institution in the 
sight of God vanished. They did not feel themselves 


responsible for its introduction among them. That 
had been accompHshed a hundred years and more be- 
fore their time, when the Dutch sold slaves to the 
Virginians at Jamestown, in 1620, or when citizens of 
Massachusetts, in 1636, built a slave ship at IMarble- 
head and sent it to Africa for slaves. Bancroft re- 
lates that the representatives of the people ordered the 
negroes to be restored to their native land, and im- 
posed a fine twice the price of a negro upon anyone 
who should hold any "black mankind" to perpetual 
service. He, however, ingeniously admits that the law 
was not enforced, and that there was a disposition in 
the people of the colony to buy negroes and hold them 
as slaves forever (History United States, Vol. i, 
Chapter 5). Stephens, in his History, states that 
many of the most prominent men of the Colony of 
Massachusetts purchased slaves out of the first cargo 
brought from Africa, in 1638, in the Marblehead 
slave ship, "Desire." 

As population drifted into North Carolina, slavery 
came along with it — from Virginia, from Pennsyl- 
vania, and from more Northern States. And when, in 
time, it was discovered that slavery was an unprofitable 
institution in the bleaker regions of New England, and 
the moral sentiments of the people began to recognize 
it as unlawful as well as unprofitable, many of the 
slaves were sold off to more genial latitudes. The 
mild climate, the fertile soil, and the unreclaimed 
wilderness of North Carolina furnished an inviting 
field for the employment of slave labor. And in gen- 
eral, just as fast as the early settlers accumulated 


enough money to purchase a slave, it was expended in 
that way. This was peculiarly the case with the En- 
ghsh and Scotch-Irish settlers, and the immigrants 
from Virginia, but not so prevalent among the German 
settlers, though many of them also followed the same 
practice. As stated before, the records of the early 
days of Rowan show the presence of slaves in the 
county. At the first census, in 1790, there were 1,839 
negroes in the county, including the territory now em- 
braced in Davidson and Davie, as well as Rowan. In 
1800 there were 2,874 negroes. In 1830 the number 
had increased to 6,324. The separation of Davie and 
Davidson Counties reduced the number to 3,463 in 
1840, and it rose to 4,066 in i860. In the last-named 
year the white population of Rowan was 10,523, or 
about two and one-half whites to each negro. 

The character of Rowan County slavery was gen- 
erally mild and paternal. On a few plantations, prob- 
ably, where a considerable number of slaves were 
quartered, and it was necessary to employ an overseer, 
there was severity of discipline, and hard labor; for 
the overseer himself was a hireling, and it was import- 
ant for his popularity that he should make as many 
barrels of corn and as many bales of cotton as possible, 
with the least outlay of money and provisions. But 
even then the overtasked or underfed slave had access 
to his master, either directly or through the young 
masters and mistresses, who felt a personal interest in 
the slave, and would raise such a storm about the ears 
of a cruel overseer as would effectually secure his dis- 
missal from his post. The slave represented so much 


money, and aside from considerations of humanity, the 
prudent and economical owner could not afford to 
have his slave maltreated and his value impaired. 
There was of course room for abuse in all this, and 
there were heartless and tyrannical masters, and there 
were oppressed and suffering slaves, just as there is 
tyranny and oppression in every form of social ex- 
istence in this fallen and ruined world. 

But with many families, where there were only a 
few slaves, the evils of servitude w^re reduced to a 
minimum. The slave was as warmly clothed, as se- 
curely sheltered, and as bountifully fed as his master. 
He worked in the same field, and at the same kind of 
work, and the same number of hours. Sometimes the 
clothing was coarser and the food not so delicate ; but 
often the clothing was from the same loom and the 
food from the same pot. The negro had his holidays 
too — his Fourth of July, his Christmas, and his Gen- 
eral Cluster gala day. And where the family altar was 
established, evening and morning the negroes, old and 
young, brought in their chairs and formed a large cir- 
cle around the capacious hearth of the hall-room, while 
the father and master priest opened the big family 
Bible, and read the words of life from its sacred pages. 
And when the morning and evening hymn were sung, 
the negroes, with their musical voices, joined in and 
sang the ''parceled lines" to the tune of Windham or 
Sessions, Xinety-fifth or Old Hundred. They wor- 
shiped in the same church with their masters, com- 
fortably seated in galleries constructed for their use, 
and when the Lord's supper was administered, they 


came forward and sat at the same tables where their 
masters had sat, and drank the sacred wine from the 
same cups. 

In all this we are not affirming that there was social 
equality, or that the slave was always contented with 
his lot in life. No doubt he often chafed under the 
yoke of bondage, and sometimes when his master dealt 
hardly with him he ran away, and hid in the swamps 
and thickets, sustaining life by stealing, or by the aid 
of his fellow-servants who sympathized with him and 
who faithfully kept his secret from his master. Our 
weekly newspapers used to have pictures of fugitive 
negroes, with a stick over their shoulders, and with a 
bundle swinging to it, and the startling heading in 
large capitals ''RUNAWAY." Something after this 
style : 

And many a time the white children on their way to 
or from school, would almost hold their breath as they 
passed some dark swamp or deserted house, when they 
remembered that a runaway had been seen in the 
neighborhood. Generally the runaway got tired of 
lying out in a few weeks, especially if winter was near, 
and voluntarily came home and submitted to whatever 
punishment was decided upon. 


Occasionally there were cruel hardships suffered by 
them. \\'hen the thriftless master got in debt, or 
when the owner died and his estate was sold at vendue, 
or if the heartless master chose, the negro husband and 
wife might be separated, or parent and child might be 
sold from each other, one party falling into the hands 
of a negro trader, and carried off to Alabama or 
Mississippi. Such cases occurred at intervals, and un- 
der the laws there Vv^as no help for it. But in all such 
cases the feelings of humane and Christian elements 
of the community were shocked. Generally, however, 
arrangements were made to purchase, and keep in the 
neighborhood, all deserving negroes. As sales would 
come on it was the habit of the negroes to go to some 
man able to buy them and secure their transfer to a 
desirable home. Sometimes, however, all this failed, 
and the "negro trader" having the longest purse would 
buy and carry off to the West husbands or wives or 
children against their will. Older citizens remember 
the gangs of slaves that once marched through our 
streets with a hand of each fastened to a long chain, in 
double file, sometimes with sorrowful look, and some- 
times with a mockery of gayety. The house of the 
trader was, perhaps, a comfortable mansion, in some 
shady square of town. Xear the center of the square, 
and embowered in trees and vines, was his "barra- 
coon," or prison for the unwilling. There a dozen or 
two were carefully locked up and guarded. Other 
cabins on the lot contained those who were submissive 


and willing to go. On the day of departure for the 
West the trader would have a grand jollification. A 
band, or at least a drum and fife, would be called into 
requisition, and perhaps a little rum be judiciously dis- 
tributed to heighten the spirits of his sable property, 
and the neighbors would gather in to see the departure. 
First of all one or two closely covered wagons would 
file out from the ''barracoon," containing the rebellious 
and unwilling, in handcuffs and chains. After them 
the rest, dressed in comfortable attire, perhaps danc- 
ing and laughing, as if they were going on some holi- 
day excursion. At the edge of the town, the fife and 
drum ceased, the pageant faded away, and the curious 
crowd who had come to witness the scene returned to 
their homes. After months had rolled away the 
"trader's" wagons came back from Montgomery, 
Memphis, Mobile, or New Orleans, loaded with lux- 
uries for his family. In boxes and bundles, in kegs and 
caskets, there were silks and laces, watches and jew- 
elry, ribbons and feathers, candies and tropical fruits, 
wines and cordials, for family use and luxurious in- 
dulgence, all the profits of an accursed traffic in human 
flesh and blood, human tears and helpless anguish and 
oppression. This was the horrible and abominable 
side of this form of social institution. It was evil, 
wretchedly evil. But it had and has its counterpart 
in the social evils of the poorer classes of all ages and 
all lands. Multitudes today, by inexorable necessity, 
by poverty and the demands for certain kinds of serv- 


ice, are as hopelessly enslaved by circumstances as 
these were by law. This is not alleged as an excuse 
or apolog-y for a crying evil, but only as an intimation 
that he who is without sin may consistently throw 
stones at the vanished specter of African slavery in 
the Southern States. And glad are we that the specter 
has vanished from our fair land. 



The population of Rowan County, it has been truth- 
fully said, was made up of almost all the nations of 
Europe. There were English, Welsh, Scotch, and the 
ever present Scotch-Irish, the pure Irish, the French, 
and Germans from the upper and lower Rhine, the 
Palatines and Hessians, with now and then a Switzer 
or Italian. These all brought their own peculiar hab- 
its, prejudices, and national superstitions. And 
when these were all mingled together, and supple- 
mented by the belief in spells, charms, and fetishes of 
the African race, there was a little of almost every 
superstition under the sun. Let us catch a glimpse, 
before it vanishes forever, of this undercurrent of 

Popular Superstition 

as it existed a few generations ago, and may still 
exist in certain localities in Rowan County. It is but 
the reiteration of a well-known historical fact, when 
we assert that all nations and peoples have had their 
superstitious beliefs and practices ; and it is no dis- 
credit to the inhabitants of Rowan to say that they 
shared with their contemporaries in the popular super- 
stitions of the day. Prominent among these was the 

356 history of rowax county 

Belief ix Witches 

No man was ever burnt in Rowan County for witch- 
craft, as they wxre in some counties claiming to be 
more civiHzed. But this was owing, either to the su- 
perior charity of the people, or to the fact that they 
supposed themselves able to overmatch the witches 
with countercharms. A witch was generally sup- 
posed to be an old woman in league with the devil, and 
able to do wonderful things by Satanic agency. The 
usual way to become a witch was to go down to the 
spring at the dawn of day, and looking down at the 
image dimly outlined in the water, pledge the soul to 
Satan, upon condition of his rendering them the help 
needed. After this compact the v.-itches could do won- 
derful things, such as riding on broomsticks through 
the air, transforming themselves into black cats, 
rabbits, and other animals. \\'alking along the road 
late in the evening, a man alleged that he saw three 
women sitting on a log beside the road. As he looked 
at them, the women suddenly melted from view, and 
three antlered deer galloped off in their stead. The 
witch or wizard was supposed to have power to trans- 
fer corn from the horse-trough of his neighbor to his 
own horse, and while his neighbor's horses got poor 
and lean, his own were sleek and fat. To see a rabbit 
hopping about a barn suggested the presence of a witch 
making arrangements to abstract the corn from the 
horses, or the milk from the cows. But an old-fash- 
ioned shilling, with its pillars of Hercules, nailed in the 
horse-trough, was supposed to break the spell and keep 


the corn in the trough. The only way of kilHng the 
witch rabbits and black cats was by using a silver bul- 
let. The rabbit would vanish, but the witch at home 
would suddenly die of heart disease or apoplexy. In 
the meantime, the witches were supposed to use a pecu- 
Har kind of a gun, which was simply a glass phial, open 
at both ends, and a bullet made of knotted and twisted 
hair. This bullet possessed the wonderful property of 
penetrating the flesh of an animal without making any 
hole in the skin. It was alleged that such bullets were 
found, and animals often, being skinned, would show 
the hole through which these bullets went. 

It was believed that witches rode on the necks of 
horses at night, and their knotted stirrups were some- 
times seen in the manes of the horses. In these cases, 
they assumed the form of rabbits. A story used to be 
related of the mistake of an inexperienced witch in try- 
ing to increase the amount of butter at a churning. 
She took her cream, and measured it into her churn 
by the spoonful, repeating at each dip, "a spoonful 
from that house,'' and "a spoonful from that house." 
Unfortunately, speaking in German, she got the word 
for ladle instead of spoon, and so said, *'a ladleful from 
that house." As a consequence, when she began to 
churn, the cream began to swell up as the ladlefuls 
came in, until the churn was full and it ran over and 
flooded the room. At that juncture a neighbor walked 
in, and found her unable to account for the abundance 
of cream, and in her confusion she divulged the em- 
barrassing secret. 

358 history of rowan county 

Spells and Charms 

Intimately connected with this witchcraft was the 
belief in spells and charms. This was very common 
among the negroes, and perhaps continues to this day. 
Nothing was more common than to account for cert am 
obscure diseases as the result of a "trick." The sick 
person was said to be ''tricked." This was supposed 
to be done in various ways, but very frequently by 
making some mixture of roots, hair, parings of finger- 
nails, and other ingredients, tying the compound up m 
a cloth, and laying it under a doorstep, or piece of 
wood or stone where the victim had to tread, or per- 
haps was put into the spring or well. In such emer- 
gencies the only refuge was a ''trick doctor" or con- 
jurer, who knew how to brew a medicine, or repeat a 
charm more potent than the spell laid on. Such "trick 
doctors" were to be found in the memory of persons 
still living. They were generally men of a shrewd, 
unscrupulous character, who managed to delude the 
minds of the gullible victims of trickery. He who was 
weak enough to believe in the "trick," was not hard to 
be persuaded and imposed upon by the conjurer. ]\Iar- 
velous stories were told of the skill of these conjurers. 
So potent was the skill of one of these that he needed 
no lock on his crib or smokehouse. All he did was to 
draw a circle in the dust or earth around his premises, 
and the thief who dared enter that magic circle would 
be found standing there next morning, with his bag of 
stolen meat or corn on his shoulder. One of these 
conjurers was believed to have the power of taking 


some straws and turning a thief's track upside down, 
and compelling- him to come and stand on the reversed 
track. The premises of a man with such a reputation 
were generally safe without lock or key. To do them 
justice, the conjurers were generally very moderate in 
their charges, seeming to find their reward in the rep- 
utation which they achieved among their neighbors. 
And their countercharms and potions were generally 
innocent, and only calculated to work upon the imagi- 
nation. Sometimes they used real remedies, supple- 
menting them with certain passes and motions. For in- 
stance, many years ago, a boy cut his foot badly with 
an ax. The wound was loosely and awkwardly bound 
up, and the blood continued to flow, until the lad was 
like to die. In this emergency a neighbor was sent for 
about midnight to staunch the blood by "using" for it. 
He came promptly, and carefully unbound the foot, 
washed off the clotted blood, adjusted the lips of the 
wound, and bound on it the fleshy scrapings of sole 
leather. After this, he took another sharp tool, a draw- 
ing knife, and made various passes over the foot, at 
the same time muttering come cabalistic words — per- 
haps a verse from the Bible. The remedy as a whole 
was eminently successful, but the patient was dis- 
posed to attribute the cure to the careful adjustment, 
and the astringent properties of oak bark absorbed in 
tanning by the scrapings of the leather, rather than to 
the magic "passes" and the muttered words. 

It was believed that if witch rabbits sucked the cows 
it would cause them to give bloody milk. The remedy 
for this was to milk the cow through a knothole of a 


piece of rich pine plank, and the reader may have seen, 
as the writer has, such pieces of plank, with a knothole 
in them, hanging up beside the kitchen, and ready for 
use at any time. In those days a worn horseshoe nailed 
over the door was regarded as a spell against witch 
power, and the cause of good luck. At present it has 
become the fashion to form many ornaments after the 
horseshoe pattern as a symbol of good luck. Some 
persons believed that if a rabbit ran across the road 
from the right to the left hand, it foreboded bad luck, 
but if from the left to the right, good luck. To catch 
the first glimpse of the new moon through the branches 
of the trees was a token of trouble during the next 
month, but if seen in the open sky the first time it was 
the harbinger of a prosperous month. For a funeral 
procession to stop before getting off the premises or 
plantation was a sign that another funeral would soon 
take place from the same house. But the great em- 
bodiment of signs was the moon, and in many families 
scarcely anything of importance was undertaken with- 
out first inquiring whether it would be in the *'dark" 
or the ''light" of the moon. The Salem almanac was 
and is an institution that no prudent believer in the 
signs would think of dispensing with. Com, potatoes, 
turnips, and beans, in fact everything, must be planted 
when the sign is right, in the head, or the feet, or the 
heart, in Leo or Taurus, in Aquarius or Pisces, in 
Gemini or Cancer, according as large vegetables or 
many vegetables are desired. Briars are to be cut and- 
fence foundations laid exactly in the right sign, or 
success is not expected. In fact, attention to the signs 


frequently superseded attention to the seed and the 
soil, and the proper method of cultivation, and has 
probably done much to retard agricultural progress. 

There is a charm in the mysterious that fascinates 
the untutored mind ; and many would rather be skillful 
in discerning the signs than prudent in bestowing pro- 
ductive labor. 

It would be an endless task to enumerate all the 
superstitious notions that have floated through the 
popular mind, and that have been the theme of serious 
conversation and meditation among the people, in the 
century and a half that has passed since this region 
was peopled. With many, these superstitions have 
been but a fancy, a curious theme of discussion, not 
seriously believed. But others have been the slaves 
of these unfounded notions, and have been made 
miserable by the howling of a dog, or the ticking of a 
''death watch" in the wall. As the light of education 
and religion is more widely diffused, this slavery has 
passed away, and there are probably few today who 
are willing to confess their belief in the notions that 
still Hnger in their minds as traditions of their fathers. 



The early settlers of Rowan County were religious 
people, and in many instances the enjoyment of perfect 
liberty of conscience was the great object which they 
were seeking when they were making for themselves 
a home in the Western world. The poor Palatines had 
endured much suffering in their home on the Rhine, 
and been driven forth to seek shelter for their families 
in foreign lands. They, or their descendants, found a 
resting-place in Eastern Rowan. The Scotch-Irish 
fled from the North of Ireland, in consequence of dis- 
abilities imposed on them for the sake of their religion. 
They found a home in the fertile lands of \\^estern 
Rowan ; and with them they brought an intense love 
for their own peculiar doctrines and forms of worship. 

Presbyterianism in Rowan 

is older than the organization of the county, not only 
in the affections and doctrines of the settlers, but in 
the form of organized Presbyterian congregations. On 
pages forty-six and forty-seven of the first volume of 
deeds in the Register's office, we find it recorded that, 
on the seventeenth of January, 1753, John Lynn and 
N'aomi Lynn gave a deed for twelve acres of land, 
more or less, on James Cathey's line, in Anson County, 


"to a congregation belonging to ye Lower meeting- 
house, between the Atking River and ye Catabo Do., 
adhering to a minister Hcensed from a Presbytery be- 
longing to the old Synod of Philadelphia." This deed 
was witnessed by Edward Cusick, John Gardiner, and 
William Brandon. On the eighteenth of January, 
1753, a similar deed for twelve acres more, ''on James 
Cathey's north line/' was conveyed to the same con- 
gregation. From this we learn that there was an or- 
ganized congregation of Presbyterians at this point, 
capable of purchasing land, and its popular name was 
the 'Xower Meeting-house." The second name by 
which it was known was ''Cathey's Meeting-house," 
doubtless because in the neighborhood of the Catheys. 
Its third and present name was and is Thyatira. 
Whether it was an organized church, with its regularly 
ordained elders, at that early day, we have no means of 
determining. It is probable that some of the first set- 
tlers — the Catheys, Brandons, Barrs, Andrews, Gra- 
hams, or Nesbits — were ordained elders before leaving 
Pennsylvania, and exercised their office in planting a 
church near their new homes. 

A second thought suggested by the name, "Lower 
Meeting-house," is that there was at that date an 'Tap- 
per Meeting-house," or perhaps more than one. The 
"Upper" one would naturally be looked for higher up 
the principal streams — the Yadkin and Catawba — and 
was no doubt to be found in the settlement where 
Statesville was afterwards built, and which was after- 
wards divided into the three churches of Fourth Creek, 
(Statesville), Concord, and Bethany. These four 


churches of Rowan, with seven churches of Mecklen- 
burg, constituted the eleven historical churches of 
Western North Carolina, whose boundaries were de- 
fined, and whose organization was completed, by the 
missionaries, Rev. Messrs. Spencer and McWhorter, 
in 1764. The latter is the date generally assigned as 
the time of their organization, but most of them are 
really a dozen or perhaps twenty years older, or con- 
temporaneous with earliest settlement. 

From the History of Fourth Creek Church, written 
by Rev. E. F. Rockwell, we learn that Fourth Creek 
was gathered into a congregation at least as early as 
1751, and their place of worship was fixed upon as 
early as 1756. The Rev. John Thompson came into 
this region as early as 1751^ and settled near Center 
Church. He 'preached at Fourth Creek, and various 
other stations in Rowan County, for about two years, 
and it is said the people came twenty or twenty-five 
miles to his appointments. ''From the Davidson Set- 
tlement and the region of Beattie's Ford, they came; 
from Rowan, the Brandons, the Cowans, the Brawleys. 
Sometimes he baptized a score of infants at once." 
He had one preaching station near where Third Creek 
Church is, one at ^Morrison's Mill, one near the present 
site of Davidson College. As Cathey's Meeting-house 
(Thyatira) was established about this time, or earlier, 
no doubt John Thompson preached at that place also. 

From a manuscript map of Fourth Creek congrega- 
tion, drawn up by Hon. William Sharpe in 1773, it 
appears that there were one hundred and ninety-six 
heads of families, one hundred and eleven different 


names, residing within ten miles of Fourth Creek 
Church, and belonging to the congregation. The num- 
ber of persons, at the usual estimate of five to a family, 
would be nearly one thousand. Out of these were 
formed, in later days, the churches of Fourth Creek, 
Concord, Bethany, Shiloh, Bethesda, Third Creek, 
Fifth Creek, Tabor, and Clio, or parts of them, now 
numbering one thousand and ninety-seven members. 
But though these were in Old Rowan, they are now in 
Iredell County. Cathey's or Thyatira is the mother 
church of modern Rowan Presbyterians. In 1753, 
two missionaries were sent by the Synod of Philadel- 
phia to visit Virginia and North Carolina, with direc- 
tions to show special regard to the vacancies between 
the Yadkin and Catawba. The names of these min- 
isters were MciMordie and Donaldson. In the fall of 
1755, the Rev. Hugh McAden made a tour through 
North and South Carolina, preached at Cathey's Meet- 
ing-house, and was solicited to remain, but declined. 
The same year, the Rev. John Brainard and the Rev. 
Elihu Spencer were directed by the Synod of New 
York to supply vacant congregations in North Caro- 
lina, but there is no report of their visit. For ten 
years after this, there is no record of any laborer 
in this region, but the congregations still held to- 
gether and awaited the arrival of a minister. In 
1764 the Synod of Philadelphia sent the Rev. ^Messrs. 
Elihu Spencer and Alexander ]\Ic\Miorter to form 
societies, adjust the boundaries of congregations, 
ordain elders, and dispense the sacraments. It was 
at this period that the seven churches of ^lecklenburg, 


and the two churches of Rowan — Fourth Creek and 
Thyatira — were definitely established. The next year, 
1765, Fourth Creek and Thyatira united in a call for 
the services of the Rev. Elihu Spencer, and the con- 
gregations sent wagons, accompanied by elderly men, 
all the way to New Jersey to move his family to 
Rowan. It is said that he declined to come because 
the messengers refused to pledge themselves to restore 
his wife to her friends in the event of his death at an 
early day. It was eight years more before Thyatira 
obtained a minister. In 1772, the Rev. Mr. Harris, of 
whom we know nothing further, took charge of the 
church, and remained about two years. In 1778, the 
Rev. James Hall became pastor of Fourth Creek, Con- 
cord, and Bethany Churches, and in 1777 the Rev. 
Samuel Eusebius IMcCorkle was ordained and installed 
pastor of Thyatira Church. Mr. McCorkle was born 
in Lancaster County, Pa., in 1746, and came with his 
parents to Rowan in 1756. He prepared for college 
under the Rev. David Caldwell, of Guilford, and 
was graduated from Princeton in 1772. He was 
licensed by the Presbytery of New York in 1774, and 
then preached two years in Virginia. After preaching 
about eight years in Thyatira, he commenced a classical 
school, about a mile east of the church, which he called 
*'Zion Parnassus Academy." This school was emi- 
nently useful, and Dr. McCorkle's students were 
thoroughly drilled, and six of the seven graduates of 
the first class from the University of North Carolina 
were Dr. McCorkle's pupils. Forty-five of his students 
entered the ministry, and many of them became law- 


yers, judges, and officers of the State. The signal suc- 
cess of his pupils in achieving eminence arose from his 
faithfulness in discouraging young men who were des- 
titute of respectable talents from following any of the 
learned professions. 

In 1795, the trustees of the University of North 
CaroHna elected Dr. ]\IcCorkle Professor of Moral and 
Political Philosophy and History, with the view of 
his acting as president. General Davie, it seems, ob- 
jected to the arrangement, and this caused Dr. Aic- 
Corkle to decline the place. In 1796, the Rev. Joseph 
Caldwell was elected to the chair of ^lathematics, and 
presiding professor, and for forty years guided the m- 
stitution in its career of usefulness. But Dr. McCor- 
kle did not cease to labor for the advancement of the 
infant University. He made many excursions to raise 
funds for its endowment, was present at the laying of 
the cornerstone of the first building, and made an ad- 
dress upon that occasion. He did not cease to love the 
University to the end of his Hfe. On the second of 
July, 1776, the Rev. Samuel E. McCorkle was married 
to Margaret Gillespie, of Salisbury, the daughter of 
the patriotic Mrs. Elizabeth Steele, who relieved the 
distress of General Greene, in Salisbury, by the timely 
supply of money. She bore him ten children, six of 
whom survived him, and some of their descendants are 
still living in Thyatira. Dr. ]\IcCorkle received his 
death warrant in the pulpit, being stricken with palsy 
while conducting the ser^nces of the sanctuar\^ He 
lingered on for a number of years, unable to fulfill the 
duties of the ministry, except by patient suffering for 


the Master's sake. On the twenty-first of June, 1811, 
he was called to his reward, and his body was laid in 
the Thyatira graveyard. 

About 1792, Third Creek and Unity Churches in 
Rowan were organized, and about the same period, 
Joppa, now Mocksville Church, in Davie County. The 
Rev. Joseph D. Kilpatrick, from the Waxhaws in 
South Carolina, was the first pastor of these churches, 
that were cut off from Thyatira, Fourth Creek, and 
Bethany Churches. In the revivals of 1802-03, Mr. 
Kilpatrick was an active participant, and warm sympa- 
thizer. He labored in this field until March, 1829, 
when he was called to his rest. His remains are in- 
terred in the graveyard of Third Creek Church. Two 
of his sons, Abner and Josiah, became ministers, and 
two of his daughters married ministers — one the 
Rev. Mr. Kerr, and the other the Rev. Mr. Porter. 
Four or five of Mr. Porter's sons became ministers. 
The revival of 1802-03 had great effect upon the 
western neighborhoods of Thyatira, and they began 
to desire a separate church. Dr. McCorkle did not 
sympathize with the camp-meeting movement, but only 
tolerated it. On the other hand a part of his congre- 
gation was fully under its influence. In 1805, Back 
Creek was erected into a separate church. At its 
organization it possessed an eldership of peculiar ex- 
cellence, and it has sent out some ministers of the gos- 
pel whose labors have been greatly blessed. In 1824, 
Prospect Church, in the southwestern corner of 
Rowan, was organized, mainly from Center congrega- 
tion, but partly from Back Creek. In 1829, Franklin 


Church, four miles north of Salisbury, was organized 
in vacant ground adjoining Thyatira, Third Creek, 
and Unity. All these churches have been served by 
a succession of devoted ministers. 

The ministers of Thyatira after Dr. ]\IcCorkle, 
were the Rev. Messrs. Bowman — a son-in-law of Dr. 
McCorkle — John Carrigan, James Stafford, James D. 
Hall, A. Y. Lockridge, S. C. Alexander, B. S. Krider, 
S. C. Pharr, and J. A. Ramsay. 

Back Creek has had for ministers, Joseph D. Kil- 
patrick, A. Y. Lockridge, Thomas E. Davis, S. C. 
Alexander, W. B. Watts, Robert Bradley, A. E. 
Chandler, and J. A. Ramsay. 

Beth PHAGE Church, originally in Rowan, mid- 
way between Thyatira and Poplar Tent, was or- 
ganized in 1/95, ^^d had for its ministers the Rev. 
John Carrigan, the Rev. James Stafford, Rev. James 
E. Morrison, Rev. W^alter \Y. Pharr, and Rev. Wil- 
liam W. Pharr, all natives of Rocky River congrega- 

Third Creek was served by the following minis- 
ters : Rev. Messrs. Joseph D. Kilpatrick, Josiah 
Kilpatrick, A. Y. Lockridge, J. M. H. Adams, S. B. O. 
Wilson, G. D. Parks, G. R. Brackett, \\'illiam A. 
Wood, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Crawford. 

Unity Church was served by Rev. ]\Iessrs. Joseph 
D. Kilpatrick, Franklin \\'atts, William A. Hall, Jesse 
Rankin, B. S. Krider, G. R. Brackett, William A. 
Wood, E. F. Rockwell, and R. \\'. Boyd. 

Prospect Church has enjoyed the ministerial la- 
bors of various ministers, among whom are Rev. 


Messrs. Walter S. Pharr, John LeRoy Davies, John 
E. McPherson, E. D. Junkin, W. B. Watts, Robert 
Bradley, Romulus I\I. Tuttle, William H. Davis, P. T. 
Penick, and F. P. Harrell. 

JoppA (or Mocksville Church), formerly in 
Rowan, was founded by the Rev. Joseph D. Kilpatrick. 
After him came the Rev. Franklin Watts, William 

A. Hall, Jesse Rankin, B. S. Krider, R. B. Anderson, 

B. L. Beall, WiUiam M. Kilpatrick, S. S. Murkland, 
G. M. Gibbs, and A. L. Crawford. 

Franklin Church, founded by the Rev. Franklin 
Watts in 1829, had for its ministers the Rev. Messrs. 
William A. Hall, Jesse Rankin, B. S. Krider, James D. 
Hall, B. L. Beall, S. C. Pharr, A. L. Crawford, and 
R. W. Boyd. 

These churches at the present time have for their 
pastors the ministers last named in the above rolls, 
and embrace a membership of nine hundred and forty, 
with children in the Sabbath Schools numbering 
seven hundred and forty-six. This estimate includes 
the Salisbury Church, but excludes Bethphage and 
Mocksville, as lying outside of Rowan County. 

The Salisbury Church 

The town of Salisbury lies between the settlements 
of the Scotch-Irish and the "Pennsylvania Dutch" or 
Germans. To the east and south lay the great body 
of the German settlers ; and to the north and west the 
Scotch-Irish predominated. The population of the 
town was a mixture of these two races, interspersed 
with Englishmen, Frenchmen, pure Irish and Scotch. 


Among the early inhabitants we find a good many 
names that are suggestive of Presbyterian affinities. 
These people had no church of their own, but such 
as were church members belonged to Thyatira. Dr. 
McCorkle, having married the daughter of Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Steele, the half-sister of Gen. John Steele, was 
early brought into connection with the Salisbury peo- 
ple, and frequently preached in the courthouse, or in 
the Lutheran Church, as most convenient. In 1803- 
04, Dr. James McRee, of Center Church, preached in 
Salisbury once a month, and from 1807 to 1809, the 
Rev. John Brown, D. D., was principal of an Academy 
in Salisbury, and preached regularly there one-half of 
his time, giving the other half to Thyatira. This was 
during the time that Dr. ]\IcCorkle was prostrated by 
paralysis. Dr. Brown was called to the presidency of 
the South Carolina College, and afterwards became 
president of Athens College, Georgia, and there ended 
his life. Between the years of 1809 and 18 19, the 
Rev. Samuel L. Graham, the Rev. Parsons O. Hays, 
and perhaps others, preached for a while in Salisbury. 
During all this time there were not enough Presby- 
terian Church members in Salisbury to justify an or- 
ganization; at least, such was the opinion of these 
members and visiting preachers. But in 1820 there 
came as teacher to Salisbury, a man who entertained 
a different opinion. This was the 

Rev. Jonathan Otis Freeman, I\I. D. 

He soon began to agitate the subject of church or- 
ganization, and before the close of the year he col- 


lected a body of thirteen members, had them organized 
into a church, and ordained Alexander Torrence, 
Thomas L. Cowan, and Dr. Alexander Long as ruling 
elders. In The Western Carolinian, published by 
Bingham & White, of the date of August 7, 1821, 
appeared the following notice: "The sacrament was 
administered in the new church in this place for the 
first time, on last Sabbath, by the Rev. :\Ir. Freeman, 
assisted by the Rev. Mr. Robinson, of Poplar Tent 
congregation." The "New Church" was not a new 
house of worship, but the newly organized Presby- 
terian Church of Salisbury, which had probably been 
organized on the Saturday preceding — August 4, 
1 82 1. The church building was not finished until five 
years later. The church was composed of the following 
thirteen members: Albert Torrence, Elizabeth Tor- 
rence, Hugh Horah, Alary Horah, Thomas L. Cowan, 
Elizabeth Cowan, Dr. Alexander Long, Mary Long, 
John Fulton, Charity Gay, Mary T. Holland, Ann 
Alurphy, and Margaret Beckwith. Tradition reports 
that the church was organized in the old Lutheran 
Church, standing on a spot just inside of the present 
Lutheran graveyard. The graves of Mr. and Mrs. 
Cowan are on the site of the old church. For several 
years this church had no home, but worshiped either 
in the courthouse or in the Lutheran Church. Weekly 
prayer meetings were held in private houses, and from 
this originated the custom in this church of kneeling 
at its prayer meetings instead of standing as is prac- 
ticed in other Presbyterian Churches. Dr. Freeman 
remained in Salisbury until 1826, when he removed 


to Raleigh, N. C. Just before leaving, he laid the cor- 
nerstone of the present church building, with appro- 
priate services. During his stay of five years the 
following persons were added to the church : ^lichael 
Brown (1823), Isabella Maria Brown, Jane Troy, 
Catherine B. Troy, EHzabeth ]\Iurphy, EHzabeth 
Giles, Susan Giles, Margaret Dickson, ]\Iary Gay, 
Mary Ann Reeves, Jane Trotter, Joseph Hall, Dr. John 
Scott, William Curtis, Mrs. Curtis, with seven colored 
persons. All these have passed away from earth. 
Thirty-five were gathered into the church under Dr. 
Freeman's administration. Of Dr. Freeman, the 
founder of the Salisbury Presbyterian Church, 
not very much is now known. Jonathan Otis Free- 
man was born in Barnstable, Mass., April 6, 1772. He 
was probably educated in his native State, studied 
medicine and took his degree of Doctor of Medicine. 
He married Mary Crocker, of his native town, Decem- 
ber 10, 1794. He removed to North Carolina in 1805. 
At a meeting of Concord Presbytery, held in Salis- 
bury, September 27, 1821, the Rev. Jonathan O. Free- 
man produced testimonials of his dismission from the 
Presbytery of Orange, and was received as a member 
of Presbytery. He had come to Salisbury some time be- 
fore, for he closed a session of his school in Salisbury 
early in the year 1821, as published in The Western 
Carolinian. Dr. Freeman remained in Salisbury until 
the fall of 1826, when he removed to Raleigh. After 
this he labored in the bounds of Orange Presbytery 
and in Virginia for a number of years. He was an 
excellent teacher of the classics, and a number of our 



prominent men, as Hon. Burton Craige and Dr. Joseph 
W. Hall, were prepared for college by him. He died 
in Washington, N. C, in 1835, in the sixty-third year 
of his age. 

Dr. Freeman's son, Edmund B. Freeman, was clerk 
of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, from 1836 
to 1868, thirty-two years. 

The Rev. Jesse Rankin, a native of Guilford County, 
was invited to Salisbury as principal of the Academy 
and supply to the church. He came in January, 1827, 
and remained until about the close of 1830, four years. 
During the period of his ministry here there were 
twenty-seven additions to the church, an average of 
nearly seven each year. For the first fifty years of its 
existence there was an addition of four hundred and 
six persons to its communion, an average of eight 
each year. From 183 1 to 1836, the Rev. Thomas 
Espy and the Rev. P. J. Sparrow served the Salisbury 
and Thyatira Churches, each one year. Mr. Espy 
died, April 16, 1833, and his remains were deposited 
in the Lutheran graveyard in Salisbury, where a mar- 
ble slab commemorates his life and labors. Mr. Spar- 
row was called from the Salisbury Church to the 
Professorship of Languages in Davidson College, 
whither he went in 1737. He afterwards became presi- 
dent of Hampden - Sidney College. He died a few 
years since near Pensacola, Fla. In the year 1832, 
a remarkable revival of religion occurred in this 
church, under the preaching of the Rev. A. D. Mont- 
gomery, by which many were added to the church. 
From 1836 till 1845, the Rev. Stephen Frontis was 


pastor of this church, and forty-four were added to 
the church during his ministry. ]\Ir. Frontis died a 
few years ago, and sleeps in the graveyard of Pros- 
pect Church. On the first of February, 1846, the Rev. 
Archibald Baker, a native of Robeson County, became 
pastor of the church and continued until 1859, a period 
of thirteen years, and one hundred and fifty-six com- 
municants were added under his ministry. Mr. Ba- 
ker was a devout, earnest, and amiable ser^-ant of the 
Lord, and his memory is still cherished by the older 
members of the church. He was stricken down while 
speaking in Center Church, in his native county, and 
died in the harness. 

On the third Sunday of November, i860, the Rev. 
Jethro Rumple began his work as pastor of the Salis- 
bury Church, and continued until the present time. 
During the twenty years of his ministry there have 
been two hundred and forty additions to the church. 

In closing this sketch there are two or three facts 
that may interest the reader. The first is, that from 
the beginning this church maintained a well conducted 
Sunday School, in which many of the most devoted 
members of the congregation were teachers. The 
principal superintendents of the Sunday School have 
been, Thomas L. Cowan, J. J. Blackwood, Colonel 
Samuel Lemly, D. A. Davis, PhilHp L. Sink, William 
Murdock, J. J. Bruner, Samuel H. Wiley, and J. D. 
McNeely. Most of those who are now members of 
the church were once pupils in the Sunday School, 
and received their early religious impressions in that 
nursery of the church. 


Another element of success in the church has been 
its earnest and faithful office-bearers, embracing many 
of the most highly esteemed and influential citizens of 
the town. The ruling elders have been as follows : 

Albert Torrence, Thomas L. Cowan, Dr. Alexander 
Long, Michael Brown, Samuel Lemly, Philip L. Sink, 
D. A. Davis, J. J. Bruner, William Alurdock, Thomas 
McNeely, Dr. J. J. Summerell, J. S. McCubbins, Julius 
D. McNeely, E. H. Marsh, R. A. Knox, and Orin D. 
Davis. The deacons have been JuHus D. Ramsay, J. 
J. Summerell, M. D., Obadiah Woodson, John 

D. Brown, James S. ]\IcCubbins, J. A. Bradshaw, 
John A. Ramsey, John M. Horah, Julius D. ]\IcXeely, 

E. H. Marsh, J. K. Burke, T. B. Beall, R. A. Knox, 
Theodore F. Kluttz, Samuel H. \\^iley, \\\ L. Kluttz, 
and Hugh M. Jones. 

Another element of success has been that the church 
has had few and brief periods of vacancy, and very 
little serious internal dissension. Upon the departure 
of one pastor the congregation speedily agreed upon 
and secured another, and the work thus went on with- 
out intermission. 

Another characteristic of the church is that it has 
always diligently fostered schools and colleges. Its 
early ministers were teachers, and in later days it has 
maintained excellent male and female academies 
where every child in the congregation has free access 
for ten months in the year. As a result many of the 
youth have been prepared for the higher schools and 
colleges, where they have received the benefits of a 
liberal education, and have been enabled to enter the 


liberal professions, and grace the cultivated circles of 

Within the past ten years the following sons of this 
church have entered the ministry of the Presbyterian 
Church : Rev. William H. Davis, now laboring in 
Henderson County ; Rev. John W. Davis, missionary 
in Soochow, China ; Rev. Branch G. Clifford, in Union- 
ville, S. C. ; Rev. J. A. Ramsay, in Rowan County, 
N. C. ; Rev. J. X. H. Summer^dlle, in Cabarrus 
County, and K. P. Julian, now in his last year at the 
Theological Seminary. Bryant D. Thomas, who was 
received into this church between 1826 and 1830, be- 
came a minister and preached in the W^est. He died a 
few years ago. 

Third Creek Church sent out a number of useful 
ministers, among whom were Abner and Josiah Kil- 
patrick, sons of Rev. Joseph D. Kilpatrick; William 
H. Johnston, B. S. Krider, William A. Wood, and R. 
Z. Johnston. Among the ministers born in Back 
Creek, were Silas Andrews, J. Scott Barr, John A. 
Barr, and R. W^ Shive of Mississippi. The Presby- 
terian Churches of Rowan have been served by more 
than fifty different ministers, and have sent out prob- 
ably not more than twenty-five or thirty into the 
work, and not more than a half-dozen of these who 
have sers^ed her churches have been natives of Rowan 


the churches of rowan 379 

President Polk's Forefathers and Thyatira 

James K. Polk, eleventh President of the United 
States, was born in Mecklenburg County, November, 
1795. His mother was Jean, daughter of James 
Knox, of Rowan County. This James was the son of 
John Knox, who was a native of Scotland, born about 
1708, and who went from Scotland to Ireland with 
other emigrants, by invitation of the King of England, 
to constitute a balance of power against the insurgent 
Irish Catholics. He married an Irish Presbyterian, 
Jean Gracy, whose mother's name was Jean Sinclair, 
a relative of the mother (a Sinclair) of John Knox 
the Reformer. 

This John and Jean came with other immigrants to 
America, about 1740, and were among the early set- 
tlers of Rowan County, buying six hundred acres of 
land on the south side of Third Creek, for thirty- 
seven pounds, ten shillings (£37/10), which land had 
been granted by Earl Granville to James Stewart. 

For more than one hundred and fifty years an old 
stone stood in the Thyatira Churchyard, inscribed as 
follows : 

here the body lys of 

john knox 

who deceased october ye 25, 1 758 

aged fifty years 

also here lys the body of 

jean knox 




This Stone is now fitted into a new one, with this 
inscription : 


1708 - 1758 


1708- 1772 












MAY 20, 191 1 

So it comes about that from Rowan stock was pro- 
duced a President, which fact we hope the good old 
county may repeat at an early date. 



The Lutheran Church in Rowan County is com- 
posed chiefly, but not exclusively, of the descendants 
of those German settlers who began to occupy the 
county about 1745. Fortunately for the history of 
this people, the Rev. Dr. Bernheim, in his book, en- 
titled ''History of the German Settlements and of the 
Lutheran Church in the Carolinas," has gathered up 
and preserved the traditions and documents that tell 
the story of their settlement and religious life. The 
author of these pages had intended that this chapter 
should be written by a minister or layman of the 
Lutheran Church, but succeeded only in securing a 
very brief but most interesting Sketch of Organ 
Church, by the Rev. Samuel Rothrock. For the gen- 
eral account he is indebted to Dr. Bernheim's interest- 
ing volume, which has been freely used in composing 
this chapter. 

St. John's Lutheran Church in Salisbury is entitled 
to the distinction of being the oldest Lutheran con- 
gregation organized in the Province of X^orth Carolina. 

In the year 1768, John Lewis Beard, a wealthy 
citizen of Salisbury, and a member of the Lutheran 
Church, was bereaved by the death of a daughter, and 
her body was interred in a lot of ground owned by her 


father. To prevent her remains from being disturbed 
by the march of civilization, ]\Ir. Beard executed a 
deed for the lot, containing one hundred and forty- 
four square poles, to a body of trustees of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran congregation, of the township of 
Salisbury, allowing ministers of the High Church of 
England to occupy it when not used by the Lutherans. 
Upon this lot, now known as the Lutheran graveyard, 
or Salisbury Cemetery, the congregation soon after 
erected a log church, or block-house. All this was 
in preparation for some minister whom they expected 
in time to obtain. Five years later, in 1773, the Rev. 
Adolph Nussmann, a ripe and thorough scholar, and 
devoted and self-sacrificing Christian, was induced to 
come from Germany to Rowan County. After labor- 
ing in Salisbury and Organ Church for a short time, 
Mr. Xussmann removed from Salisbury and took 
charge of Buffalo Creek Church — St. John's — in 
Mecklenburg, now Cabarrus. At the same time that 
Mr. Xussmann came from Germany, ]\Ir. Gottfried 
Ahrend came over as schoolmaster. As ministers 
were much needed, and ]\Ir. Ahrend was qualified, he 
was ordained to the work of the ministry in 1775. 
As he preached at Organ Church — then called Zion's 
Church — from 1775 to 1785, it is probable that part of 
his time was devoted to the Salisbury Church. In 
1785, yiv. Ahrend removed from Rowan to Lincoln 
County. For twelve years these two Lutheran minis- 
ters, with the Rev. Mr. Beuthahn, a German Reformed 
minister, labored among the German population of 
Rowan, Cabarrus, Lincoln, Catawba, Iredell, David- 


son, Guilford, and other counties. At this time the 
Rev. Mr. Harris, and after him the Rev. Samuel E. 
McCorkle,was preaching to the Presbyterians at Thya- 
tira. Rev. James Hall in Iredell, and Rev. David Cald- 
v^ell in Guilford. These seven were breaking the 
bread of life to the thousands of people in this vast 

Soon after the arrival of Messrs. Nussmann and 
Ahrend, the Revolutionary War opened, and for nearly 
eight years all correspondence with the Fatherland was 
cut off, and the congregations and ministers of Rowan 
were left to their own resources. No ministers, no 
books, no material aid or sympathy came to cheer 
them. Besides this, Mr. Nussmann was persecuted 
by the Tories, and forced to seek safety by hiding 
himself in a secure retreat, not far from his residence 
on Dutch Buffalo. At the close of the war, Mr. Nuss- 
mann reopened correspondence with friends in Ger- 
many, and in 1787 the Lutheran Church in North 
Carolina was put into connection with the parent 
church. A supply of books was obtained from Helm- 
stadt, in the Duchy of Brunswick, and a call for sev- 
eral ministers to labor in North Carolina was preferred 
by Pastor Nussman to Dr. Velthusen. In 1787, the 
Rev. Christian Eberhard Bernhardt, a native of Stutt- 
gard, was sent to Rowan. His first charge was on 
Abbott's Creek, Davidson County, where he labored 
for a year. He afterwards labored for several years 
in Stokes, Forsyth, and Guilford Counties, and in 1800 
removed to South Carolina. 


The year 1788 was signalized by the arrival in 
Rowan of one who may be called the apostle of the 
Lutheran Church in Rowan. This was the Rev. Carl 
August Gottlieb Storch. He was sent out by the 
Helmstadt Missionary Society, and was a native of 
Helmstadt, and educated at the University of that city. 
Upon his arrival he took charge of the Salisbury, 
Pine, and Organ Churches. The Pine Church— -i.ow 
called Union — he soon resigned, and the next year 
began to preach in the "Irish Settlement," once a 
month, for which he was promised thirteen or fourteen 
pounds, about thirty-five dollars. His salary for the 
two churches of Salisbury and Organ was eighty 
pounds (£80), paper money, equal to two hundred 
dollars. The fees for funerals and marriage cere- 
monies averaged one dollar each, and may have 
amounted to fifty dollars annually, the whole amount- 
ing to nearly three hundred dollars. With the simple 
habits of those early days, and the cheapness of the 
necessaries of life, this salary of three hundred dollars 
was more liberal than the average minister's salary of 
these days. Besides having charge of these churches, 
Mr. Storch had charge of a small German school in 
Salisbury, and gave instructions in Hebrew to some 
pupils in the Salisbury Academy. \\'hether he re- 
alized any income from the schools is not known. Not 
long after this he married Miss Christine Beard, 
daughter of John Lewis Beard, and lived in the house 
on the corner of Main and Franklin Streets. After 
this he removed to what is now known as the Chilson 
place, one and a half miles east of Salisbury. A few 


years afterward he gave up the SaHsbury Church, and 
moved ten miles south of SaHsbury, on the New Con- 
cord Road, convenient to his three churches, Organ, 
Savitz's, and Dutch Buffalo. Here he spent the re- 
mainder of his life. On the twenty-seventh of March, 
183 1, Dr. Storch died, aged nearly sixty-seven years. 
His dust reposes in the graveyard of the Organ 
Church, where a suitable stone marks the spot and 
commemorates his life and labors. He was a ripe 
scholar, familiar with the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin 
languages, and it is said that he could converse fluently 
in five or six different tongues. Abundant in labor, 
crowned with honors, and rich in the affections of his 
people, he departed full of faith and hope in the Re- 
deemer. His long service of more than forty years, 
including the critical period of his people's transition 
from the use of the German to the use of the English 
language, did much to preserve Lutheranism from de- 
cay and extinction in Rowan County. It is because 
of his labors, doubtless, that the Lutherans are, at 
the present day, equal in numbers to all other denomi- 
nations together in this county. 

But to return. A few months after Mr. Storch's 
arrival, in 1788, Rev. Arnold Roschen, a native of 
Bremen, was sent to North Carolina by the Helmstadt 
Mission Society, and upon his arrival began his labors 
on Abbott's Creek, now in Davidson County. 

We may mention in passing that, in 1791, the pres- 
ent massive stone church was erected for the Organ 
congregation, and an organ of excellent quality was 
built by Mr. Steigerwalt, one of the members of the 


church. As this organ was the first and only instru- 
ment of the kind in the county it gave the name to the 
church, which it retains to this day. 

In 1794, the Lutheran pastors, Nussmann, Ahrend, 
Roschen, Bernhardt, and Storch, ordained to the work 
of the ministry Robert Johnson Aliller, obHging him 
to obey the ''Rules, ordinances, and customs of the 
Christian Society called the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in America." This was a singular proceeding, 
but the request was made by Mr. Miller, and a con- 
gregation in Lincoln County which desired his serv- 
ices, and it is said was counseled by the Presbyterians. 
Mr. Miller afterwards sought and obtained Episcopal 
ordination at the hands of Bishop Ravenscroft. 

The number of Lutheran ministers in North Caro- 
lina was reduced by the death of Mr. Nussmann in 
1794, the removal of Mr. Bernhardt to South Carolina 
in 1800, and the return of Roschen to Germany the 
same year. Dr. Storch w^as however reinforced by 
the Rev. Adam N. Marcand, who became pastor of 
St. John's Church, Cabarrus, in 1797. He however 
remained but two years. In 1801, the Rev. Philip 
Henkel, from Virginia, took charge of the Guilford 
pastorate. Thus far the church seems to have de- 
pended upon foreign supplies for the pulpit. But a 
change was taking place that looked toward a home 
supply. On the second day of May, 1803, the Rev. 
Messrs. Gottfried Ahrend, Robert J. Miller, C. A. G. 
Storch, and Paul Henkel, with a number of elders and 
deacons, met in Salisbury, and formed the North Caro- 
lina Synod of the Lutheran Church. From this time 


the work went on more systematically. From the 
annual report of the Rev. Paul Henkel, in 1806, we 
learn the state of the church in Xorth Carolina at that 

In Orange and Guilford Counties there were three 
Lutheran churches and one "joint" church — that is 
Lutheran and German Reformed — served by Philip 
Henkel. In Rowan, east of the Yadkin, there were 
three ''joint," and one Lutheran churches, served by 
Rev. Paul Henkel, afterwards by Ludwig Markert. 
In the vicinity of Salisbury three strong Lutheran 
churches enjoyed the ministry of the Rev. C. A, G. 
Storch for nearly twenty years. This report represents 
that about twenty years previous to that time there 
had been a tolerably strong German congregation in 
Salisbury, but as the German people and their lan- 
guage were changed into the English, the German 
worship soon became extinct. The three strong 
churches mentioned in the report, were doubtless the 
Pine Church — now Union, the Organ Church, and 
Savitz's — now Lutheran Chapel — once called the 
Irish Settlement. The report goes on to state that 
near Buffalo Creek, Cabarrus, there is one of the 
strongest Lutheran churches, served by the Rev. Mr. 
Storch. About eighteen miles west of Salisbury — I 
suppose near the present Troutman's depot — there was 
another Lutheran church. Also in Lincoln County 
there were eight or nine German congregations, mostly 
''joint," served by the Rev. Mr. Ahrend. There were 
churches also in \\^ilkes, Stokes, and other counties. 


In 1805 the Synod ordained Philip Henkel to the 
full work of the ministry, and licensed John ^lichael 
Rueckert and Ludwig ]\Iarkert. At a meeting of the 
Synod, October 22, 1810, held at Organ Church, there 
were present ten ministers and a number of lay dele- 
gates. This Synod ordained Gottlieb Schober as a 
Lutheran minister. ]\lr. Schober continued to be a 
member of the ^Moravian Church to the end of his 
days, while at the same time he was a Lutheran 
minister and pastor of several Lutheran churches. 
These excusable irregularities, such as the ordination 
of ]\Iiller and Schober, give evidence of a fraternal 
feeling between the different churches of that day, 
and became necessary because of the great scarcity of 
laborers in the whitening harvests on all sides. 

At this same Synod of 1810, Jacob Scherer and 
Godfrey Dreher were licensed, and the limited license 
of Catechists Rueckert and Jacob Kreison were re- 
newed. Twenty-three churches were reported, of 
which three were in Rowan. 

In 181 1, the Xorth Carolina Synod, endued with 
the true spirit of missions, sent out several exploring 
missionaries to learn the condition of the Lutheran 
congregations in South Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, 
and Ohio. The Rev. Messrs. Miller, Franklow, and 
Scherer were the missionaries, and they traveled and 
preached the gospel in distant regions. In 1813, David 
Henkel, J. J. Schmucker, and Daniel Moser were 
licensed to preach the gospel. In the year 1814, it is 
estimated that there were twenty-one ministers in the 
Synod of Xorth Carolina, including those laboring in 


South Carolina ; and eighty-five in the whole United 

The remainder of the history of the Lutheran 
Church, so far as these sketches propose to give it, will 
be found in a brief and interesting account of the 
Organ Church, prepared by its present pastor, the Rev. 
Samuel Rothrock, to which will be added a sketch of 
St. John's Church, Salisbury, since its reorganization, 
and a general statement as to the ministers, churches, 
and number of communicants as they now exist. 

Organ Evangelical Lutherax Church 

The first organization of a congregation at this place 
dates back more than a century. The original mem- 
bers were Germans, few in number, but devotedly at- 
tached to the church of their choice. The services, 
and records in the church-book, were all in the Ger- 
man language. From the German church-book, which 
is well preserved, we gather the principal items in re- 
lation to the history of this congregation. The fol- 
lowing is a translation from the records of the church- 
book, and in the translation the German orthography 
of names is preserved, and the present English 
orthography thrown in parentheses. 


In the year A. D. 1774, the following members of 
our congregation commenced to build the so-called 
Organ Church, viz. : 

Georg Ludwig Sififert (George Lewis Sifford), 
Wendel ^Miller, Peter Edelmann fEddleman), Johan- 


nes Steigerwalt (John Stirewald), Philipp Gruss 
(Philip Cruse), Peter Steigerwalt (Stirewalt), ]\Iich- 
ael Guthmann f Goodman), Christoph Bless (Christo- 
pher Pless), Leonhard Siffert (Sifford), Jacob Klein 
(Cline), Anton J. Kuhn (Anthony J. Koon), Georg 
Heinrich Berger (George Henry Barger), Christoph 
Guthmann (Christopher Goodman), Johannes Rintel- 
mann (John Rendleman), Johannes Eckel (John 
Eagle), Bastian Lenz (Bostian Lentz), Jacob Benz 
(Bentz), Georg Eckel (George Eagle), Franz Ober- 
kirsch (Francis Overcash), Johannes Jose (John 
Josey), Heinrich Wenzel (Henry). 

A majority of the aforementioned members united 
in the year 1772, and resolved to solicit for themselves 
a preacher and school-teacher from the Hanoverian 
Consistory in Germany. For in their time, Xorth 
Carolina, together with all the other now free Ameri- 
can States, were under the King of England, who was 
likewise Elector of Hanover. Cliristoph Rintelmann 
(Christopher Rendleman) and Christoph Layrle 
(Christopher Lyerly), were sent to London as deputies 
from the congregation, from which place they jour- 
neyed to Hanover, and through Goetten, the counselor 
of the Consistory, obtained a preacher and school- 
teacher, viz. : as preacher, Adolph Nussman ; and for 
school-teacher, Gottfried Ahrend. Both arrived safely 
in America in the year 1773. At this time there was 
but one common church for Reformed and Lutherans 
equally, the so-called Hickeri (Hickory) Church. One 
year the new pastor preached in this church, but some 
disharmony arose, and a majority of the Lutherans 


resolved to build for themselves an own church, and 
thus organized Organ Church. But before this church 
was built, Nussnian left the congregation and devoted 
himself to Buffalo Creek. Whereupon, the congrega- 
tion, which before had one church and one school- 
teacher, but now no preacher, procured the aforemen- 
tioned Gottfried Ahrend to be ordained to the office of 
preacher in the year 1775. He served the congregation 
until 1785, when he devoted himself to Catawba River, 
residing in Lincoln County until the close of his life. 
For two years Xussman serv^ed the congregation again, 
but he left the church for the second time. From 
1787 to 1788, the congregation had no preacher. Gott- 
fried Ahrend came once in a while. In 1788, at the 
desire and petition of Nussman, a preacher, viz. : 
Charles Augustus Gottlieb Storch, was sent from Ger- 
many, who, according to Nussman's assignment, was 
to go to Stinking Quarter, in Orange County. Various 
circumstances transpired that he did not wish to go 
to Stinking Quarter, but resolved to take charge of the 
congregation at Organ Church and the one in the 
town of Salisbury. He entered his services in the 
former on the twenty-sixth day of October, 1787, 
i. e., the twenty-third Sunday after Trinity ; and in the 
town the second Sunday of November, i. e., the twen- 
ty-fourth Sunday after Trinity in the same year. The 
congregation at Organ Church promised their preacher 
a yearly salary of forty pounds (£40), North Carolina 
currency. The number of those who subscribed to the 


salary, as well as to the new church regulations, 
amounted to seventy-eight persons. 

The new church regulations referred to above, 
very concise and wholesome in their nature, were in- 
troduced and adopted on the first day of January, 
1789, are upon record in the church-book, but are not 
here translated. 

The following ministers have been the successive 
pastors of Organ Church: 

Rev. Adolphus Nussman, from 1773 to 1774, one 
year; Godfrey Ahrend, 1775 to 1785, ten years; Adol- 
phus Nussman, 1785 to 1787, two years. The church 
was now vacant for one year, and was visited oc- 
casionally by Rev. Gottfried Ahrend. 

Rev. Charles A. G. Storch, from 1788 to 1823, 
thirty-five years; Daniel Scherer, 1823 to 1829, six 
years; Jacob Ksempfer, 1829 to 1832, three years; 
Henry Graber, 1832 to 1843, eleven years; Samuel 
Rothrock, 1844 to 1866, twenty-two years; W. H. 
Cone, from January i, 1866, to ]May, 1866, four 

months; William Artz, ]May i, 1866, ; Samuel 

Rothrock, from July i, 1868, to January i, 1869, six 
months ; Revs. S. Scherer and W. H. Cone, from Jan- 
uary I, 1869, to January i, 1870, one year; W. H. 
Cone, January i, 1870, to May i, 1873, three years and 
four months; W. R. Ketchie, from June, 1873, to Jan- 
uary, 1874, seven months; P. A. Strobel from January 
I, 1874, to October i, 1875, one year and eight months ; 
Samuel Rothrock, from January i, 1876, and still pas- 
tor, December, 1880. 

lutheran ism in rowan 393 

St. John's Church, Salisbury 

Though this is the oldest Lutheran church in North 
Carolina, there was for a considerable period such a 
decline as almost amounted to extinction. Still there 
were Lutherans here, and they owned a lot and build- 
ing that were used by occasional ministers of their 
own faith as well as by other denominations. In 1822, 
steps were taken to secure its reorganization. The Rev. 
Gottlieb Schober, president of the Synod that year, 
addressed a letter to the Lutherans of Salisbury urging 
them to gather up their forces, re-constitute their 
church, and claim their property. This letter had the 
desired effect, for the adherents of the church met, and 
a paper was drawn up by the Hon. Charles Fisher 
pledging the signers to reorganize the church. This 
paper was dated September 20, 1822, and was signed 
by the following persons, viz. : John Beard, Sr., 
Charles Fisher, Daniel Cress, Peter Crider, John Trex- 
ler, John Beard, Jr., Peter H. Swink, Moses Brown, 
John H. Swink, Bernhardt Kreiter, Lewis Utzman, 
H. Allemong, M. Bruner, John Albright, and Henry 
Swinkwag. Efforts were at once made to secure a 
minister, but without success. About this time a 
fence was placed around the graveyard, which had lain 
for some time in a neglected condition. In 1825, the 
work of reorganization was begun again, and ^Messrs. 
John Beard, Sr., George Vogler, and Moses Brown 
were elected elders, and Messrs. Nathan Brown, 
George Fraley, and Henry C. Kern, deacons. During 
the following year, 1826, the church was successful 


in its efforts to secure the Rev. John Reck, of ]\lary- 
land, as pastor. He found but fourteen members at 
his arrival; but the next year there were thirty mem- 
bers in full communion. Mr. Reck remained with 
the church five years, and his labors among them were 
greatly blessed. In 183 1., the pastor resigned and re- 
turned to Maryland. "After this time the congrega- 
tion had such a continued and rapid succession of min- 
isters, besides having been at times unsupplied with 
the stated means of grace, as not to be enabled to com- 
mand the influence which the regular ministrations of 
a permanent pastor might have given it." 

The following roll of its pastors is made up, partly 
from the pages of Dr. Bemheim's History, and partly 
from the recollection and memoranda of ]Mr. B. F. 
Fraley, and is believed to be accurate. 

Rev. John Reck, 1826 to 1831. 

Rev. Air. Tabler. 

Rev. William D. Strobel, D. D. 

Rev. Air. Rosenmuller. 

Rev. Edwin A. Bolles, of South Carolina, in 







Rev. Samuel Rothrock, first time, 1836. 

Rev. Daniel Jenkins. 

Rev. John D. Sheck, of South Carolina, 1840. 

Rev. J. B. Anthony, 1844 to 1846. 

Rev. J. H. Coffman, 1848. 

Rev. Daniel I. Dreher. 

Rev. Samuel Rothrock (second time). 

Rev. Levi C. Groseclose, i860 to 1865. 


14. Rev. N. Aldrich, of South Carolina, 1865 to 

15. Rev. Simeon Scherer, 1867 to 1872. 

16. Rev. \\^illiam H. Cone, of Virginia, 1870 to 

17. Rev. J. G. Neiffer, of Pennsylvania, 1872 to 

18. Rev. T. W. Dosh, D. D., of South Carolina, 
1876 to 1877. 

19. Rev. W. J. Smith, of Maryland, 1878 . 

If to these nineteen we add the names of Nussman, 

Ahrend, and Storch, we have a succession of twenty- 
two ministers that have sen-ed this church during the 
one hundred and nine years of its existence, an average 
of one minister for every five years. The church now 
numbers one hundred and fifty-two members, and it 
has been greatly strengthened in members and in re- 
sources within the last dozen years. 

The present condition of the Lutheran Church in 
Rowan County — its churches, ministers, and member- 
ship — as gathered from the Minutes, is as follows : 

The Rev. Samuel Rothrock's charge, Organ Church 
and Ebenezer, has three hundred members. 

Rev. W. J. Smith's charge, St. John's, Salisbury, 
has one hundred and fifty-two members. 

Rev. W. A. Lutz's charge (in Rowan), St. Enoch's 
Church, has three hundred and three members. 

Rev. B. S. Brown's charge, Lutheran Chapel, Cen- 
ter Grove, and St. Paul's, has four hundred and eighty- 
six members. 


Rev. R. L. Brown's charge, Union and Christiana, 
has two hundred and forty members. 

Rev. H. M. Brown's charge, Bethel and Christ's 
Church, has one hundred and fifteen members. 

Rev. V. R. Stickley's charge, St. Luke's, Salem, and 
Grace Church, has one hundred and eighty-one mem- 

Rev. J. A. Linn's charge, St. Peter's, St. Matthew's, 
and Luther's Church, has three hundred and fifty 

Rev. Whitson Kimball's charge (in Rowan), St. 
Stephen's and Gold Hill, has one hundred and fifty 
members. The whole making nine ministers, nineteen 
churches, and 2,277 communicants. 

To this may be added, the Rev. J. C. IMoser, a 
member of the Tennessee Lutheran Synod, and his 
three churches — Mount Moriah, St. Marks, and 
Phanuel — embracing one hundred and seventy-five 

The whole summing up ten ministers, twenty-two 
churches, and 2,452 members. According to these 
statistics the Lutherans have more ministers in Rowan 
than the Presbyterians, ^lethodists. Episcopalians, and 
Missionary Baptists combined, and probably nearly as 
many churches and communicants as all the other 
white churches in the county. In fact, a large part of 
the strength of Lutheranism in North CaroHna is 
concentrated in Rowan County. 



The Approach of Methodism Into the Rowan 

In 1780, The Yadkin Curcuit was formed, having 
only twenty-one members. Andrew Yeargan was the 
first circuit preacher sent to this new field. The 
church records no clue as to the boundaries of this cir- 
cuit, but tradition says it embraced Stokes, Davidson, 
Rowan (then including Davie County), and the Surry 
regions. About this time the pioneers of Methodism 
began to preach at various points in Rowan. There 
being no church edifices, they were obliged to preach 
in private houses, barns, schoolhouses, and under 
bush arbors. 

In 1783, Yadkin Circuit is reported as having three 
hundred and forty-eight members, a growth of three 
hundred and sixty-two in three years. In 1784, the 
Salisbury circuit is entered upon the minutes of the 
Conference, being organized into a separate pastoral 
charge, Jesse Lee being its pastor. ^Ir. Lee says he 
found a "society of truly affectionate Christians" in 
the town of Salisbury. \\'hen this society was organ- 


ized he does not state, but likely it was formed be- 
tween the years of 1780 and 1783. 

]\Ir. Lee says, in his Journal : "In entering upon this 
field of labor, he was greatly encouraged at meeting 
large congregations of anxious hearers at all of his 
appointments. Gracious influences attended his preach- 
ing, to the comfort of believers and the awakening of 
sinners ; his own soul was greatly blessed while striv- 
ing to bless others." While preaching "at Hern's" his 
own soul was filled so full of love that he burst "into 
a flood of tears, and there were few dry eyes in the 
house." "At C. Ledbetter's the hearers were much 
wrought upon." "At Cole's the congregation was so 
large we had to go under the shade of trees, and the 
friends wept greatly." "At Jersey Meeting-house, 
Colonel G.'s wife came to me, and began to cry and say, 
I am the worst creature in the world; my heart is so 
hard I don't know what to do — and begged me to pray 
for her." 

"At Costner's an old man rose up and spoke in a 
melting manner with tears streaming from his eyes : 
I am almost ready to depart this life, and am not 
ready to die, and you may judge how I feel." 

The force and pathetic power of ]\Ir. Lee's sermons 
may be seen from these brief extracts from his Journal. 
Only one church edifice is mentioned — The Jersey 
Meeting-house, located somewhere on the eastern side 
of the Yadkin River. The church in which the old 
pioneers preached most was the temple of nature. 
Its roof was the blue firmament, its floor the green 
earth, swept by the winds — its lamp the radiant sun — 


its seats the rocks, stumps, and logs. The voice of the 
preacher mingled with the free songs of the birds, the 
splash of the rippling streams, the neighing of horses 
tied in the bushes, and the cries of penitent souls. 

Jesse Lee 

was one of the eminent Methodist pioneers, "d. man 
of vigorous though unpolished mind, of rare popular 
eloquence and tireless energy, an itinerant evangelist 
from the British Province to Florida." He labored 
as presiding elder thirty-five years, was chaplain to 
Congress, the first ]\Iethodist American Historian of 
his church, begged money in the South to build the 
first Methodist church in the New England States, 
where he became the chief founder of Methodism. 
He was the peer of Asbury and Dr. Coke in talent and 
fruitfulness. He died gloriously shouting, ''Glory, 
Glory, Glory," in 1816; and was buried in the city of 

The prominence of IMethodism in Salisbury and the 
region round about seems to be indicated from the 
fact that Bishop Asbury preached in that town, 1785, 
and held two annual Conferences there — one in 1786, 
and the other in 1787 — the first Conferences held in 
the western part of the State. 

Hope Hull followed Mr. Lee on the Salisbury cir- 
cuit, in 1785. He was a man of singular power in the 
pulpit, and shares the honor of laying the foundation 
of Methodism in this region. On one occasion, he 
was invited by way of fun-making to a ball. He went 
— was invited to dance. He took the floor, remarking : 


"I never engage in any kind of business without first 
asking the blessings of God, so let us pray." Down 
he went upon his knees, and such a prayer rolled out 
from his eloquent lips as shook the whole party with 
terror. The gay dancers were thunderstruck. Some 
fled from the house, others began to pray for mercy. 
Hull arose from his knees, gave out an appointment 
to preach there four weeks hence, and quietly retired. 
When the appointed time came around, Hull was there, 
and preached a most effective sermon to a large con- 
gregation. From that prayer in the ballroom a wide 
extended revival began and spread in all directions. 

Introduction of ^Methodism into Davie County, 


''Beale's Meeting-house was probably the first 
Methodist church built in this section. It is said to have 
been built during the Revolutionary W^ar, in 1780. It 
was located on the 'Old Georgia Road,' near Ander- 
son's Bridge over Hunter Creek. 'Timber Ridge,' a 
schoolhouse located between Smith Grove and Olive 
Branch, was one of the early preaching places for the 
Methodists in Davie County. 'W'hitaker's Church' 
also claims to be the first. So the old church four 
miles east of ]\Iocksville, known as the 'Dutch Meet- 
ing-house', is put down as among the first in all that 
country." "Bethel Church," first located about a mile 
east of Mocksville, afterwards moved to Mocksville, 
is one of the old churches built in the county. 

It is very likely that Andrew Yeargan, sent on the 
Yadkin circuit, 1780, was the first regular pastor of all 


that section known as the "Forks of the Yadkin," and 
laid the foundation of the churches already mentioned. 
At this period the country was sparsely settled, the 
people rude and almost wild as the native deer. At 
Beale's Church, tradition says the preacher, growing 
warm during his sermon, walked down into the con- 
gregation and laid his hand upon the head of an old 
man, saying, "My friend, don't you want to go to 
heaven?" To which the frightened man repHed : 
"Man, for God's sake, go off and let me alone ; I don't 
live about here, I came from away up in the moun- 
tains." At the same church, in 1795, a quarterly meet- 
ing was held, and to the question: "How much of 
the preacher's salary has been paid?" Charles Led- 
better, the pastor, presented one pair of socks as the 
full amount up to that time. 

John Cooper, Enoch Matson, George Kimble, Henry 
Ogburn, WilHam Connor, Lemuel Green, Barnabas 
McHenry, followed Yeargan, and did a good work in 
establishing Methodism in this section. After these 
came such men as Reuben Ellis and John Tunnel, men 
of gifts and piety. About this time, James Parks ap- 
pears as a preacher and teacher. He had charge of 
the first Methodist school founded in this section, and 
known as "Cokesbury School." It was located on 
the Yadkin River near Phelps' Ferry. This school 
after a short period was discontinued, and the house 
used for a church. Parks moved to Jonesville and 
established a school there. He had four sons who 
became ministers, one of whom, Martin P. Parks, be- 
came one of the most brilHant pulpit orators of his day. 


In 1800, Yadkin circuit numbered four hundred and 
seventy-nine members, and Salisbury circuit four hun- 
dred and ninety-four — nine hundred and seventy-three 
in the two. The year of 1799 is famous for the in- 
troduction and prevalence of camp-meetings. They 
began in the West under the united labors of the Mc- 
Gee brothers — one a Methodist, the other a Presby- 
terian minister. At this date, these mammoth meet- 
ings were union meetings of the Methodists and 
Presbyterians. Drs. James Hall and L. L. \\"ilson 
often labored in them. The first camp-meetings held 
in Davie were in 1805, at Olive Branch Church, and at 
Walnut Grove on Dutchman's Creek. At these 
meetings great revivals broke out and swept over the 
country as fire in dry stubble. The result was the 
membership of the church grew rapidly, and new 
church edifices sprang up all over the Yadkin A^alley. 
Schoolhouses and a higher grade of civihzation fol- 
lowed in the wake of the enlightening gospel. 

In 1807, Iredell circuit, embracing Iredell County, 
was set off from the Yadkin and Salisbury circuits, 
into a new pastoral charge. As the gospel spread, 
other circuits were formed. In 1831-33, Stokes, 
Randolph, Davidson, and Wilkes circuits were formed. 
In 1834, Salisbury and Lexington constituted a pas- 
toral charge, Thales McDonald being pastor. In 1836, 
Salisbury was made a station, R. O. Burton being pas- 
tor. In 1836, Mocksville circuit is made. In 1845, 
Jonesville circuit was set ofif. In 1848, Taylorsville 
was set off, and in 1850, Forsyth. The formation of 
these pastoral charges indicates the growth of IMethod- 


ism in the valley of the Yadkin. Just one hundred 
years ago, Methodism entered this section and began 
its work of evangelization, with the capital in hand 
of twenty-one communicants and one preacher. Out 
of this mustard seed so small in beginning has grown 
a gospel tree, whose fruitful branches spread over a 
large scope of country. 

The Results 

Salisbury station, Salisbury circuit, Mooresville 
circuit, Mocksville and Davie circuits, Iredell, Alexan- 
der, Wilkes, Yadkin, Surry, Mount Airy, Davidson, 
Stokes, Forsyth, Winston, Uwharie, Statesville, 
Statesville circuit, are the pastoral charges which have 
grown out of the original circuits of Salisbury and 
Yadkin, with thirty-seven local preachers, 8,200 mem- 
bers, 4,294 Sunday-school scholars, one hundred 
four churches, seven parsonages — the churches and 
parsonages valued at $88,650. These charges paid, 
in 1876, for religious purposes, $9,219.40. 

Methodist Ministers Born and Reared in Rowan 

Rev. Moses Brock 

was a native of Rowan, now Davie County; joined the 
Virginia - North Carolina Conference in 1820. For 
more than forty years he bore a conspicuous part in 
building up Methodism in Virginia and North Caro- 
lina. When the occasion called out his full strength, 


"he was eloquent and eminently successful" as a 
preacher. He was naturally witty, full of good humor, 
eccentric, and original. He finished his useful days 
in Tennessee, where he died in good old age. 

Rev. Richard Neely 
was a native of Rowan, born 1802, entered the Ten- 
nessee Conference in 1821. He was a successful mis- 
sionary among the Cherokee Indians. Died 1828. 
"He was a man of good mind, pleasing manners, a 
pious and useful minister." 

Rev. John Rich 
a native of Davie, born 181 5, joined conference in 
1840. "A peerless preacher and sweet - spirited 
Christian." Died in Davidson County in 185 1. 

Rev. S. M. Frost, D. D. 
born in Davie, joined conference in 1846. He labored 
many years in North CaroHna as an eminent minister 
and successful teacher. He is now living and preach- 
ing in Pennsylvania. 

Rev. L. L. Hendren 
born in Davie in 1822, joined conference in 1845. He 
is now an influential member of the North Carolina 
Conference, and one of the most prominent presiding 
elders in the connection. 

Rev. H. T. Hudson, D. D. 
born in Davie 1823, entered conference in 1851, and 
is now pastor of the Methodist Church at Rockingham, 
N. C. 

methodism in rowan 405 

Rev. xA.bram Weaver 
a native of Rowan, entered conference in 185 1, located 
in i860, moved to ^Missouri, and joined the Baptist 

Rev. James F. Smoot 
born in Davie, joined conference in 1856, located in 
1875, is now a teacher in Iredell. 

Rev. S. D. Peeler 
bom in Rowan, entered conference in 1854, is now 
pastor of Yadkin circuit. 

Rev. Calvin Plyer 
born in Rowan, entered conference in 1861, located in 
1873, is now living in SaHsbury. 

Rev. Wm. C. Wilson 
bom in Davie, entered conference in 1863, is still a 
minister in good standing, though at present is with- 
out any pastoral charge, because of family afflictions. 

Rev. \\'m. C. Call 
born in Davie, joined conference in 1867, is now in 
charge of Snow Hill circuit. 

Rev. Leonidas W. Crawford 
born in Rowan, entered conference in 1868, and is now 
stationed in Salisbury. 

Rev. James Wilson 
born in Davie, entered conference in 1871, is now in 
charge of Mount Airy Academy. 


After this brief and imperfect sketch, the writer 
desires to append a few remarks. 

First, the late Peter Doub, D. D., did more than any 
other minister to instill the peculiar doctrines of 
Methodism into the minds of the people living in 
Rowan and Davie Counties. He preached all over 
this country for many years to vast assemblies at- 
tending the camp-meetings and quarterly meetings. 

Rev. John Tillett did more than any other man in 
putting down intemperance and distilleries in Davie 
County. Rev. Baxter Clegg was the most useful and 
successful teacher. Out of his academy, located at 
Mocksville, came many useful ministers, lawyers, phy- 
sicians, and citizens. ^Methodism, both in Rowan and 
Davie, is also much indebted to such ministers as: 
Revs. J. W. Childs, Abram Penn, James Reid, Joseph 
Goodman, S. D. Bumpass, Wilham Barringer, X. F. 
Reid, D. D. — all gone to their heavenly reward ; and a 
host of others whose names we have not space to 

The ]\Iethodist Church of Salisbury 

The Rev. J. J. Renn, late pastor of the Sahsbury 
Methodist Episcopal Church, writes concerning its 
history as follows : 

The Rev. Peter Doub, D. D., was presiding elder in 
this district during the years 1825-29. During these 
four years 2,738 souls were converted at meetings 
which he held in person, and more than seven thou- 
sand in the bounds of the district. About that time 
ministers from both the A'irginia and South Carolina 


Conferences preached occasionally at the courthouse in 
Salisbury, among whom were Moorman, Travis, Tate, 
Stork, Martin (who is still living in South Carolina), 
and others. This, with the deep revival influence then 
working, resulted in the building of a Methodist 
church in the town of Salisbury. 

The first Methodist church in Sahsbury was or- 
ganized in November, 183 1, with thirteen members, 
four of whom are still living (1880), viz.: Miss 
Adelaide Clary (now Mrs. Rowzee), of Salisbury; 
John C. Palmer, now of Raleigh; and James Glover 
and wife, now of Davidson County. One name of 
the others is lost. The rest were Mrs. John C. Palmer, 
Mrs. Mary Hardy, Miss Margaret Shaver, Mrs. Slater, 
Mrs. Samuel Fraley, Alexander Biles, Mrs. Eunice 
Cowan, and Miss Sarah Bailey. 

This church was in the Virginia Conference. Charles 
P. Moorman was the first preacher in charge. The 
first Quarterly Conference was appointed to be held 
in the courthouse, in November, 1832, but the Presby- 
terian brethren kindly ofifered the use of their church, 
which was gratefully accepted, and so the first Meth- 
odist Conference ever convened in Salisbury was held 
in the Presbyterian church, presided over by that 
singular man, "the stern, the inflexible, the devoted, 
the self-poised, the brave, the witty, the fearless 
Methodist preacher, Moses Brock," who was at that 
time presiding elder of the district. 

At that Quarterly Conference, money was raised, 
and a comfortable wooden church was completed early 
in the following year (1833). With the exception of 


one year, the church was a part of the Sahsbury circuit, 
until 1845. I^ 1834 it was made a station, and served 
by Rev. R. O. Burton. It then went back to the cir- 
cuit. During this time (between 1833 ^^^ 1845), it 
had for pastors Revs. Messrs. T. McDonald, Tinnen, 
Yarrell, and others. Rev. Thomas S. J. Campbell 
traveled this circuit in 1835. 

In 1845, it became a permanent station, with Rev. 
S. Milton Frost, pastor. The presiding elder was the 
Rev. Joseph Goodman. This year there was an ex- 
tensive revival, and about seventy-five were added to 
the church. There was another revival in 1848, under 
Rev. L. Shell, which greatly strengthened the church. 



England is the only European country which failed 
to establish her church, in all its perfectness, amongst 
her colonies. In Spanish America, as early as 1649, 
Davila estimates the staff of the Spanish church to 
have been — one patriarch, six archbishops, thirty-two 
bishops, three hundred forty-six prebends, two abbots, 
five royal chaplains, eight hundred forty convents, be- 
sides a vast number of inferior clergy. Religion was 
almost entirely neglected in the early settlement of the 
American colonies of England. Some form of the 
Christian religion was nominally patronized, and estab- 
lished by law in each colony — but very little attention 
was paid to giving to the people full and genuine reli- 
gious privileges. The non-Episcopalians were generally 
much better off than their brethren of the Church of 
England. The latter were never allowed to have in 
any colony either a synod or a bishop. There was no 
power of obtaining Episcopal ordination in America. 
Candidates for the ministry were required to cross the 
Atlantic to receive Holy Orders. This was both costly 
and full of peril. One in five of all who set out re- 
turned no more. It is stated that, in the year 1724, 
about twenty young men, graduates from Yale College, 
who wished to obtain Episcopal ordination, being dis- 


couraged at the trouble and charge of going to Eng- 
land, either abandoned the ministry altogether, or 
accepted non-Episcopal ordination. The non-Episco- 
pal denominations each possessed their own system 
in perfection. "It is hard," was the complaint of 
the ''Churchmen" or "Episcopalians" at the time, "that 
these large and increasing dispersions of the true 
Protestant English Church should not be provided with 
bishops, when our enemies, the Roman Catholics of 
France and Spain, find their account in it to provide 
them for theirs. Even Canada, which is scarce bigger 
than some of our provinces, has her bishops, not to 
mention the ]\Ioravians, who also have theirs. The 
poor church of America is worse off than any of her 
adversaries. She has nobody upon the spot to com- 
fort or confirm her children — nobody to ordain such 
as are willing to serve." The colonies were all nom- 
inally under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, 
who lived more than three thousand miles away, and 
who never pretended to visit America at all. Xearly 
all the Episcopal ministers were missionaries in the 
pay of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts. So far as religious advantages were 
concerned North CaroHna seems to have been some- 
what worse off than any other colony, but there was 
more religious liberty and toleration — and there never 
was any such thing known here as religious persecu- 
tion. All Christian denominations, during the 
seventeenth and the greater part of the eighteenth cen- 


turies, believed that some fonn of Christianity should 
be established by law as the church of the State. Such 
a thing as the perfect religious toleration and freedom 
we now enjoy was then unknown anywhere. The 
Church of England, until the period of the Revolution 
of 1776, was the religious establishment of the Prov- 
ince of North CaroHna, and up to that date there was 
no period when the adherents of that church did not 
constitute at least one-half of the population. But there 
were very few clergy. In 1764, Governor Dobbs 
reported that there were then but six clergymen in the 
Province, although there were twenty-nine parishes, 
and each parish contained a whole county. Governor 
Tryon, in 1767, in his report of the state of religion 
in the Province, "observed with pleasure that religion 
was making a very regular progress." He recom- 
mended "the greatest caution in the choice of gentle- 
men sent over as ministers, the inhabitants of this 
Province being strict inquisitors into the moral charac- 
ter and behavior of the clergy ; and that the latter will 
attract but little esteem and do but little good if their 
lives are not truly exemplary and agreeable to their 
profession." In 1770, the number of the clergy had 
increased to eighteen, while the population of the 
Province probably exceeded two hundred thousand. 

I have been unable to ascertain whether there ever 
was a fully organized parish in Rowan County before 
the Revolutionary \\'ar. Rowan was erected into a 
county and parish in 1753, and the name of the latter 

412 history of rowan county 

St. Luke's Parish 

Before the year 1768, it is probable that ministers 
of the Church of England may have occasionally 
visited the county, but there is no tradition that any 
minister of that church had theretofore been located 
in the parish. This seems to be plain from the follow- 
ing extract of a petition from sundry inhabitants of 
the county of Rowan. 

*'To the Governor, his Majesty's Honorable Coun- 
cil, and the House of Burgesses of North CaroHna: 

"The petitioners complain: i. That his Majesty's 
most dutiful and loyal subjects in this county, who 
adhere to the liturgy and profess the doctrines of the 
Church of England as by law established, have not the 
privileges and advantages which the rubricks and 
canons of the church allow and enjoin on all her mem- 
bers. That the Acts of Assembly calculated to form- 
ing a regular vestry in all the counties have never in 
this county produced their happy fruits. That the 
county of Rowan, above all counties in the Province, 
lies under great disadvantages, as her inhabitants are 
composed almost of all nations of Europe, and instead 
of uniformity in doctrine and worship they have a 
medley of most of the religious tenets that have lately 
appeared in the world ; who from dread of submitting 
to the national church, should a lawful vestry be estab- 
lished, elect such of their own community as evade 
the Acts of Assembly and refuse the oaths, whence 
we can never expect the regular enlivening beams of 
the Gospel." Williamson, in his History of North 


Carolina, from which I have copied the above (p. 
258), makes the following comments of his own: 
*'The petitioners go on to pray that means be taken 
for compelling persons chosen vestrymen to take the 
oaths prescribed, or such other means as may produce 
a regular lawful vestry. There were thirty-four sub- 
scribers to the petition ; six of them made their marks, 
and some of the other signatures are hardly legible. 
When thirty-four such persons could propose that six 
or seven hundred should be taxed for their accom- 
modation, they certainly had need of gospel that 
teaches humility." The "humility" which these peti- 
tioners had need of was universally lacking in the 
Christianity of those times. But it is doubtful whether 
these petitioners proposed to do what Williamson 
charges them with — that is to ''tax" other people "for 
their accommodation." The proposition to lay a tax 
does not seem to be even implied from any of the lan- 
guage of the petition. Because they wished a "lawful 
vestry" is no proof that they desired the vestry to 
levy and collect taxes for religious purposes. And 
because some of the petitioners "made their marks" is 
no proof that they were utterly ignorant, uninfluential, 
and disreputable. A great many very respectable and 
intelligent people in those times were unable to read or 
write. I have been unable to ascertain the names of 
the signers of this petition. I think probable, however, 
that it was chiefly signed by residents of the town of 
Salisbury, and that it therefore represented but a mere 
fraction of the "church people" of the county. The 
date of this petition is not given, but I am inclined to 


think it must have been some time between the years 
1764 and 1768. Sahsbury, according to the current 
tradition, was originally settled by a few English 
churchmen from the cathedral city of Salisbury in 
England, and owes its name to that circumstance. 

It is impossible to estimate the number of people in 
the county who were adherents of the Established 
Church — but I think it probable that they amounted to 
at least one-fourth or one-third of the whole popula- 
tion. A great many of the old families were un- 
doubtedly members of the Church of England. Nearly 
all the English people and their descendants naturally 
belonged to that Church. So did the Welsh. ]\Iore 
than half of the Protestants of Ireland have always 
owed allegiance to the same religious faith. I think 
it probable that the following-named persons, living 
in this county before the Revolution, were Church of 
England people : John Frohock, William Giles, ^lat- 
thew Locke, Maxwell Chambers, James oMacay, John 
Dunn, William Temple Coles, Benjamin Boothe Boote, 
James Carter, Hugh Forster, William Churton, Rich- 
ard Viggers, William Steele, Thomas Frohock, 
Matthew Troy, James Kerr, Daniel Little, Alexander 
Ad^artin, Francis Locke, James Dobbin, Alexander 
Dobbin, Archibald Craige, David Craige, James 
Brandon, John Nesbit, Anthony Newnan, James 
Smith, and Richmond Pearson. The Howard family 
were also here then, and were members of the Eng- 
lish Church. 

\^ery little is known about the efforts that were made 
to organize Episcopal congregations in this county 


during the period before the Revolution. The tradi- 
tion is that the Rev. Theodore Drane Draig came to 
Sahsbury in the year 1768 or 1769, and almost im- 
mediately succeeded in having a chapel erected in the 
Jersey Settlement, about nine or ten miles east of 
Salisbury — somewhere near where Dr. William B. 
Mears now resides. Dr. Draig remained here about 
four years, but failed to organize the parish upon a 
legal and permanent foundation. ''For on Easter 
Monday, 1770, when an election, according to the 
then law of the Province, was to be held for the pur- 
pose of electing vestrymen, the Presbyterians set up 
candidates of their own and elected them, not with any 
design that they should act as vestrymen but solely 
for the purpose of preventing the Episcopalians from 
electing such as would have done so." The Rev. 
Robert J. Aliller relates this anecdote on the authority 
of Dr. Anthony Xewnan, John Cowan, Sr., and others 
of the old people of Salisbury. Air. Miller makes the 
following comments of his own: "This (election and 
its consequences) caused much bitter animosity to 
spring up between the parties, and so, much discour- 
aged the reverend gentleman. Perhaps the approach of 
the Revolutionar}^ War had its influence also, but be 
that as it may, after a four years' fruitless effort to 
organize an Episcopal congregation in this section, he 
left it as he found it, without any." Dr. Draig was a 
great friend of ^Mr. John Dunn, who is said to have 
been instrumental in persuading him to come to this 
parish. The usual place for holding the sen-ices in 
Salisbury was the large house of Mr. Dunn, situated 


on what is now the northeast corner of Innes and 
Church Streets — on the same lot where Mr. PhilHp P. 
Meroney resides. Mr. Dunn is said to have been a 
good Churchman. His house was decorated with ever- 
greens as regularly as Christmas Day would come. 

Governor Tryon, being in Salisbury on the twen- 
tieth day of Alay, 1767, went into the office of John 
Frohock, Clerk of the County Court and Register, 
*'and examined all the registry books, and fully 
approved of the method they were kept in. Colonels 
Palmer and Waddell were in company with the Gov- 
ernor. Colonel Palmer found lying in one of the books 
a copy of a call to the Rev. (Richard) Sankey, read it 
to the Governor, and at His Excellency's request, took 
it with him to take a copy thereof." (See Register's 
book 6, p. 397.) The clerk's office was then kept in the 
house of ]\Ir. A\'illiam Steele. I think that this call may 
have been made by a vestry of St. Luke's Parish. 
Elections for vestrymen were held every three years, 
and I suppose the polls were usually opened at the 
proper times. It is probable, therefore, that elections 
were held on Easter ]\Ionday, in the years 1758, 1761, 
1764, 1767, and 1770. Mr. Sankey seems to have 
been in Rowan as early as the year 1758 — for on the 
fifth day of September, 1758, he married John Braley 
to Sarah Carruth, of Rowan County (Register's book 
7, p. 302). He is said to have been a Virginian and a 
Presbyterian. But I think it probable that he had re- 
ceived Episcopal ordination. I can find out nothing 
satisfactory about him. He must have returned to 
Virginia before the date of Governor Tryon's visit. 


In those days the feeling was well-nigh unanimous 
that the Christian religion must be established and 
maintained as the law of the State. Nothing proves 
this more plainly than the ''instructions" given to the 
delegates from Mecklenburg County in 1775. 

"13. You are instructed to assent and consent to the 
estabHshment of the Christian religion as contained in 
the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, and 
more briefly comprised in the Thirty-Nine Articles of 
the Church of England, excluding the thirty-seventh 
article, together with all the articles excepted and not 
to be imposed on Dissenters by the act of toleration,, 
and clearly held forth in the Confession of Faith com- 
piled by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, to 
be the religion of the State, to the utter exclusion for- 
ever of all and every other (falsely so-called) religion,, 
whether Pagan or Papal, and that the full, free, and" 
peaceable enjoyment thereof be secured to all and 
€very consistent member of the State as their inalien- 
able right as free men, without the imposition of rites 
and ceremonies, whether claiming civil or ecclesiastic 
power for their source, and that a confession and pro- 
fession of the religion so established shall be necessary 
in qualifying any person for public trust in the State. 
If this should not be confirmed, protest and remon- 

''14. You are instructed to oppose to the utmost 
any particular church or set of clergymen being in- 
vested with power to decree rites and ceremonies, and 
to decide in controversies of faith, to be submitted to. 


under the influence of penal laws. You are also to op- 
pose the establishment of any mode of worship to be 
supported to the opposition of the rights of conscience, 
together with the destruction of private property. You 
are moreover to oppose the establishing an ecclesiastic 
supremacy in the sovereign authority of the State. 
You are to oppose the toleration of the Popish idola- 
trous worship. If this should not be confirmed, pro- 
test and remonstrate." 

It is somewhat remarkable that the North Carolina 
patriots of 1776 never protested against any evils out 
of the existing religious establishment. This is con- 
clusive proof that they did not consider an established 
church an evil at all ; and that the ecclesiastical laws 
then on the statute books must have been very mildly 
and rarely enforced. 

All persons holding office in the Province of North 
Carolina before the Revolution were required, in ad- 
dition to the usual oath of office, to take certain oaths 
appointed by Act of Parliament for the qualification 
of public officers, and to repeat and subscribe ''the 
test." The latter oath made the renunciation of the 
doctrine of transsubstantiation a necessary qualifica- 
tion for office. This declaration seems to have been 
repeated and subscribed every time the Court met. I 
find the following entry on one of the old Superior 
Court dockets : 
^'North Carolina, Salisbury, to wit : 

"1, A. B., do declare that I do believe in my con- 
science that there is not any transsubtantiation in the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper, or in the elements of 


bread and wine at or after the consecration thereof, 
by any person whatsoever, etc. 

"(Signed) : James Hasell, C. J. 

Edmund Fanning, A. J. 
WiUiam Hooper 
freland burn 

]\Iichael x burn 
''September Superior Court, 1767/' 

I never knew before that Edmund Fanning, the 
Hillsboro Tory, was an Associate Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court. \\^heeler does not mention the fact in his 
''Sketches." Fanning presided over the Court at 
SaHsbury frequently, as the records abundantly prove. 

I have not been able to locate the exact spot where 
Dr. Draig's chapel was, in the Jersey Settlement. 
Miss Chrissie Beard says "the congregation drank out 
of Mrs. Kelly's spring." She thinks it was very near 
the spot where Dr. Meares now lives. I have heard 
from several sources that there is a deed on record 
conveying a lot of land to certain trustees for the use 
of the Episcopal Church — supposed to be the very 
ground where the Jersey chapel was built — but I 
have not yet been able to find the deed referred to, 
not knowing the names either of the grantor or of the 

Among the names of the old ante-Revolutionary 
Churchmen was Alexander Martin, who lived in 
SaHsbury until Guilford County was erected. He had 
a brother who was a clergyman of the Church of Eng- 


land, and lived in Virginia. The former was quite a 
distinguished man. He was a prominent lawyer by 
profession, and was frequently commissioned by the 
crown to hold the District Court at Salisbury. He 
presided over the Court which was held on the first 
day of June, 1775, during the sitting of which Captain 
Jack passed through on his way to the Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia, with the Mecklenburg "Re- 
solves" of the thirty-first of Alay. He was a colonel 
in the Continental Army, and fought under LaFay- 
ette at the battle of Brandywine. He was elected Gov- 
ernor of the State in 1782, and again in 1789. He was 
also Governor in 1781, during the enforced absence of 
Governor Burke, who had been captured by the Tory 
Colonel Fannen, of Chatham. He never married. The 
last office he held was that of United States Senator, 
to which he was elected in 1799. He died in 1807. 

The Revolutionary War dispersed nearly all the 
Episcopal congregations in the State. The majority 
of the clergy, being Englishmen by birth and sympathy, 
and being deprived of all means of support, returned 
to the land of their nativity. "Still there were some 
four or five ministers who remained steady at their 
posts, ever ready to administer the ordinances of the 
Church and consolation to all who applied for them at 
their hands. These were the Rev. ^lessrs. Pettigrew, 
Cuppels, Blount, and Micklejohn; perhaps also, the 
Rev. Mr. Taylor, in Halifax. Seed was yet left, and 
a few praying Simeons and Annas still remained." 
(See letter of Rev. Mr. Miller, pubHshed by Rev. Dr. 
Hawks, dated April 15, 1830.) 


I think it doubtful whether any of these clergymen 
ever extended their ministrations further west than 
the county of Orange, where Mr. Micklejohn resided. 
For many years after the war of the Revolution the 
children and friends of Episcopacy, few in numbers 
and feeble in influence, lived in a state of religious 
destitution and in a condition of despondency border- 
ing on despair. It was not until the year 1790 that 
an eflfort was made to revive their drooping spirits. 
A convention met in Tarboro, organized a "standing 
committee," and elected delegates to the General Con- 
vention. Shortly thereafter, the Rev. Dr. Hailing, of 
Newbem, obtained the necessary credentials, and was 
ordained by Bishop ^Madison, of Virginia. A second 
convention was held in Tarboro in the year 1793; and 
a third was held in the same town on the last Wednes- 
day in May, 1794; when and where the Rev. Charles 
Pettigrew was elected Bishop of the Diocese of North 
CaroHna. For some reason satisfactory to himself the 
Rev. Mr. Pettigrew never made application for con- 
secration. ''It is a melancholy reflection," says the 
Rev. Mr. Miller, "for me to be obliged to say that no 
beneficial effects resulted from all these efforts to re- 
vive the spirit and cause of Episcopacy in the State of 
North Carolina. Yet such was the fact. They were 
by no means commensurate with the wishes and hopes 
of its real friends ; for the prospect rather became 
more dense in gloom. Under the pressure of many 
complicated difficulties, our wonder will cease that 
the efforts of the few remaining friends of the Episco- 
pal Church in this State had so little effect, and that 


a declination instead of a revival took place. The 
clergy were not only discouraged and dispirited, but 
were obliged in most cases to turn their attention to 
other objects in order to procure the necessaries of 
life. Twenty-three years the stream of time rolled 
along, and no star appeared in any quarter of our 
horizon to cheer the gloom that had enveloped our 
hopes and our spirits. From 1794 to 181 7, all was 
dark and dreary, yet the great Redeemer had not for- 
got his gracious promise. It was then that the daystar 
from on high visited us in mercy, when two heaven- 
sent heralds of the everlasting Gospel came to \\'il- 
mington and Fayetteville, and there laid the founda- 
tion of the restoration of the Episcopal Church and 
cause in North Carolina." The "heralds" referred to 
were the Rev. Messrs. Adam Empire and Bethel Judd. 
I cannot better describe the g-rowth and progress of 
Episcopacy in Rowan County than by giving brief 
biographical sketches of the ministers who have ofiB- 
ciated within its bounds. I will first begin with the 
name of 

Robert Johnstone ^Tiller 

He was a Scotchman by birth, and was born and 
brought up, until his fifteenth year, in the Episcopal 
Church of Scotland, under the ministry of the venera- 
ble Bishop Rail, who was upwards of eighty years 
old when young Miller left Scotland and came to 
America. At what time he came to this country I 
do not know ; probably a short time before the Revo- 
lutionary W^ar. He resided in \'irginia for some years, 


and about the year 1784 connected himself with the 
Methodists, who, Mr. Miller says, at that time pro- 
fessed to be members of the Episcopal Church. In the 
same year he ''rode with Dr. Coke to a conference in 
Franklin County, this State." Dr. Coke was an or- 
dained priest of the Church of England who had pre- 
viously been ordained a bishop by Wesley. Mr. Miller 
says that, although dissatisfied with the Methodist 
system — he himself being thoroughly persuaded of the 
truth of the Apostolic Succession — he nevertheless 
continued with them through the year 1785, in the 
Tar River circuit, where in some measure he lost his 
health ; for the recovery of which he came up into the 
western part of the State. He says that during his 
continuance with the Methodists they always treated 
him with respect, and when he withdrew himself from 
any connection with them, in 1786, "they publicly de- 
clared that they had no charge against him whatever, 
and that it was his own voluntary act, in consequence 
of his disapprobation of their system and rules." 
About this time the people of the congregation of 
Whitehaven, comprehending Whitehaven and the 
lower and upper Smyrna, in Lincoln County, applied 
to him to take charge of them as a congregation, in the 
capacity of a lay-reader merely. The people of his 
congregation were chiefly immigrants from Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia. They were a mixed people — Ger- 
man, English, Irish, and some Scots originally; but at 
that time very destitute of any regular religious in- 
struction. The most of them and their fathers were 
and had been members of the Episcopal Church. Mr. 


Miller agreed to become their public reader, to cate- 
chize their children, and to bury their dead. Both he 
and the congregation mutually resolved and agreed to 
adhere to the Episcopal Church, to which they were 
alike bound by the strong ties of hereditary preposses- 
sion, and of love and affection strengthened by con- 
viction. A congregation was organized, church ward- 
ens and a vestry were chosen, and an act of incorpora- 
tion obtained from the General Assembly. Prayer 
books were scarce. The congregation had a few 
English ones, and he procured two of the first edition 
from Philadelphia. He also had printed in Salisbury 
a catechism, to which he added an explanation of the 
two covenants, and the feasts of the Christian Church, 
together with some religious terms not generally un- 
derstood. The most of the congregation were under 
the necessity of receiving the sacraments from the 
hands of a Lutheran minister who lived in the vicinity. 
With him, Mr. Miller formed an intimate acquaint- 
ance, and with his ministerial brethren also who lived 
in the adjacent counties of Rowan, Guilford, and Ran- 
dolph. Mr. Miller says they pressed him with the 
plea of necessity to accept ordination from their hands, 
mentioning that the Rev. Dr. Pilmour had done so 
during the time of the Revolutionary War. A number 
of Presbyterian clergy with whom he was intimate 
recommended the same course ; and his congregation 
earnestly requested him to accept such ordination, as- 
suring him that they would be perfectly satisfied with 
his ministrations. He consented to receive ordina- 
tion from them, not as a Lutheran minister, but as an 


Episcopalian. In the letters of orders which they 
gave him, they bound him to be subject to the dis- 
cipline and rules of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in the United States. In administering the ordinances 
and offices of the Prayer book, Mr. Miller says he paid 
as strict attention to the rubrics as circumstances and 
situation would admit. 

In the year 1803, at the request of the congregation, 
and of the Lutheran ministry and their congregations, 
and after several consultations held for the purpose, a 
convention met in Salisbury, and formed a union and 
constitution, which adopted the leading features of 
the General Constitution of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the United States. Under this constitution, 
which was drawn up by Mr. Miller as aforesaid, he 
continued in union with the Lutherans until the year 
1818. He says, "our success in introducing order and 
regularity throughout our charges, and in extending 
their boundaries, was far beyond any expectation en- 
tertained by us at the commencement." In the year 
1794, yiv. Miller was invited by the Episcopal clergy 
of the State to attend the convention which assembled 
at Tarboro in ]\Iay of that year, and was also furn- 
ished with a certificate that he had been elected a 
member of the standing committee of the Diocese. Mr. 
Miller attended the convention, and took with him a 
member of the laity of Whitehaven Parish, who rep- 
resented the parish in the convention. The organiza- 
tion of the congregation of St. IMichael's Church, 
Iredell County; Christ Church, Rowan County, and 
St. Luke's Church, Salisbury, arose in some measure 


at least from Mr. Miller's labors amongst them for 
more than thirty years, before either parish was re- 
cieved into regular union with the Diocese, Mr. Miller 
says, Christ's Church was organized as a congregation 
during his "connection with the Lutheran Synod ; and 
St. Luke's, Salisbury, by our lamented and venerated 
Father in God, Bishop Ravenscroft, Monday, Septem- 
ber 8, 1823. Miss Chrissie Beard — now in her eighty- 
second year — one of the most highly respected ladies 
of Salisbury, says Mr. Miller also preached at a log 
church, about five miles above town, on the old Wilkes- 
boro Road. This church was built for Mr. Miller by 
Mrs. Elizabeth Kelly, John Howard, and other neigh- 
bors ; and Episcopal services were frequently held 
there. The same lady also says that she remembers 
perfectly well that her uncle, Lewis Beard, when she 
was a child, went to Charleston, and brought back 
with him a number of catechisms, which were eagerly 
sought for and highly prized by all the Episcopal 
families, who studied them attentively themselves, and 
made their children learn them. The introduction of 
these catechisms must have been some time about the 
year 1806. In 181 8 the long declining and almost 
obliterated cause of Episcopacy began to revive in 
this State. "In that year," says the Rev. ]\Ir. Miller, 
'^the beloved and Rev. Adam Empie, who was then 
the rector of St. James' Church, Wilmington, and one 
of the honored and principal instruments under God 
of the blessed and I may say glorious work, entered 
into a correspondence with me touching my standing 
in the Church, and the state of religion in this section 


of the country. To him I stated my situation, and 
that of the people then under my care, and their and 
my connection with the Lutherans. This union was 
from first to last our own individual act. And at the 
time when I was ordained by them, I had expressly 
reserved my right and liberty, with those under my 
care, to return and unite in full union and without any 
impediment, with the Episcopal Church, whenever it 
should please God to revive her in this State." The 
result was that he attended the fifth annual Convention 
of the Diocese, held in Raleigh, April 28, 1821. It was 
the third convention over which Bishop Richard 
Channing Moore, of Virginia, had presided. Mr. Mil- 
ler, at this convention, was ordained by Bishop Moore, 
a deacon and priest — the first in the morning and the 
second in the evening of the same day, to wit : May 
2, 1821. It is reported that when Bishop Moore read 
Mr. Miller's certificate of ordination, he said to him, 
"you belong to its." This anecdote is told as if ^Ir. 
Miller for the first time then conceived it his duty to 
obtain Episcopal ordination. But it is plain from 
what has been said that he had never faltered in his 
purpose to obtain Holy Orders from the Church of his 
fathers, whenever a favorable opportunity presented 
itself. He had never ceased to consider himself a 
member of that Church. I have not access to the 
earliest journals of the Diocese, but I have no doubt 
Mr. Miller became a candidate for Orders shortly 
after the correspondence with the Rev. ^Ir. Empie 


The Rev. Mr. Miller, even after he had resolved to 
obtain Episcopal ordination, still continued to adminis- 
ter the sacraments, and to preach to the congregations 
under his care. 

There is an old record of Christ Church, in the 
handwriting of Mr. Miller, from which several of 
the first leaves are missing. From this it appears that 
Mr. Miller was in the habit of administering the holy 
rite of confirmation to all who would receive it at his 
hands. He administered confirmation for the first 
time in Christ Church, Rowan County, some time 
previous to the year 1820. The record concerning it 
is missing. The date of his second confirmation is 
the third Sunday in April, sixteenth day, 1820, when 
he confirmed twenty-four persons. 

The following record is preserved of the early com- 
munions in the same church. 

Fourth communion, date not given, fifty-one com- 
municants; fifth, April 16, 1820, forty-four communi- 
cants; 1820, fifty-eight; 18 — , number not given. 

The next communion was after Mr. Miller had re- 
ceived Episcopal ordination, November 4, 1821 — 
thirty-six communicants, with this note — "day very 
unfavorable, a number that had given in their names 
unable to attend. Collected $2.96>4. (Signed) 
Robert J. Miller, Rector." 

Fourth Sunday in May, 1822, entered as the seventh 
communion — though it must have been the ninth — 
twenty-four communicants; eighth (?), July 3, 1823, 
forety-eight communicants; tenth (?), Sunday, August 
21, 1825, fifty-one communicants. At the convention 


of 182 1, Christ Church was admitted into union with 
the Diocese. Allmand Hall attended as the first dele- 
gate. This gentleman was the ancestor of quite a 
number of distinguished Episcopal families in North 
Carolina. One of his daughters married ^Ir. Cham- 
bers McConnaughey of this county. ^Irs. ]^IcCon- 
naughey is still living, and has always been a devoted 
Christian and churchwoman. One of her daughters 
married Dr. John L. Henderson, whose family reside 
in Concord^ and are members of the new Episcopal 
congregation there. Another daughter married Dr. 
Thomas Hill, recently a vestryman of St. Luke's 
Parish, but who has removed to Goldsboro. A 
daughter of ^Ir. Allmand Hall married Dr. WilHam 
McKoy, of Clinton, Sampson County, the father of the 
Hon. Allman A. !McKoy — one of the most capable and 
acceptable Judges of the Superior Court now on the 

The Rev. ^Ir. ^liller removed to Burke County, and 
took up his residence at St. Mary's Grove, a short time 
before the year 1821. During that year St. Andrew's 
Church was organized as a parish, and Mr. Miller 
became its rector. Notwithstanding his removal to 
Burke County fnow Caldwell), ^Ir. ^Miller did not 
entirely lose sight of his flock in Iredell, Rowan, ,md 
Lincoln Counties, but for several years continued to 
make periodical visitations from time to time of the 
congregations and families committed to his care. He 
is remembered with great affection and esteem by some 
of the older people — as coming down on such oc- 
casions, preaching at the little churches and other 


places, catechizing the children and baptizing a great 
many, distributing the bread of Hfe to the faithful, 
visiting the Episcopal families as he had opportunity, 
and like some other old gentlemen of that day wearing 
the old-fashioned knee-breeches. 

St. Peter's Church, Lexington (then of Rowan), 
was admitted into union with the Diocese at the (Ral- 
eigh) convention of 1822 — delegate, Alexander Cald- 
cleugh. The delegate from Christ Church was Ben- 
ton A. Reeves. 

The eighth annual convention of the Diocese assem- 
bled in Salisbury, in the old Lutheran Church, in the 
spring of 1823 — seven clergymen being present. The 
Revs. Gottlieb Shober and Daniel Scherer, and Col. 
Henry Ratz, delegates from the Lutheran Synod, were 
in attendance as honorary members of the convention, 
in pursuance of articles of agreement between the con- 
vention and the Synod. The delegates from Christ 
Church were John Cowan, Benjamin Lightell, and 
Samuel Fleming; from St. Peter's Church, Lexington, 
James R. Dodge, Dr. WilHam R. Holt, and Dr. \\{\- 
liam Dobson. 

The Rev. John Stark Ravenscroft, of Virginia, was 
elected the first Bishop of North Carolina. He was 
consecrated to the Episcopate Alay 23, 1823. On 
Saturday evening, September 6, 1823, Bishop Ravens- 
croft preached on Confirmation in the old courthouse 
in Salisbury (services being held there by request). 
On the next day he preached, both morning and 
evening, in the Lutheran Church; administered the 
Holy Communion to about forty persons — one-third 


of whom were colored; and confirmed thirteen per- 
sons, among whom were Miss Chrissie Beard, Mrs. 
Eleanor Faust, Mrs. Susanna Beard, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Kelly, Mrs. Mary Beard, Misses Camilla and Loretta 
Tores, Mrs. ]\Iary Locke, and Misses Margaret Burns, 
Mary Hampton, and Mary Todd. 

At this, his first visitation, Bishop Ravenscroft or- 
ganized the parish, on ^^londay evening, at the house of 
Mrs. Susanna Beard, on Innes Street, between Main 
and Church Streets, just opposite the present residence 
of Mr. R. J. Holmes. The old house is now occupied 
by Mrs. Rutledge and family. 

On September 14, 1823, the Bishop visited Christ 
Church, confirmed fifty persons, and administered the 
Holy Communion to sixty-three persons. Doubtless 
a good many of those who had been previously con- 
firmed by Mr. Miller were again confirmed by the 

St. Luke's Parish was admitted into union with the 
Diocese at the (Williamsboro) convention of 1824, 
and Dr. Lueco Mitchell attended as a delegate. Dr. 
Stephen L. Ferrand, the father of Mrs. Mary S. Hen- 
derson, and of Mrs. Ann Haughton, deceased, at- 
tended the (Washington) Convention, April 21, 1825, 
as a delegate from the same parish. Bishop Ravens- 
croft reported that he had visited Christ Church on the 
thirteenth and fourteenth of October, 1824. and 
''though the weather was bad, preached to good con- 
gregations." On the second day he was assisted by 
Mr. Miller, administering the Holy Communion to 
thirty-eight persons. Returning to Salisbury, after 


service by Mr. Miller, on Saturday the sixteenth, he 
preached on the seventeenth, being Sunday, confirmed 
eight persons, and administered the communion to six- 
teen persons, assisted by Mr. Miller. "In the after- 
noon divine service was again performed. The con- 
gregations respectable, both forenoon and afternoon.'* 
On the eighteenth, the Bishop left Salisbury, in com- 
pany with Mr. Miller, and on the nineteenth, at the 
house of Mr. Mills, in Iredell, he confirmed five per- 
sons. Mr. Mills' family formed the Episcopal part 
of the former joint Episcopal and Lutheran congrega- 
tion of St. ^lichael's, which the Bishop had visited in 
the year 1823. Mr. Mills' family afterwards consti- 
tuted the main strength of the Episcopal parish of 
St. James. The Bishop reached Mr. Miller's ''hospita- 
ble mansion" on the twenty-first. On the twenty- 
fourth, in St. Andrew's Church, Burke County, eight- 
een persons were confirmed, "a numerous congrega- 
tion" being present. On the twenty-sixth, he preached 
at St. Peter's Church, Lincoln County, to a small con- 
gregation, and on the twenty-seventh, in the same 
church, confirmed seven persons. ]\Ir. Miller assisted 
in the serv^ice. On the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth, 
he officiated at Smyrna, without any appearance of 
interest on the part of the few who attended." 

On the thirtieth and thirty-first he ofBciated at 
Whitehaven, assisted by Mr. IMiller, and confirmed 
nine persons, and "administered the Holy Communion 
to a small number of serious people." On the fourth 
of November he performed divine service again at 


Whitehaven, preached on the subject of Confirma- 
tion, and administered that rite to seven more persons. 
The Bishop, in his address to the convention of 
1825, said "that he v^^as happy to be able to state that 
the principles of the church and of pure religion were 
gaining ground among her members, among whom 
there were not a few whose zeal was coupled with 
knowledge and whose faith was manifested by their 
works, and in general more consideration was given to 
the subject. In the western section of the Diocese the 
prospect was very discouraging, though not without 
hope. With the exception of the congregation at 
Wadesboro, under the care of the Rev. Mr. Wright, 
which was second to none in any Diocese for sound- 
ness in the faith and exemplary holiness; and the 
congregation of Christ's Church, Rowan, which is 
numerous and regular, and in the main sound as 
Episcopalians, though not without exceptions; and a 
few recently organized in Salisbury, there is nothing 
at present to be depended upon. In the immediate 
neighborhood of the Rev. Mr. Miller, they have com- 
menced retracing their steps, and will in time, I trust, 
recover from the paralyzing effect of the attempt to 
amalgamate with the Lutheran body, and the unjusti- 
fiable conduct of some of the missionaries heretofore 
employed, in abandoning the Liturgy altogether in 
their public services. In Lincoln, the effects are most 
visible, and likely to be most injurious ; yet had we the 
means of giving and continuing to them the services of 
a faithful clergyman, my hope is good for the revival 
of the church even there. Some verv influential men 


are engaged in the cause, and there is sufficient ability, 
could it be roused into action, to give it success." 

November 13, 1825, the Bishop visited Christ 
Church, Rowan, where he preached and administered 
the Holy Communion to fifty-six white and three col- 
ored communicants. 

Mr. Miller made a report to the convention at Hills- 
boro. May 18, 1826, covering a period of two years : 

Baptisms — St. Andrews, Burke County, 21 ; In 
Iredell and Rowan, 85 ; In Lincoln, 35 ; On Johns and 
Catawba Rivers, 11. Total, 152. 

Communicants — St. Andrew's, 15; Christ Church, 
50; Whitehaven, 17; Smyrna, 7; Mr. ^Mills', 17. 
Total, 106. 

Marriages, 5; burials, 12; paid to Bishop's salary, 
$20.00; candidates for confirmation at St. An- 
drew's, II. 

Mr. Miller attended the convention at Salisbury in 
the year 1829. His report shows that he was confining 
his labors almost exclusively to the little parish of St. 
Andrews. He made another report to the convention 
at Washington, in 1834, in which he stated that, al- 
though enjoying in other respects a good state of 
health for one of his years, he was very often pre- 
vented from attendance on the appointments that were 
made for him by sudden and severe attacks of a pain- 
ful complaint with which he was afflicted. He died 
early in the summer of 1834, having lived a long life 
full of years and usefulness in the service of his ]Mas- 
ter. He was a truly pious, sincere Christian — and not- 
withstanding his apparent inconsistencies of conduct 


was devotedly attached all his life to the Church of his 
baptism; and he was instrumental in a larger degree 
than any other one person in keeping alive a knowl- 
edge of Episcopacy in the western part of the State. 
Wherever he went, his ministrations were always wel- 
come. Mr. Miller's descendants are numerous, one of 
whom — Miss Amanda Haigler — is the wife of Mr. 
Lewis V. Brown, late of Salisbury, but now of Denton, 

Bishop Ives, in his address to the convention of 
1835, thus alludes to the death of this venerable and 
saintly servant of God: 

"I notice with unfeigned sorrow, the death, during 
the past year, of the Rev. Robert Johnstone Miller, of 
Burke County, a clergyman of whom we may em- 
phatically say, for him to live was Christ and to die is 
gain. Brethren of the clergy, let us follow his ex- 
ample of humility, of faith and patience, that ours may 
be his crown of eternal glory, through him who has 
washed us from our sins in his own blood." 

It was through the instrumentality of Mr. Miller 
that fraternal relations were established between the 
Lutheran Synod and the Episcopal Convention, by a 
mutual interchange of delegates from one to the other 
for several years previous to the consecration of 
Bishop Ravenscroft. Before the Revolution, the 
Swedes and German Lutherans in the American 
colonies, almost without exception, are understood to 
have conformed to the Episcopal Church. In a report 
made to the Bishop of London, in 1761, the number of 
^'church people" in Pennsylvania is put down at sixty- 


five thousand, of whom forty thousand were said to 
be Swedish and German Lutherans "who reckon their 
service, etc., the same as that of the Church of En- 
gland" (Wiberforce, American Church, 133). 

The Rev. Robert Davis, whose history is unknown 
to the writer, officiated in this section of the State, co- 
operating with ]\Ir. ^liller, in the years 1821-23. 
I find his name included in the list of the clergy 
for North Carolina, in Sword's Almanac for the 
year 1822, the whole number of clerg>' being put down 
at nine, among whom were the Revs. Richard S. 
Mason (Xewbern), and William Hooper, professor in 
the University of North CaroHna. 

About the year 1794, a number of Episcopal fami- 
lies removed from Maryland to the western part of 
Rowan, among them two families of Barbers, and 
other families by the names of Gardner, Chunn, Har- 
rison, Alexander, Lightell, Mills, Swan, Reeves, Bur- 
roughs, etc. The Rev. Richard \\\ Barber, of Wilkes- 
boro, is descended from Elias Barber, the patriarch of 
one branch of the Barber family, and the Rev. Samuel 
S. Barber, of Hyde County, is descended from Jona- 
than Barber, the patriarch of the other branch. 

Mr. Chunn was the grandfather of the Chunns of 
this county, Mrs. Susan W. ]Murphy, Mrs. Betty ]Mur- 
phy, and many others. The late Archibald Hender- 
son was often heard to remark that the Rev. Thomas 
E. Davis — afterwards Bishop of South Carolina — said 
to him, that Mr. \Mlliam Chunn — the father of ]\Irs. 
Susan W. ]\Iurphy — was "God's gentleman," meaning 
thereby that he was endowed by nature with all the 


graces and genuine characteristics of a true, cultured, 
Christian gentleman — a very high compliment indeed, 
coming from such a man as Bishop Davis. Mr. Sam- 
uel R. Harrison, of Salisbury, and many others are 
descendants of those who first came out with the 
Maryland colony, and the Turners, of Rowan and Ire- 
dell, are also descended from one of this colony. Mr. 
Charles Nathaniel Alills, with his family, removed 
soon after his arrival to Iredell County — where his 
descendants, including a portion in the Northwestern 
States and a few in Salisbury, now number several 
hundred. The Rev. Hatch Dent, an Episcopal clergy- 
man, and an uncle of the Barbers, came out with this 
colony. He purchased six hundred and sixty-one 
acres of land in Alount UUa township, where Dent's 
Mountain is situated — being that part of the Boyden 
and Henderson plantation called "the Dent Tract." 
The reverend gentleman remained but a few years. 
Parson Dent and Jonathan Barber had married two 
Misses Swan — aunt and niece — and the parson, on 
returning to ^laryland, left his nephew in charge of 
this tract of land just mentioned, giving him the use of 
it rent-free for ten years. 

Jack Turner, whose wife was a Dent, was the father 
of Wilson and Joseph Turner and others. Wilson 
Turner (brother of Jack), was the father of Wilfred 
Turner and others. Samuel Turner came into the 
county ten or twenty years later than the first colonists. 

Had Parson Dent made Rowan his permanent resi- 
dence, and if he had been ordinarily zealous and suc- 
cessful in his ministrations, it is believed by many that 


the Episcopal Church would have been at his time 
numerically as strong as any religious denomination 
in the county. An opportunity presented itself at that 
early day which can never occur again. The Rev. 
Thomas Wright, of Wadesboro, visited St. Luke's, 
Salisbury, and Christ Church, Rowan County, thrice 
each during the year ending April 21, 1825. He re- 
ported at that time six communicants at St. Luke's, 
and fifty-eight at Christ Church. On the twenty- 
fourth of November of the same year, ]\Ir. Wright 
accepted a call to the rectorship of these two parishes. 
His salary was fixed at five hundred dollars — one-half 
of which was assured by the vestry of Christ Church. 
The contract on the part of Christ Church with St. 
Luke's was signed by W^illiam Cowan, John Swan, and 
David Cowan. On the twenty-seventh, Bishop Ra- 
venscroft preached in the courthouse in Salisbury, 
which the Bishop said "was more convenient to the 
inhabitants generally than the church, situated at the 
extreme end of town" — in the old Lutheran cemetery. 
At this time there seems to have been some misunder- 
standing between the Lutherans and Episcopalians, 
about the claim of the latter to use the old church 
building. The Bishop thus alludes to it in his Journal : 
"An interference in appointments took place, which 
gave me the opportunity to press upon the members of 
the church the necessity of providing a place of wor- 
ship for themselves. And though the present building 
has been erected almost entirely at the expense of 
Episcopalians, yet as the ground was originally given 
for a free church, and each denomination has an equal 


right to the use of it, I recommended to surrender it 
altogether, and rent some convenient place for present 
use until they could provide the means of erecting a 
suitable building for themselves." In his first report 
to the convention at Hillsboro, May i8, 1826, Mr. 
Wright returns the number of communicants at Christ 
Church at sixty-four, and at St. Luke's, eleven. In 
January, 1826, Mr. Wright took charge of these con- 
gregations, reserving five Sundays in the year for his 
former flock (in Wadesboro). He reports: "our 
prospects in the parish of St. Luke's, though not flat- 
tering, to be as good as ought to be expected under the 
existing circumstances. The brethren of Christ Church 
in general are of one mind and spirit; and walking 
themselves in the old paths and the good way, will in- 
duce others also to follow in their steps. They have 
recently raised the frame of a new building, sixty by 
forty feet." 

Samuel Fleming attended the convention at Hillsboro 
as a delegate from Christ Church. In his report to 
the Newbern Convention, May 17, 1827, Mr. Wright 
said that ''there was reason to hope that the friends 
and members of the church in his charge have not only 
increased in number, but are advancing in zeal and 
knowledge, growing in grace and holiness." 

The new building of Christ Church was consecrated 
by Bishop Ravenscroft, July 17, 1827, in the presence 
of a large concourse of people, the customary deed 
having been executed on the day previous. The 
Bishop was assisted in the services by the Revs. 
Thomas \\>ight, R. S. :\Iiller, and William ]\I. Green. 


The latter is now the venerable and beloved Bishop of 
Mississippi. This church was situated about twelve 
miles west of Salisbury, near the Statesville Road — 
about one mile below the point where Third Creek 
station on the Western North Carolina Railroad is 
now located. In his report of this consecration, to the 
Fayetteville Convention, 1828, the Bishop speaks of 
the congregation of Christ Church as a "large body of 
worshipers, the second in number of communicants in 
the Diocese." On the fifteenth day of September, 
1827, Moses A. Locke, Charles Fisher, and John 
Beard, Jr., as executors of Lewis Beard, executed and 
delivered to John McClelland, James Martin, Stephen 
L. Ferrand, Thomas Chambers, Edward Yarboro, 
and Edward Cress, vestry of the Episcopal congrega- 
tion of St. Luke's Church, a deed in fee for Lot No. 
II — one hundred and forty-four square poles — in the 
town of SaHsbury — now the east corner of Church and 
Council Streets. The following clause is inserted in 
the deed : 

"And in case at any time hereafter the congregation 
of St. Luke's shall dissolve, then the right to said lot 
shall vest in the Episcopal Bishop of the Diocese of 
North Carolina, and his perpetual successors, in trust 
for the said congregation of St. Luke's when it shall 
revive." (Registered in Book No. 30, p. 8.) The lot 
is said to have been presented by Major John Beard, 
Jr., a very devoted churchman who removed to 
Florida, where he resided for many years, having died 
only a few years ago. 


The present church building was erected in the year 
1828, the Rev. Francis L. Hawks being the architect. 
Mr. John Berry was the contractor and builder. Mrs. 
Mary N. Steele, widow of Gen. John Steele, gave the 
ground to make the bricks, and burned them. Before 
the church was consecrated, the Masonic Fraternity 
assembled there and organized "Fulton Lodge" — the 
Rev. \y. M. Green (now Bishop) meeting with them. 
The building was consecrated by Bishop Ravenscroft, 
in July or August, 1878, assisted by the Revs. ^lessrs. 
William 'M. Green, Thomas Wright, Philip B. Wiley, 
and John H. Xorment. The services "formed an ob- 
ject of much interest to some, and of curiosity to 
more." About this time, ^Ir. Weight ceased to be the 
rector of Christ Church, owing to the disinclination of 
the latter to continue their union with the church at 
Salisbury upon its original footing — and "that large 
and important and able congregation" — in the lan- 
guage of Bishop Ravenscroft — remained for some 
time without a regular pastor. 

The thirteenth annual convention met in St. Luke's 
Church, Salisbury, on Saturday, May 23, 1829. 
The lay delegates from Christ Church were Charles 
Mills, Benjamin Harrison, David Cowan, and Dr. W. 
H. Trent. From St. Luke's Parish were James Mar- 
tin, Romulus M. Saunders, Edward Yarboro, and 
John Beard, Jr. Thomas F. Davis, Jr., afterwards 
rector of the parish and Bishop of South CaroHna, 
was present as a lay delegate from St. James' Church, 
Wilmington. E. J. Hale was present as a lay delegate 
from St. John's Church, Fayetteville. During the 


morning sen-ice on the first day of the session, the 
sacrament of baptism was administered to four adults ; 
and at night to four infants. ^Ir. \\>ight reported 
fifteen communicants at St. Luke's and seventy at 
Christ Church, and said "Fears are entertained by 
some of the vestry that they cannot maintain a clerg}-- 
man, even with the aid of Christ Church. Perhaps 
an unmarried man, who could combine secular 
with clerical duties, or who would divide his 
time between the two churches of Rowan and the con- 
gregation at A\'adesboro, might be supported. The 
few members of the Female Episcopal Society have 
wrought diligently, and have been able to defray the 
expense of painting the church and procuring cushions, 
etc., for the pulpit, reading desk, and altar. By the 
exertions chiefly of one lady, eighty-five dollars have 
been presented for the purpose of purchasing a bell." 
"The members in general of Christ Church are more 
confirmed in their attachment to the Church, and a few 
of them have obviously advanced in knowledge, zeal, 
and holiness.'* On Sunday morning, the Bishop 
preached from Romans lo : 14. The sermon was 
published by request of the convention, and 
was entitled, "Revelation the Foundation of Faith." 
The Rev. Philip B. AMley was ordained priest, 
and the communion was administered to fifty- 
one persons. Evening servnce was performed by the 
Rev. G. \\\ Freeman. The Rev. yiv. A\'right was 
elected one of the delegates to the General Convention. 
During the temporary retirement of the Bishop, Romu- 
lus M. Saunders, a lay delegate, was called to the chair. 


The Bishop's salary was fixed at one thousand dollars 
per annum, commencing from June ii, 1829. 

From Mr. Wright's report to the convention of 1832, 
I extract the following: ''A few years ago the congre- 
gations in Rowan had a name to live, and were dead ; 
but by the grace and mercy of God they have revived, 
arisen from the dust, and been in some measure puri- 
fied, and now our principles are better understood 
than at any preceding period. Our services are at- 
tended by those who love them ; and the blessed Gos- 
pel is, in general, honored by the holy walk of such as 
profess to beheve it." Bishop Ives, in his address, 
speaks of "the faithful and self-denying labors of Mr. 
Wright in St. Luke's Parish having been very 
inadequately repaid." He reported the congre- 
gation of Christ Church, "as to its spiritual state, 
seeming to be prosperous." On Wednesday, the 
thirtieth of May, 1823, Bishop Ives visited St. Luke's 
Church, officiating on Thursday, Friday, and Satur- 
day ensuing, preaching to unusually serious and atten- 
tive congregations, and confirming ninety-two persons. 
"It was a circumstance of unusual gratification to my- 
self," says the Bishop, "as it must have been to the 
worthy and devoted servant of God who was about 
leaving this scene of his self-denying labors, to ob- 
serve among those who on this occasion publicly pro- 
fessed their faith a number of the most deservedly 
influential gentlemen of the place, and among all a 
spirit of increasing solemnity. Among the gentlemen 
then confirmed were Judge James Martin, John 


Beard, William Howard, and Major John Mc- 

The Rev. ]\Ir. Wright removed from Salisbury, with 
his family, to Tennessee, towards the close of the year 
1832. He was for a short time a student of the law. 
He was born in W^ilmington ; ordained deacon about 
the year 1821, and ordained priest in 1823 or 1824. 
He married a sister of Bishop Green, and raised a 
large family of children. He lived in the old I\lac- 
Namara house, on Main Street (near the Western 
North Carolina Railroad), next door to the ]\Iisses 
Beard. He was a most devoted herald of the cross 
— full of years and piety, and abounding in mission- 
ary labors. During the time he was at Salisbury he 
officiated constantly in the parishes of Rowan County, 
and frequently and regularly visited Wadesboro, fifty- 
six miles away. He occasionally visited the ]Mills 
Settlement in Iredell County, Mocksville, and Wilkes 
County. He accompanied Bishop Ravenscroft for 
days at a time whenever the latter was on his visita- 
tions. He is said to have built up the first Episcopal 
congregation of Memphis. He is remembered with 
great admiration and affection by his old parishioners 
in this State. 

The Rev. John ^Morgan 

Mr. Wright's successor, must have arrived in SaHs- 
bury the latter part of November, 1832. He reached 
Oxford, on his way, on Saturday, the twenty-fourth, 
and there met Bishop Ives, and assisted the latter in 
his Sunday services. Mr. \\>ight and his family did 


not leave Salisbury until after his arrival. Mr. Mor- 
gan was an Englishman by birth and education, and 
was never married. Bishop Ives visited St. Luke's 
Church, Friday, June 14, 1833, and confirmed seven 
persons. "He was highly gratified to mark so many 
indications of spiritual improvement." I extract the 
following from Mr. Morgan's report to the conven- 
tion of 1834: Baptisms, twenty-six; communicants, 
twenty; Christ Church baptisms, twenty; communi- 
cants, seventy-six ; Charlotte baptisms, seven ; com- 
municants, three; Iredell County baptisms, ten. His 
field included Charlotte and Lincolnton, which he 
visited every fifth week. **We have ordered an organ ; 
the ladies deserving the credit of it. The congregation 
of Christ Church is decidedly improving in regard. to 
the number of those who regularly attend, and I trust 
in knowledge, grace, and zeal." The same organ has 
continued in use at St. Luke's to this very day. It was 
built by Henry Erben, of New York. The original 
price was seven hundred dollars, but he reduced the 
charge to five hundred dollars. Mr. Morgan removed 
to Maryland some time the latter part of the year 1835. 
He lived to a good old age, dying on Staten Island in 
1877. He was fond of accumulating rare and beauti- 
fully bound books, and he took great pride in showing 
his books to those who called to see him. He was a 
very charitable man — spending his money, however, 
without discrimination. He paid a visit to England 
shortly after leaving here, in company with the late 
Hon. Burton Craige. I heard the latter say that Mr. 
Morgan was in the habit of dropping a gold guinea 


($5) into the box for the poor every time he entered 
a church, while other people were dropping in pennies 
or shillings. Mr. Craige said he repeatedly remon- 
strated with him about such reckless extravagance, 
telling him that, at the rate he was gomg on, the legacy 
which he had lately inherited would soon be exhausted. 
But his remonstrances had very little effect. He is 
said to have given his own overcoat to a man who was 
shivering in the cold, and rode home himself without 
one. Before leaving the State, Air. Morgan, in De- 
cember, 1834, gave up the rectorship of St. Luke's 
Church, in order to confine himself more closely to his 
other fields of labor. About that time he reports the 
number of communicants at Salisbury at twenty-three ; 
Christ Church and Iredell, one hundred and ten; 
Burke County, seventeen ; Charlotte, two. On Friday, 
September 24, 1834, the Bishop confirmed at Christ 
Church thirty persons. 

Mr. Morgan labored with great zeal and success, 
and was greatly beloved and respected by his parish- 
ioners — in fact, by all who knew him. 

He was succeeded in the rectorship of St. Luke's by 

Rev. William W. Spear 

in January, 1835. Mr. Spear had been ordained 
deacon, July 25, 1834, at Hillsboro. The ordination 
sermon was preached by the Rev. George W. Freeman. 
Mr. Spear was an educated gentleman. He went to 
school in Salisbury to the Rev. Jonathan Otis Freeman, 
a Presbyterian minister, and pastor of the Presbyterian 


congregation in Salisbury. The latter was a brother 
of the Rev. George \\\ Freeman, who was then rector 
of Christ Church, Raleigh, and afterwards the Bishop 
of Arkansas. The Rev. G. W. Freeman ministered 
to Bishop Ravenscroft during his last hours. He was 
born in Massachusetts in the year 1789 (?). 

The Rev. Jonathan O. Freeman was a celebrated 
instructor. Numbers of the old people in Salisbury 
of all denominations were baptized and instructed by 
him, including many EpiscopaHans. His son, E. B. 
Freeman, of Raleigh, and Clerk of the Supreme Court, 
adopted the religion of his uncle, and became a com- 
municant of the Episcopal Church. 

Mr. Spear, after becoming a candidate for Holy 
Orders, entered the General Theological Seminary, in 
New York, where he completed his preparatory 
theological studies. He remained in Salisbury about 
a year, when he removed to South Carolina. He 
afterwards went North, where he became a dis- 
tinguished divine. He is still living in the city of 
Philadelphia. His parents were English people, who 
came to this State shortly before or after his birth. 
He married ]\liss Emily Ewing, of Philadelphia, who 
is said to have been a beautiful woman. During his 
rectorship, Mr. Spear and his wife boarded in the 
family of the late Judge James ]^Iartin, who lived 
in the same house now occupied by the Rev. J. Rumple. 

Miss Maria Louisa Spear, an elder sister of the Rev. 
Mr. Spear, also resided in Salisbury for a few years. 
She was born in Paddington, England, April 12, 1804, 
and died near Chapel Hill, January 4, 1881. She 


educated, both directly and indirectly, her own brother 
and sisters, and became a prominent and useful teacher 
of many young ladies ; and all her pupils have retained 
through Hfe a grateful sense of the value of her 
literary instructions and religious influence. 

Mrs. Mary S. Henderson and Mrs. Sarah J. Cain 
were in their childhood pupils of Miss Spear. When 
Miss Spear was in Salisbury, she lived in the family 
of the Rev. Mr. Wright. Miss Ellen Howard was an 
infant at that time. Miss Spear thought her a beauti- 
ful child, and used to remark what a pretty picture 
the child would make. Aliss Spear is said to have been 
a very fine artist. 

She was one of the first persons confirmed by Bishop 
Ravenscroft, and became an intimate friend and active 
helper of her pastor, ]\Ir. Green, of Hillsboro, now the 
venerable Bishop of ^lississippi, who has recently 
spoken of her as an ''incomparable woman." ]\Irs. 
Cornelia P. Spencer, of Chapel Hill, herself a Presby- 
terian, and a sister of the Rev. Charles Phillips, D, D., 
thus lovingly writes about ]\Iiss Spear in an obituary 
article in The Church Messenger of January 27, 1881 : 

''Miss ]\Iaria Spear, having been born an English- 
woman, remained an Englishwoman all her life, pos- 
sessing some of the most valuable representative char- 
acteristics of that nationality. She was thorough, she 
was sincere, she was quiet, she was conservative, and 
she was a staunch and devout churchwoman. Her 
love for the Episcopal Church, and her delight in its 
service, was in her blood. She has been teaching in 
North Carolina for fifty-six years, and of the many 


who have been instructed by her, and the many friends 
who have loved and esteemed her, not one, perhaps, 
could this day remember in her an inconsistency or an 
indiscretion or an unkindness. Miss Maria Spear 
passed out of Hfe on the same night in which her 
beloved and revered Bishop Atkinson was released 
from his suffering forever. Together they passed 
into glory/' 

I extract the following from Mr. Spear's report to 
the convention of 1835 : The connection with Christ 
Church 'Svas dissolved, with the hope that each of 
these congregations would be able to support a min- 
ister resident among themselves. In Salisbury, the ex- 
periment has succeeded to a degree; though it is not 
probable that the present plan can long continue. A 
large and influential family, with other individual 
members, have removed to the West, and most of the 
remainder who are interested in our cause are antic- 
ipating the same result. The Sunday School has re- 
cently been opened, though that part of town open to 
us does not afford more than twenty scholars. Junior 
and senior Bible classes are held in the week, attended, 
I believe, with serious feeling." Communicants, seven- 
teen. He also occasionally officiated at Charlotte and 

The Rev. M. A. Curtis, then missionary deacon, 
located at Lincolnton, occasionally ministered to the 
Rowan congregations after the resignation of Mr. 
Spear. He afterwards became the beloved rector of 
St. ^latthew's Church, Hillsboro, where he died a few 
years ago. He was a man of great piety and learning. 


The Rev. C. J.Curtis, editor of The Church Messenger, 
is a son of his, and the Rev. W. S. Bynum, of Winston, 
married one of his daughters. 

Sunday, July 24, 1836, Bishop Ives preached, bap- 
tized six infants, confirmed six persons, admin- 
istered the Holy Communion, and examined the chil- 
dren in the catechism, in St. Luke's, Salisbury. 

The next rector of the congregation of Christ 
Church and St. Luke's was the 

Rev. Thomas F. Davis, Jr. 

He took charge in November, 1836. The congre- 
gations had been suffering from the want of regular 
religious services, and from the removals of some of 
the most valuable members of St. Luke's. ]\Ir. Davis, 
in his report to the convention of 1837, prayed to 
"Almighty God to pour upon these congregations the 
abundance of his heavenly grace. Their pastor can- 
not but feel his own insufficiency, and deplore the small 
apparent fruit of his labors." 

In 1838, the communicants at St. Luke's were eigh- 
teen; at Christ Church, seventy-eight. One of the 
largest families connected with St. Luke's Church had 
removed to the W^est during the previous year. Mr. 
Davis reported ''the condition of the church in Salis- 
bury as not encouraging." "Christ Church was 
gradually gaining strength." The delegates to the 
convention of 1839 from St. Luke's, were John B. 
Lord, William Locke, and Charles K. Wheeler — the 
two former attended. Mr. Davis reported twenty-one 
communicants at St. Luke's, and for Christ Church, 


ninety-one. Confirmations at the latter twenty-one 
(July 14 and 15, 1838). "There has been a much 
larger and more interested attendance upon divine 
ordinances than heretofore. An increased interest 
in the church then certainly is accompanied with 
an increased degree of attention to the Word of 
God. The people of St. Luke's, entirely of their own 
accord, have almost doubled the pastor's salary, and 
have in every respect exhibited towards him a kind 
and affectionate regard." "The children of Christ 
Church are well acquainted with the Church cate- 
chism." "At Mills' Settlement, Iredell County, com- 
municants, eighteen. The cause of the Church is on 
the advance in this part of the country." 

The twenty-fourth convention of the Diocese met in 
St. Luke's Church, Sahsbury, A\'ednesday, ^lay 13, 
1840. St. Andrew's Church, Rowan County, was ad- 
mitted into union with the convention. Vestrymen 
were Philip Rice, Jacob Correll, Samuel Turner, 
Joseph Turner, and John Watson. Delegates to con- 
vention, Joseph Owens, William Heathman, Samuel 
Turner, and John Watson. From St. Luke's, A. Hen- 
derson, John B. Lord, Charles A. Beard, William 
Chambers. From Christ Church, J. E. Dobbin, William 
Chunn, Thomas Barber, Joseph Alexander. Among 
the names of many other lay delegates I find the fol- 
lowing: Dr. John Beckwith, Raleigh; Thomas S. 
Ashe, Wadesboro. Convention sermon was preached 
by Rev. G. W\ Freeman, D. D. 

The Bishop reported that he had visited Salisbury 
on the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh of July, 1839, 


preached five times, catechized the children, and con- 
firmed four persons. He stated that it had been an 
object with him during the year to visit every com- 
municant, and to cathechize every baptized person of 
suitable age in the Diocese, where there is no clergy- 
man or established congregation; and this object he 
had nearly accomplished. 

Mr. Davis was chairman of the committee on the 
state of the Church and wrote a very eloquent and en- 
couraging report — in which this sentence occurs : "Not 
captivated by the specious but seducing influences of 
the day, the Church has remembered always that to her 
the object of divine faith is her adorable Redeemer 
and Head ; her only law a simple and entire submission 
to his will and acquiescence in his appointments. She 
has ceased not to teach and to preach Jesus Christ." 
Mr. Davis* report to the convention shows the follow- 
ing as the condition of his charge : Communicants — 
St. Luke's, twenty-five; Christ Church, one hundred; 
Iredell County, seventeen. The ladies of St. Luke's 
had lately realized two hundred and forty dollars from 
a Fair. 

The first confirmation at St. Andrew's Church was 
on August 30^ 1840, when the Church was consecrated. 
Eleven persons were confirmed. Communicants re- 
ported to the convention of 1841 : St. Andrew's, 29 ; 
Christ Church, 92 ; St. Luke's, 26 ; confirmations 
at the latter, 9. Lexington, ]\Iocksville, and 
Huntsville had been visited. Rev. C. B. Walker, 
deacon, had become an assistant minister to Mr. 
Davis. Bishop Ives, in his address to the con- 


vention of 1842, thus alludes to the field of labor 
under the charge of ]\lr. Davis. *'The counties of 
Rowan, Davie, Iredell, Davidson, and Surry come un- 
der the charge of another faithful Presbyter, with his 
associate deacon. The missionaries here deserve great 
attention, and claim, although they have hitherto re- 
ceived comparatively nothing, a share of your bounty. 
They have been able to sustain themselves only by lim- 
ited private means." The delegates elected to the 
convention of 1S44, from St. Luke's, were John W. 
Ellis, John B. Lord, William Locke, and Archibald H. 

Mr. Davis removed to Camden, S. C, the latter part 
of the year 1846, after a continous residence in Salis- 
bury of ten years. He was admired, respected, and 
beloved by all who knew him. The parish records of 
St. Luke's Church before the rectorship of Mr. Davis 
are lost, and the records kept by him are incomplete. 
j\Irs. Jane C. Mitchell (now Boyden) is the first 
name among the list of confirmations, September 9, 
1837. The last name is Charles F. Fisher, September, 
1846. Among the baptisms is this entry: ''July 24, 
1844, James i\lexander Craige and George Kerr 
Craige, infants of Burton and Elizabeth Craige, Ca- 
tawba County." Among the burials are the following 
names: November, 1841, ]\Ir. George Baker; August 
22, 1843, Mrs. Mary N. Steele; January 24, 1844, 
W. D. Crawford." Among the marriages are the 
following: 1843, ^^- George B. Douglas and Miss 
Mary Ellis; July, ]\Ir. Charles F. Fisher and EHza- 
beth Caldwell ; Xovember, ]\Ir. X. Boyden to Mrs. Jane 


Mitchell ; Dr. R. Hill to Miss ^I. Fisher. The record 
of marriages before the year 1843 ^^^ not been pre- 

Thomas Frederick Davis was born near Wilmington, 
February 8, 1840; was a brother of the Hon. George 
Davis, once a member of the Confederate Cabinet, as 
Attorney-General, and was educated at the University 
of North Carolina. Among his seniors were Bishops 
Green (of Mississippi), and Otey (of Tennessee) ; 
while among his classmates were also Bishop Polk 
of Tennessee, the Rev. Dr. Francis L. Hawks, and 
Judge William H. Battle. He studied law and was 
admitted to the bar, and practiced in Wilmington and 
the neighboring counties for several years. His first 
wife was Miss Elizabeth Fleming, of Wilmington, who 
died in the year 1828. He was shortly thereafter 
confirmed, and admitted to the Holy Communion. He 
immediately became a candidate for Holy Orders, and 
was ordained deacon by Bishop Ives, November 27, 
1831. In 1832, he was ordained priest. The first 
years of his ministry were spent in hard missionary 
work. The towns of Wadesboro and Pittsboro were 
one hundred miles apart, and in each of these he gave 
services on the alternate Sunday, driving in a convey- 
ance from one to the other during the week. He 
had now married again, his second wife being Ann 
Ive Moore, also of Wilmington. She was in the habit 
of accompanying him in his missionary drives ; and 
when the question was once asked where they lived, 
the answer was truly given in these words : ''On the 
road." He afterwards became rector of St. James' 


Church, Wilmington, and remained so for about three 
years. But he was not long in working himself down. 
The city missionary work was constantly engaging his 
attention, and among the poor, the sailors, and the 
strangers, he was ever ready to do his Lord's service. 
He then removed to Salisbury, and occupied during his 
residence there the house previously owned by Judge 
Martin, the same known now as the "Presbyterian 
manse," where the Rev. J. Rumple resides. While 
Mr. Davis remained rector of St. Luke's, a number of 
young theological students were guided by him in their 
studies, among others the Rev. Edwin Geer, who mar- 
ried Alargaret Beckwith, a daughter of Dr. John Beck- 
with and wife, Margaret Stanly, at one time residents 
of Salisbury, but then of Raleigh. Mrs. Geer was the 
sister of the present Bishop John W. Beckwith, of 
Georgia, and both she and her brother were children 
of :\Iargaret Beckwith, one of the original thirteen 
members of the first organized Presbyterian congrega- 
tion of Salisbury. From Salisbury Mr. Davis removed 
to Camden, S. C, and became rector of Grace Church. 
He labored there faithfully for nearly six years. In 
May, 1853, he was elected Bishop of South Carolina. 
He was consecrated in St. John's Chapel, New York, 
October 17, 1853. Bishop Atkinson, of North Caro- 
lina, was consecrated at the same time and place. More 
than thirty Bishops were present. The Bishop-elect 
of South Carolina was presented by Bishop William 
M. Green, of Mississippi, and George W. Freeman, of 
Arkansas. Bishop Davis gradually became totally 
bhnd. In 1858, he visited England and the continent 


of Europe, and consulted the highest medical and 
surgical authorities. He could not be relieved. He 
never murmured, but bore his trial meekly, 
patiently, and cheerfully. He died in Camden, Decem- 
ber 2, 1 87 1. He was a wise Bishop, a true Christian, 
a great divine, and a sincere, pure, good man. 

The next pastor of the congregations in Rowan 
County was the 

Rev. John Haywood Parker 

The statistics of his first report, to the convention of 
1847, are: Communicants — St. Luke's Church, 30; 
St. Andrew's, 49; Christ Church, 89; Mocksville, 9; 
Lexington, 6; Mills' Settlement, 17; Huntsville, 4. 

Mr. Parker endeavored to supply all the stations 
lately served by Mr. Davis and his assistant, Mr. 
Charles Bruce Walker. The removal of the Rev. i\Ir. 
Davis to South Carolina was a great shock to Bishop 
Ives. He thus alluded to the subject in his report 
to the convention: "That such priests as the Rev. 
Thomas F. Davis should be allowed, with the most 
heartfelt reluctance, to leave the Diocese, and for no 
other reason than the want of necessaries of Hfe, is to 
my mind a problem on all Christian grounds beyond 
the possibility of solution. No circumstance during 
the fifteen years of my Episcopate has tended so 
much as this to fill me with sadness and apprehen- 
sion." The Diocesan Convention met in St. Luke's 
Church, Salisbury, May 24, 1849, ^"^^ again on ]\Iay 
2^, 1857. The delegates elected to the last-named 
were William Murphy, Charles F. Fisher, Benjamin 


Sumner, and Luke Blackmer, from St. Luke's Church ; 
Thomas Barber, Thomas Barber, Jr., Jacob F. Barber, 
William Barber, Jonathan Barber, Matthew Barber, 
R. J. M. Barber, and William F. Barber, from Christ 
Church; George Mills, John A. Mills, Henry M. Mills, 
Franklin Mills, Andrew Mills, Israel Mills, George 
Mills, Jr., and Charles Mills, from St. James' Church, 
Iredell County. In 1858, Mr. Parker reported the com- 
municants at St. Luke's to be 74. He departed this 
life, September 15, 1858, in his forty-sixth year, hav- 
ing been bom January 21, 1813. He was baptized, 
November 7, 1841, by Rev. Thomas F. Davis, rector 
of St. Luke's Church; was ordained deacon. May 31, 
1846, and priest May 10, 1847, by Bishop Ives. 

He was married on the day of 

18 to Miss • who lived only a 

few months. On January 25, 1854, he was married 
to Mrs. Ann Lord, widow of the late John B. Lord, 
and daughter of the late Dr. Stephen L. Ferrand. The 
ceremony was performed by the Rev. Joseph Blount 
Cheshire, of Tarboro, who was a brother-in-law of 
Mr. Parker. Mr. Theophilus Parker is the only sur- 
viving child of this union. The Rev. John H. Par- 
ker was a faithful servant of Christ, and was greatly 
beloved by his flock. The parish paid him the honor 
to erect a handsome marble shaft over his remains, 
which were buried near the church where he officiated 
so constantly and acceptably for more than eleven 
years. His walk and conversation in this world was 
that of a humble, obedient, patient, and God-fearing 


follower of Christ; and "he died the death of the 

During the years 1847-48, or portions thereof, 
the Rev. Oliver S. Prescott, then a deacon, was the 
minister in charge of the congregations of Christ 
Church and St. Andrew's, Rowan County, and of St. 
Phillip's Church, Alocksville. He reported to the con- 
vention of 1848 that there were eighty-seven com- 
municants at Christ Church; forty-seven at St. An- 
drew's ; seventeen at the Mills' Settlement ; and nine at 
St. Phillip's Church, Mocksville. In the last-named 
Church he said ''that the Holy Days had been 
observed, and during Lent daily prayers were 
said." He was ordained priest by Bishop Ives, and 
removed to Massachusetts. He is now, and has been 
for many years, rector of St. Clement's Church, Phil- 
adelphia, where he has built up a numerous, charitable, 
and most self-denying congregation. He is thoroughly 
devoted to his calling, and his parishioners are won- 
derfully attached to him. He is identified with the so- 
called "rituahstic party." 

During the next few years the same congregations 
were ministered to by the Rev. James G. Jacocks, who 
was succeeded in the year 1854 by the 

Rev. George Badger \\^etmore 

The latter is still ministering with great acceptability 
to the congregations of Christ Church and St. An- 
drew's in Rowan County, and of St. James' Church 
in Iredell County. He now resides in Thomasville, 
N. C, and is building up an Episcopal congregation in 


that growing and important town. The writer is in- 
debted to the Rev. Dr. W'etmore for many useful facts 
mentioned in this sketch relating to the Episcopal 
churches and families of this county. 

The Rev. Thomas G. Haughton succeeded Mr. Par- 
ker as rector of St. Luke's, in November, 1858. He 
resigned the sixteenth day of July, 1866; and shortly 
thereafter abandoned the ministry. He died in the 
month of October, 1880, in the town of Salisbury. He 
was married on the twentieth day of February, i860, 
to Mrs. Ann Parker, widow of the late Rev. John H. 
Parker, by the Rev. George B. Wetmore, D. D. 
Thomas Ferrand Haughton, now in his sixteenth year, 
is the only child of this union. 

The next rector of St. Luke's was the 

Rev. John Huske Tillinghast 
who assumed charge in the spring of 1867. He min- 
istered with much zeal and self-denial until June 14, 
1872, when he removed to Richland County, S. C, 
where he is now officiating very acceptably to several 
country congregations. He is remembered with great 
regard and affection. 

He was succeeded, July i, 1772, by the 

Rev. Francis J. Murdock 

who was born in Buncombe County, N. C, March 17, 
1846; ordained deacon in St. Luke's Church, Salis- 
bury, September, 1868, and priest in St. Paul's Church, 
Edenton, May, 1870. He is the incumbent of the 
parish at the present time (January, 1881). 


The following statistics of St. Luke's Parish may 
prove of interest to the curious. Under Mr. Davis, 
confirmations, 33 ; baptisms, 90. Under Mr. Parker, 
confirmations, 35 ; baptisms, 105. Under Mr. Haugh- 
ton, confirmations, 29; baptisms, no. Under Mr. 
Tillinghast, confirmations, 36; baptisms, 53. Under 
Mr. Murdock, confirmations, 132; baptisms, 123. Dur- 
ing Mr. Murdock's rectorship of eight years, the com- 
municants have increased more than one hundred per 
cent. The number of communicants in the county is 
224; of which there are at St. Luke's, 118; at Christ 
Church, ^2 ; and at St. Andrew's, 34. The whole 
number of Episcopal Church people is about seven hun- 
dred. The largest confirmation class under Mr. Davis — 
May 16, 1940 — numbered nine, including John B. Lord, 
Mrs. Ann Lord, IMisses Julia Beard, Christian Howard, 
and others. Some of the names in the other classes are 
William Chambers, Charles Wheeler, William Locke, 
WilHam Murphy, Marcus Beard, Samuel R. Harrison, 
Eliza Aliller, Jane Wheeler, Ellen ^^^oolworth, Ellen 
Howard, Rose Howard, Mary S. Henderson, and 
Augusta ]\L Locke. Mr. Parker's largest class num- 
bered 12 — March 28, 1858 — including John Willis 
EUis, Louisa ]\L Shober, Julia Ann Blackmer, Ahce 
Jones, Sarah H. Mitchell, Ann Macay, and Ellen Sum- 
ner. Some of the names in the other classes are ]\Iary 
Murphy, Julia Long, Helen B. Bryce, Sophie Pearson, 
Mary McRorie, Laura Henderson, Jane A. Howard, 
Luke Blackmer, Nathaniel Boyden, James ^lurphy. 
Mr. Haughton's largest class numbered eleven — Jan- 
uary 29, i860 — including Archibald Henderson, John 


M. Coffin, Fanny Aliller, H. C. Jones, Jr., Frances 
C. Fisher. Some of the names in the other classes 
are Mary Locke, J. M. Jones, EHzabeth Vanderford, 
Henrietta Hall, Annie McB. Fisher, Alice L. Pearson. 
Mr. Tillinghast's largest class — November 21, 1869 — 
numbered eight, including Laura C. Murphy, John R. 
Ide, Julia Ide. Some of the names in the other classes 
are Robert Murphy, Jr., Charlotte C. Mock, Anna May 
Shober, Lewis Hanes, Mary E. Alurphy, Leonora 
Beard, Mary F. Henderson. Mr. Murdock's largest 
class — October 6, 1873 — numbered thirty-four, includ- 
ing Francis E. Shober, Jr., William C. Blackmer, Wil- 
liam Howard, A. J. Mock, and Fanny Kelly. Some of 
the names in the other classes are Walter H. Holt, 
Charles F. Baker, Peter A. Frercks, Belle Boyden, 
Joseph O. White, Annie Rowzee, Caroline McNeely, 
Penelope Bailey, Clarence W. Murphy, Annie Cuth- 
rell, George A. Kluttz, and Lillian Warner. 

Some of the most influential and distinguished 
names which have adorned the annals of Rowan 
County have been communicants or adherents of the 
Episcopal Church. I have already spoken of the 
ante-Revolutionary period. Between that period and 
the year 1823, when Bishop Ravenscroft made his first 
Visitation to Salisbury, the following may be confi- 
dently claimed as friendly to Episcopacy, to wit: 
Maxwell Chambers, Matthew Troy, Anthony and 
John Newnan, Thomas Frohock, Lewis Beard, Spruce 
Macay, Alfred Macay, Matthew and Francis Locke, 
Joseph and Jesse A. Pearson. John L. and Archibald 


Henderson, John Steele, William C. Love, and many 

Since the year 1823, many of the most distingriished 
citizens of the State have either been communicants 
of St. Luke's Church or members of its congregation. 
John \\\ Ellis was a member of the General Assembly, 
a Judge of the Superior Court, and Governor of the 
State. Richmond ]\I. Pearson became Chief Justice 
of the State ; and Nathaniel Boyden became a member 
of Congress and an Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court. James ]\lartin, Jr., Romulus ]\L Saunders, and 
David F.Caldwell were Judges of the Superior Courts. 
Mr. Saunders was also Attorney-General of the State, 
and Minister Plenipotentiary to Spain. John Beard, 
Jr., Thomas G. Polk. Charles F. Fisher, John A. Lil- 
lington, John B. Lord, A. H. Caldwell, Stephen L. 
Ferrand, John L. Henderson, Richard H. Alexander, 
William Chambers, H. C. Jones, have been members 
of the General xA.ssembly, in one House or the other; 
and many of them have occupied other important 
public stations. Archibald Henderson was a member 
of the Council of State under Governors Reid and 
Ellis. I have not included in the above list any per- 
sons now living. A large majority of the persons 
named were communicants. 

St. Luke's congregation has nearly always em- 
braced persons in every walk and station in life — 
mechanics, merchants, lawyers, doctors, farmers, and 
working men of various kinds. Although now greatly 


reduced in worldly means and prosperity, it is stronger 
than at any previous period of its history, and its 
numbers are on the increase. In prosperity as well as 
adversity, its greatest strength and reliance — from 
human point of view — has ever been a constantly in- 
creasing band of intelligent, devoted, faithful, and no- 
ble-minded Christian women. 


For the origin of the German Reformed Church we 
must look to the mountains of Switzerland, where 
Ulric Zwingle began to preach the gospel in its purity, 
about the same time that Luther raised his voice for 
Christ in Germany. As there were differences of 
opinion between Zwingle and Luther upon the 
subject of the "real presence" in the Lord's Sup- 
per, as well as upon some of the other doctrines of 
grace, the adherents of the two reformers did not 
unite in the same body. After the death of Zwingle, 
his followers fell naturally in with the churches that 
were founded and nurtured by Calvin. In Germany, 
as well as in Switzerland, the Reformed Church is 
Calvinistic in faith and Presbyterian in church govern- 
ment. The Heidelberg Catechism is their symbol, and 
they practice the rite of confirmation, though by 
many this rite is regarded as little else than the cere- 
mony of admitting candidates who give evidences of 
conversion to full communion. 

The German Reformed Church in the United States 
dates its origin to about 1740, and was formed by im- 
migrants from Germany and Switzerland, who settled 
in the eastern portion of Pennsylvania. About this 
time the tide of German immigration flowed south- 
ward, and along with the Lutherans who came to 
Rowan from 1745 and onward were many of German 
Reformed Church affinities. 

466 history of rowan county 

Lower Stone, or Grace Church 

lying in the center of the German population of East- 
ern Rowan is the parent of all the German Reformed 
Churches in Rowan County. The fathers and mothers 
of these inhabitants came into this region along with 
the Lutheran settlers about 1750, and their descendants 
may still be found on or near the old homesteads. The 
names of the Reformed famiHes were Lingle, Berger, 
Fisher, Lippard, Peeler, Holhouser, Earnhardt, Kluttz, 
Roseman, Yost, Foil, Boger, Shupping, and others still 
familiar in that region. 

According to the custom of these early days, the set- 
tlers united in building a joint or union church. The 
first church erected by the Lutherans and Reformed 
jointly was a log church situated about six miles 
northeast of the present Lower Stone Church, which 
was called St. Peter's Church. From a want of har- 
mony or other unknown cause a separation took place, 
and the Lutherans built the Organ Church, and the 
Reformed built the Lower Stone Church. Both these 
churches were of stone work, and were named, one 
from its organ, and the other from the material of its 
building. The land for the Lower Stone Church was 
purchased from Lorentz Lingle for two pounds (£2), 
proclamation money. The deed bears the date of 
1774, and conveys the land to Andrew Holhouser and 
John Lippard for the use of the ''Calvin congrega- 
tion." The Reformed Church was distinguished from 
other denominations in these early days by the fact 
that they were followers of the great reformer of 


Geneva, John Calvin, who perfected the reformation 
that was begun in Switzerland by Ulric Zwingle. The 
site of this church is about four miles west of Gold 
Hill, on the Beattie's Ford Road. The first structure 
was of logs, but they were not long content with so 
humble a building, judging rightly that a house erected 
for the worship of God ought to be superior to their 
own dwellings. The Lutherans had just completed 
their house of stone, and in the year 1795 the Re- 
formed Church set about the erection of their church 
of the same material. The cornerstone was laid in 
1795, under the pastorate of the Rev. Andrew Lo.retz. 
Col. George Henry Berger, who was a prominent 
member of the Rowan Committee of Safety before 
the Revolution, and Jacob Fisher, were the elders of 
the Church at this time, and were most active in the 
erection of the new church. But many trials and dis- 
couragements obstructed the good work, and it was 
not until November, 181 1, sixteen years after the con- 
nerstone was laid, that the building was completed and 
dedicated to the worship of God. In the services of 
that occasion Pastor Loretz was assisted by the Rev. 
Dr. Robinson, then and for many years the beloved 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Poplar Tent. 

Previous to the pastorate of the Rev. Mr. Loretz 
there were different pastors, whose names are un- 
known. The Rev. :\Ir. Beuthahn resided in Guilford 
County, organized churches, and preached among 
them, but supported himself chiefly by teaching a 
German school in the southeast corner of Guilford 

468 history of rowan county 

Rev. Samuel Suther 

was one of the early German Reformed ministers in 
Guilford, Rowan, and Cabarrus. Governor Tryon, in 
his Journal for 1768, relates that while he was at 
Major Phifer's in Mecklenburg (now Cabarrus), 
on Sunday, the twenty-first of July, he ''heard Mr. 
Luther, a Dutch minister, preach." No doubt this 
is a misprint for Mr. Suther, since there is no 
evidence that such a minister as Luther was here, and 
there is evidence of the presence of a Rev. Mr. Suther. 
He was sent out from the old country to preach to 
the German Reformed people in the Carolinas, and 
was pastor of the Guilford charge during the Revo- 
lutionary War. Mr. Suther was a man of learning, 
and an uncompromising patriot during the struggle 
for American freedom. His residence was a mile 
from the battleground of the Regulators in Alamance, 
May 16, 1 771. During the Revolution he was an out- 
spoken patriot, and so obnoxious to the Tories that 
he was often compelled to hide himself from their 
vengeance. It is said that there was but one single 
Tory in his entire charge. Captain Weitzell, a mem- 
of Mr. Suther's Church, commanded a Company in 
the battle of Guilford Courthouse, that was made up 
of members of the Reformed Church. The records 
of Lower Stone Church mention Samuel Suther as 
its pastor in 1782, and that he had removed thither 
from Guilford County. This was in the days of 
Tory ravages, when Col. David Fanning and his troop 
of marauders struck terror into the region that ex- 


tends from Guilford to Cumberland County. As he 
had many enemies around him, he found it expedient 
to remove to a more peaceful region. The date of 
his death and the place of his burial are unknown to 
the writer. There are a number of families by the 
name of Suther residing in and near Concord. 

The records of Lower Stone Church show that after 
Pastor Loretz's time for many years the church was 
served by the loving, gentle, and patient servant of 
God, the Rev. George Boger. Mr. Boger was suc- 
ceeded in 183 1 by Dr. B. Lerch, who came among this 
people in the early days of his ministry, finished his 
course here, and his dust now rests in the adjoining 

Mr. Lerch was succeeded by the Rev. John Lantz, 
who, after a few years, removed to Catawba County, 
and from thence to Hagerstown, Md., where he 
finished his earthly labors in 1852. 

Mr. Lantz was succeeded by the Rev. Thornton But- 
ler, who had associated with him for a short time the 
Rev. Gilbert Lane. Mr. Lane removed to New York, 
and in 1868 the Rev. Mr. Butler removed to lUinois 
and there died. The next pastor of the Lower Stone 
Church was the Rev. J. C. Denny, of Guilford. Mr. 
Denny was educated for a Presbyterian minister, and 
was licensed by Orange Presbytery. Seceding from 
the Presbyterians, he was received and ordained by 
the German Reformed Classis, and served some of 
their churches in Rowan County for a number of 
years. Finding at length the German Reformed 
Church not congenial to his tastes, he again seceded. 


and was received into the Baptist Church, and is still 
a Baptist. The Lower Stone Church, after IMr. Den- 
ny's secession, was served for awhile by Professors 
Clapp and Foil, of the Catawba College, and for the 
last few years by the Rev. R. F. Crooks, who is now 

Mount Hope 

formerly called St. Paul's, is an offshoot of Lower 
Stone or Grace Church. The church was organized 
about 1835 or 1840, from members of the Reformed 
and Lutheran Churches living in the neighborhood of 
Holshouser's Mill, now known as Heilig's ]Mill. The 
land for the church was given by Andrew Holshouser, 
a member of the Reformed Church. In 1866 the 
church was removed about three miles further south, 
to a point on the New Concord Road, seven miles 
south of Salisbury. Here a new brick church sixty by 
forty feet has been erected. The congregation was 
served first by the Rev. John Lantz. The Rev. Thornton 
Butler became pastor in 1852, and served them until 
1857. He had associated with him for awhile the Rev. 
Gilbert Lane. Mr. Butler was succeeded by the Rev. 
J. C. Denny, and he by the Rev. P. 'M. Trexler, and he, 
in 1878, by the Rev. John Ingle, who is the present 

Shiloh Church 

of the Reformed Classis was organized ]\Iarch 19, 
1 87 1, by Rev. J. C. Denny, with seventeen members, 
and has now thirty-four members. The pastors of 


this church have been Rev. J. C. Denny, from March, 
1871, to March, 1873; Rev. P. M. Trexler, from 
March, 1873, to March, 1876; Rev. J. C. Denny, from 
March, 1876, to January, 1878; Rev. John Ingle, from 
January, 1878. 

St. Luke's Reformed Church 

v^as organized December 31, 1871, by Rev. P. M. 
Trexler, with twenty members, and now has forty- 
five members. Rev. P. M. Trexler was pastor from 
December 31, 1871, to June, 1877; Rev. John Ingle, 
from January i, 1878, to present time. 

Mount Hope, Shiloh, and St. Luke's are offshoots 
of Lower Stone (Grace Church). 

Mount Zion Reformed Church 

is situated ten miles south of Salisbury on the Con- 
cord Road. Next to Lower Stone it is probably the 
oldest Reformed Church in the county. For many 
years this church worshiped in the same house with 
the Lutherans at ''Savage's." But when the Luther- 
ans erected a new church, about forty years ago, the 
German Reformed erected a new church also near the 
old site, and named it Mount Zion. They have lately 
erected a second handsome brick church. This church 
has been served by a succession of ministers, in many 
cases the same who served the Lower Stone Church. 
Rev. P. M. Trexler is the present pastor. The author 
regrets that his efforts to get accurate statistics of this 
church have failed, and that he is compelled to give 
such a general account of it. 


Rowan County contains three charges of the Ger- 
man Reformed Church : Central Rowan, Rev. John 
Ingle pastor, 139 members; West Rowan, Rev. P. M. 
Trexler pastor, 290 members ; East Rowan, Rev. R. 
F. Crooks pastor, 433 members. Pastors 3, Churches 
5, members 862. From the total membership we 
must subtract about 145 members who belong to 
Mount Gilead Church, in Cabarrus County. 


According to Benedict's "History of the Baptists," 
the oldest church of this denomination in America is 
the First Baptist Church, of Providence, R. I. Roger 
W^illiams, having been banished from Massachusetts 
by the General Court, by a decree adopted in Novem- 
ber, 1635, because he taught that the civil magistrate 
ought not to interfere in cases of heresy, apostasy, 
and for other offenses against the first table of the 
law, wandered into the regions outside the jurisdiction 
of Massachusetts, and the following year laid the 
foundations of the city of Providence. In the course 
of three years a number of families cast in their lot 
with Williams, and in March, 1639, he and Ezekiel 
Holliman and ten others, met to organize a church. 
The whole company regarded themselves as unbap- 
tized, and as they knew none to whom they could 
apply for baptism, they appointed Mr. Holliman to 
baptize Mr. Williams, and he in his turn baptized Mr. 
Holliman and the ten others. The families of these 
first members probably also belonged to their church, 
and in a short time they were reinforced with twelve 
other members. From this beginning this denomina- 
tion gradually spread abroad through New England, 
and in the middle colonies. The growth was not 
rapid, for at the expiration of the first hundred years 
it is estimated that there were but thirty-seven Bap- 
tist churches in America, and probably less than three 


thousand members. At this period, however, there 
began an era of extraordinary growth. In 1740, 
George \\'hitefield began to preach in Boston, and 
mukitudes were converted to God. Many of these con- 
verts became Baptists, and were called ''Separates" or 
"New Lights." Seven of these "Separates" organized 
the Second Baptist Church, of Boston, and their views 
spread abroad. 

In 1754, Shubeal Steams, with eight families and 
sixteen members, set out from Boston for the South. 
After halting for awhile in Virginia, they settled 
ultimately on Sandy Creek, in Randolph County, 
N. C. They were of the "Separate," or "New 
Light" order of Baptists. They were not, however, 
the first Baptists in North Carolina. As far back as 
1727, Paul Palmer gathered a Baptist Church at a 
place called Perquimans, on the Chowan River. About 
1742, one William Sojourner led a colony from Berk- 
ley County, Va., and established a Baptist Church 
on Kehukee Creek, in Halifax County, N. C. 
But the Sandy Creek Church, under Shubeal 
Stearns, was the first organization of the kind in \\^est- 
ern North Carohna. In 1854, the Baptists of North 
Carolina were visited by the Rev. John Gano, the Rev. 
Benjamin Miller, and the Rev. Peter P. Vanhorn, who 
were sent South by the Philadelphia Association. 
AMien the Rev. Hugh McAden, a Presbyterian minis- 
ter, visited North Carolina in 1755, he found a ]\Ir. 
Miller — he says — a Baptist minister, preaching and 
visiting in the Jersey Church. By his labors and those 
of the Rev. Mr. Gano, a Baptist Church was estab- 


lished at the Jersey Meeting-house, that has continued 
from that day to this. Mr. AIcAden expressed the 
fear that the- Presbyterians, who seem to have been 
the most numerous previous to that time, would soon 
become too weak to call or support a minister. His 
fears have been realized. 

About 1768 or 1770, the Rev. ]\Ir. Draige, an Epis- 
copal minister, effected an organization of the Episco- 
pal Church in the "J^^^eys/' but that church too 
ceased, in time, to occupy the field. The Baptists re- 
mained in possession, and the Jersey Church became 
the parent of nearly all the Baptist Churches of 
Rowan. There were other Baptist Churches, a hun- 
dred years ago, on the Uwharie River, on Abbott's 
Creek, and in Surry County. But for three quarters 
of a century this denomination made little progress in 
the present limits of Rowan. The churches as they 
now exist, as well as can be ascertained, originated as 
follows : 

Flat Creek 

is a Primitive Baptist Church, and is situated in the 
edge of Rowan, near the Stanly line, on the Yadkin 
River, and was considered an old church forty years 
ago. It is probably an offshoot of the Sandy Creek 
Church of Shubeal Stearns. The membership is 


is situated at ^lorgan's muster ground, about fourteen 
miles east of Salisbury, about four miles from the 


Yadkin. It was organized in 1868, from converts 
of a meeting held by the Rev. ^Messrs. ]\Iorton, Carter, 
and Lambeth. This church has the largest member- 
ship — about one hundred — of any Baptist Church in 
the county, and has a neat and comfortable house of 
worship. Rev. ]\Ir. Hodge is the pastor. 

Mount Zion 

was organized, in 1867, from converts of the same 
meeting. This church has about twelve members, 
and worships in an arbor, eleven miles from Salisbury, 
beyond Dutch Second Creek. Rev. J. C. Denny 
preaches there. 

Gold Hill 

Church was organized in 1871. This church owns a 
house, but its membership is not very large. Rev. 
J. B. Stiers was their first preacher. After him the 
Rev. Mr. Stokes preached to them awhile. 

Trading Ford 

Church was established as a branch of the Jersey 
Church in 1756, and was served by the Rev. William 
Lambeth for fifteen years, beginning in 1853, before 
the organization, and continuing until 1869. They 
commenced in the woods, with a schoolhouse and an 
arbor, but have now a comfortable building of their 
own, eight miles east of Salisbury, on the Miller's 
Ferry Road. In the summer of 1870, Elders Bessent, 
Allison, and one other, met as a Presbytery and or- 
ganized it a full and separate church. Since Mr. 


Lambeth ceased to minister to them they have had as 
ministers, Rev. C. W. Bessent, Rev. W. R. Gwaltny, 
Rev. S. F. Conrad, and Rev. Mr. Morton. 

Salisbury Baptist Church 

On the eleventh of August, 1849, the Baptists wor- 
shiping in Salisbury were set off as a branch of the 
Jersey Church, under the ministry of the Rev. S. J. 
O'Brien, a talented and earnest preacher of the gos- 
pel. The next year — April 21, 1850 — the Rev. J. B. 
Soloman became minister in charge, and the following 
month (May 26) the Branch was constituted a 
regular Baptist Church, with Mr. Soloman as pastor, 
and John A. Wierman as church clerk. There were 
at that time ten white and eight colored members, 
eighteen in all. In August of the same year, the 
church united with the Liberty Association. In 
September, 185 1, Mr. Soloman resigned, and the 
church was vacant until November 6, 1852, when Rev. 
R. H. Griffith took charge and served it until 1854. 
In 1856, the Rev. J. C. Averitt estabHshed a school in 
Salisbury, and served the church for one year. In 
1857, the Rev. William Lambeth, of Salisbury, who 
had been ordained in 1854, and was preaching at 
Trading Ford, was chosen pastor of the church. Be- 
ing destitute of a house of their own, and the war com- 
ing on in a few years, the little band was scattered, 
and services were suspended. 

Near the close of the war, the Rev. Theodore \A^hite- 
field preached in Salisbury occasionally, but for ten 
years after this time, no regular services were held 


by this church. In November, 1876, the North Caro- 
lina Baptist Association appointed the Rev. J. B. 
Boone to labor in Sahsbury, and rebuild, if possible, 
this declining church. Seven members rallied around 
him, only seven of the fifty-seven who were here in 
1855. On the third of February, 1877, the church 
was dissolved in order to form a new organization, 
with others who were to be added by baptism. On 
the next day twelve others were baptized, and on the 
following day (February 5, 1877), ^ Presbytery con- 
sisting of the Rev. Messrs. F. M. Jordan, W. R. 
Gwaltny, Theodore Whitefield, William Lambeth, and 
J. B. Boone, constituted the Salisbury Baptist Church, 
with nineteen members. In September following, the 
church united with the South River Association. 

This church does not yet possess a house of wor- 
ship, but services are held twice a month in a public 
hall. Nearly two years ago, however, a lot near the 
courthouse was secured for four hundred dollars. 
Since that time a more desirable lot, on the corner of 
Church and Council Streets, adjoining Oak Grove 
Cemetery, has been secured, and there they expect 
soon to erect a church. 

The present number of members is fifty. Cal- 
vinistic in doctrine, congregational in government, of 
the order called ^Missionary Baptists, this church holds 
up the light of the Gospel and points sinners to the 
Lamb of God. 

The materials for this sketch have been collected 
from Benedict's ''History of the Baptists," notes 


furnished by Rev. J. B. Boone, and recollections of 
Rev. William Lambeth. 

In closing these sketches of the Rowan Churches, 
it may be remarked that there are a few small Protest- 
ant Alethodist Churches in the county, and perhaps a 
Northern Methodist Church or two, but the writer 
has no facts in possession concerning them. There 
are also a number of Roman Catholics in Salisbury, 
who are visited occasionally by priests from Charlotte 
and elsewhere. 

Since their emancipation, the colored people of 
Rowan have formed themselves into churches in all 
parts of the county. In Salisbury there are two Bap- 
tist colored churches, one Methodist, and one Presby- 
terian, with their regular pastors, and each of these 
denominations have several churches in the county. 
Some of these ministers, especially in the town, are 
well-educated, earnest, and pious men, and are labor- 
ing to elevate their people, not only by their regular 
pulpit ministrations, but by means of schools for their 
daily instruction. They are now working out the 
great problem of their social regeneration, and ac- 
cumulating by their efforts materials that may be 
properly and profitably incorporated in some future 
History of the Churches of Rowan. 




Roll of Honor 

The following Roll of Honor embraces the names 
of the officers and privates from Rowan County who 
served in the Confederate x\rmy, and who continued 
in service until they were killed, captured, or honor- 
ably discharged. There are doubtless a number of 
other names entitled to a place in this roll, that have 
not been reported. The compiler has, however, used 
due diligence in gathering information from all ac- 
cessible sources. The great body of the names has 
been courteously furnished by Col. W. L. Saunders 
and Col. J. ]\IcLeod Turner, from the Roll of Honor 
deposited in the State Capitol. Extensive additions 
have been made to the original roll by surviving offi- 
cers and privates in Salisbury, under the supervision 
of Mr. C. R. Barker. 

The following abbreviations are employed : 
a. — age. 
c. — captured. 
Capt. — captain. 
Col. — colonel. 
Cor. — corporal, 
d. — died, 
d. in p. — died in prison. 


d. of d. — died of disease. 

en. — date of entrance into service. 

h. d. — honorably discharged. 

k.— killed. 

Lt. — lieutenant. 

Ord. Sgt.— ordnance sergeant. 

pr. — promoted. 

Sgt. — sergeant. 

tr. — transferred. 

w. — wounded; and a number of others. 

Joseph K. Burke, 2d. Lt. ; Enrolling Officer; office at 

Statesville, N. C. 
William G. McNeely, Capt., Paymaster of Second 

Army Corps. 
J. C. Swicegood, Confederate States Navy, Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

R. P. Bessent, Capt. Quartermaster Forty-Second 

William H. Neave; commissioned Bandmaster Army 

of Northern Virginia. 

Company B 
Maloney, J. P. ; k. 



Company E 


Cauble, Henry. 

Cauble, John ; w. at Gettysburg. 

Danis, John. 

Hartman, Luke. 

Thomas, Charles. 

Company C 
Cauble, J. D. ; en. July 3, 1861 ; a. 20. 

Company F 

Kerr Craige, 5th. Sgt. ; en. 1861 ; a. 18; pr. 2d. Lt. 

Company I, August 24, 1862. 
Bernhardt, Caleb T. 
Bernhardt, Crawford. 
Bost, Henry C. 
Brown, Pleasant. 
Cowan, William L. ; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 20; d. of d. 

at Centerville, Va., December 30, 1861. 
Fisher, Charles H. ; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 20; w. 
Howerton, A. W. ; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 27. 
Johnston, James G. ; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 22; pr. to 

I St. Cor. 


Luhn, Gustave J.; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 22. 

Miller, Henry G. ; en. March 20, 1862; a. 25. 

Pearson, Charles W. ; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 22\ tr. 
from Company B, Tenth Virginia Cavalry ; pr. to 
2d. Lt. Fifth North Carolina Cavalry, February, 
1863; pr. to Capt. July, 1864. 

Sides, Reuben A.; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 21. 

Stiller, Charles M. ; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 24; k. 




Company D (Rowan Artillery) 
John A. Ramsey, Senior ist. Lt. ; pr. to Capt. 
William Myers, Junior ist. Lt. 
Jesse F. Woodard, Senior 2d. Lt. 
William L. Saunders, Junior 2d. Lt. 
E. Myers, Senior 2d. Lt. 
W. R. Dicks, ist Sgt. 
Edward F. Kern, 2d. Sgt. 
I. D. J. Louder, 3d. Sgt. 
Silas Sheppard, 4th. Sgt. 

Francis Schaffer, Quartermaster-Sgt. ; pr. to Lt. 
Matthew Moyle, ist Cor. 
James M. Crowell, 2d. Cor. 
William H. Bucket, 3d. Cor. 

A. A. Holhouser, 4th. Cor. ; pr. to Ord. Sgt. ; d. of d. 
Jerre Pierce, Artificer. 
Zudock Riggs, Bugler; k. at Richmond. 


Agner, H. C. 

Baily, John T. ; pr. to Sgt. 
Baine, David; d. in p. 
Basinger, Jere W. ; h. d. 
Bell, Joseph F. 
Black, William H. ; d. of d. 
Braddy, Benjamin. 
Braddy, Moses G. 
Brady, David. 
Brady, John. 
Brady, Joseph. 
Bringle, John. 
Brown, C. L. 
Brown, H. M. 
Brown, Richard L- 

Bulaboa, Lorenzo ; k. by explosion of caisson. 
Bunage, James. 

Campbell, W. ; w. at Malvern Hill. 
Carter, John. 
Casper, Alex. 
Cauble, Henry M. 
Clampet, John. 
Cranford, W. H. 
Cowan, Richard, Jr. 
Crowell, H. H. ; pr. to Cor. 
Crowell, Richard E. 
Crowell, Thomas. 
Crowell, William. 
Daniel, Amos. 
Earnhardt, /\bram ; k. at Malvern Hill. 


Earnhardt, James P. 
Earnhardt, Robert. 

Earnhardt, Thomas M. ; w. near Richmond. 
Earnhardt, Wiley. 
Elkins, Owen L. 
Eller, F. ; k. accidentally. 
Eller, Farley; w. 
Eller, Jacob. 
Eller, James I. 
Eller, Milas. 
Eller, William. 
Fraley, White. 
Frick, Levi. 

Frick, Moses ; w. at Gettysburg. 
Glover, Richard. 
Goodman, Tobias ; d. of d. 
Gorman, James A. 

Hardester, John W. ; w. at Malvern Hill ; w. at Gettys- 
Hardester, Thomas ; d. of d. 
Hall, Stockton S. 
Hodge, Abram. 

Hoffman, Nathan; k. at Gettysburg. 
Hoffman, William. 
Holshouser, Alex. 
Holshouser, C. 
Holshouser, Mike. 

Holshouser, Rufus ; w. at Malvern Hill. 
Honbarger, John. 
Howard, Andrew M. 
Huff, William H. 


Irby, William H. 

Jackson, Andrew. 

Julian, James. 

Kepley, Calvin; k. at Sharpsburg. 

Kistler, Daniel. 

Kistler, Henry R. 

Kinney, Calvin S. ; d. of d. 

Kluttz, Henry. 

Kluttz, Jacob. 

Kluttz, Peter. 

Kluttz, Rufus, Jr. 

Kluttz, Rufus, Sr. 

Lemley, Jacob. 

Linn, James F. 

Lyerly, Joseph M. 

McCombs, William. 

May, Calvin. 

May, Robert. 

Miller, H. M.; k. at Sharpsburg. 

Miller, Lawson. 

Miller, Rolin. 

Miller, Uriah. 

Misenheimer, D. L; k. at Sharpsburg. 

Mitchel, J. 

Morgan, C. W. 

Morgan, Joe. 

Oldham, Josiah. 

Owen, Henry; k. at Gettysburg. 

Parks, Daniel. 

Parks, John F. 

Parks, Joseph D. 


Parks, William. 

Peeler, A. L. 

Peeler, Alf. M. 

Peeler, Daniel. 

Pool, H. C. 

Richards, John. 

Riggs, John. 

Rowe, Benjamin C. 

Rowe, S. A. 

Rufty, Milas A. ; k. at Malvern Hill. 

Ruth, Andrew J. ; w. at Malvern Hill. 

Ruth, Lorenzo D. 

Seaford, Daniel. 

Seaford, Simeon. 

Skillicorn, William ; w. at Culpeper Courthouse. 

Terrell, Thomas; tr. to Navy. 

Thomas, Thomas. 

Thompson, Thomas. 

Trexler, Allen. 

Trexler, David; w. at Malvern Hill. 

Trexler, Jesse L. 

Trexler, Peter ^M. 

Troutman, Daniel, d. in p. 

Troutman, Rufus. 

Troutman, Rufus; d. of d. 

Waller, Crusoe. 

Waller, Lewis A. 

Weaver, Tobias. 

Wilkinson, \Mlliam. 

Woodsman, Solomon. 

Works, Isaac. 



Company H 


James H. Kerr, 2d. Lt, ; en. August 23, 1861 ; w. 

Ellyson's Mill; d. August 6, 1863. 

R. R. Crawford; en. May, 1861 ; a. 21; pr. ist. Lt. 
Company D, Forty-second Regiment. 


Company H 


Alexander Murdock, 3d. Sgt. ; en. May 27, 1861 ; a. 

30; appointed Ord. Sgt. May 14, 1862; d. 

Company B 
James H. Wood, Capt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 21 ; pr. 
Major July 22, 1862; pr. Lt.-Col. May 19, 1864; 
pr. Col. July 18, 1864; k. at Sniggers Gap, Novem- 
ber 23, 1864. 
Thomas C. Watson, ist. Lt. ; en. May i, 1861 ; a. 

22; Com. Capt., July 22, 1862; w. and resigned. 
Jesse F. Stancill, 2d. Lt. ; en. May i, 1861 ; a. 21; pr. 

Capt.; w. November, 1864; pr. Major. 
J. Fuller Phifer, ist. Sgt.; en. June 12, 1861 ; a. 19; 
reduced to ranks at his own request; d. Richmond, 
January 25, 1863. 


B. Knox Kerr, 2d. Sgt. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 25; d. 

March 26, 1862. 
M. Stokes McKenzie, 3d. Sgt.; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 22; 

k. May 31, 1862, Seven Pines. 
Joseph Barber, 4th. Sgt. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; pr. Jr. 2d. 

Lt, February 25, 1863; a. 26; w. (lost right arm), 

John Hillard, 5th. Sgt. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 24. 
Isaac A. Cowan, ist. Cor.; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 21 ; pr. 

2d. Lt. November 15, 1862. 
William H. Burkhead, 2d. Cor.; en. June 3, 1861. 
Benjamin A. Knox, 3d. Cor.; en. June 24, 1861 ; a. 

22; pr. Sgt. April 25, 1862. 
D. W. Steele, 4th. Cor.; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 20; d. 

Richmond, August 20, 1861. 


Alexander, J. L. ; en. July, 1861 ; w. and c. at Sharps- 

Anderson, Charles; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 19; w. June 
22, 1862; d. of w. July 15, 1862. 

Barber, Edward F. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 22; pr. ist. 
Sgt. Alarch I, 1863; w. Chancellorsville; k. May 
19, 1863. 

Barber, James; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 25; d. in SaHs- 
bury, N. C, August 15, 1862. 

Barber, John Y. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 15; tr. Regi- 
mental Band, September 15, 1861. 

Barber, Robert J. M. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 28; c. in 
Maryland September 10, 1862. 


Barber, Thomas D. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 22 ; k. Spott- 

sylvania Courthouse, May 12, 1863. 
Earnhardt, J. C. 
Barringer, William H. ; en. July 10, 1861 ; a. 20; d. of 

d., at Manassas, September 19, 1861. 
Beaver, A. 

Beaver, Henry; en. March 3, 1862; a. 53; h. d. and d. 
Baxter, Hugh; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 22; w. Seven 

Pines; d. of w. July 6, 1862. 
Beaver, J. Martin; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 21 ; h. d. 
Beaver, Joe. 
Beaver, Joel; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 23 ; d. at Richmond, 

July 21, 1862. 
Beaver, John D. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 20; w. Seven 

Pines; d. of w. June 15, 1862. 
Beaver, Mike. 
Beaver, W. A. 

Belk, George S.; en. June 12, 1861 ; a. 23; d. 1864. 
Biggers, W. D. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 20; pr. Cor. 

September 20, 1862; w. Seven Pines, discharged 

for w. March 24, 1863. 
Brandon, Calvin J.; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 22; k. near 

Richmond, June 2y, 1862. 
Briggs, James; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 24; k. March 20, 

1862, by accident on Western North Carolina Rail- 
Briggs, Thomas; en. March 13, 1862; a. 21; d. of d. 
Burke, James P.; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 21; w. South 

Mountain, September 14, 1862; pr. to 2d. Lt. 
Chunn, William; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 17; w. Seven 

Pines; d. of w. June 12, 1862. 


Cowan, D. Stokes; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 24; lost left 
arm at Winchester, Va. ; h. d. 

Cowan, James F. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 18; w. Seven 
Pines, lost right arm; h. d. August 11, 1862. 

Cowan, John Y. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 18; d. December 
9, 1861, at Manassas Junction. 

Cowan, Nathan N. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 19; w. Seven 

Cox, Wiley E. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 36; w. Seven 
Pines; d. of w. June 5, 1862. 

Current, A. J. ; en. June 24, 1861 ; a. 26; d. Yorktown, 
Va., April 22, 1862. 

Dismukes, Richmond L. ; en. March 4, 1861 ; a. 37; 
pr. I St. Lt. in Company G. ; resigned. 

Donaho, David. 

Donaho, Frank. 

Donaho, Newberry. 

Donnell, J. Irwin; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 18; d. Manas- 
sas Junction, September 12, 1861. 

Douglas, Adolphus D. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 22\ d. 
Manassas Junction, September 12, 1861. 

Eller, Edward; en. March 14, 1862; a. 38; d. of d., 
July 19, 1862, at Danville. 

Felker, Alexander; en. June 3, 1861 ; k. Seven Pines, 
May 31, 1862. 

Gantz, Wiley; en. March 3, 1862; a. 37. 

Gillespie, Thomas P.; en. June 14, 1861 ; tr. Regi- 
mental Band, September 15, 1861. 

Graham, Cam; k. 

Graham, Clay; k. 

Graham, R. L. 


Gullet, John. 

Hall, Richard J.; en. June 3, 1861 ; d. Lynchburg, Va., 

May 26, 1862. 
Hall, W. W. 
Henry, Elam T. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; h. d. for accidental 

gunshot w. in the hand. 
Hilliard, James B. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 22; w. Seven 

Pines; k. at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863. 
Hix, Calvin J. ; en. June 19, 1861 ; a. 21 ; pr. Sgt. July 

5, 1861 ; k. Seven Pines, May 31, 1862. 
Holdclaw, James H. ; en. June 14, 1861 ; a. 37; w. 

Seven Pines; det. as nurse at Richmond. 
Hughes, James C. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 20; d. at home, 

August 18, 1 86 1. 
Hughey, T. A. ; k. Chancellorsville. 
Hyde, James C. ; en. June 10, 1861 ; a. 20. 
Jordan, Thomas; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 31; pr. Cor. 

April 26, 1862; k. Seven Pines, May 31, 1862. 
Kistler, John W. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 23 ; w. Seven 

Pines; w. South Mountain. 
Kistler, Joseph B. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 25; det. as 

prison guard; k. 1864. 
Lipe, David. 
Leazer, John; en. March 3, 1862; a. 18; w. Seven 

Louder, Daniel M; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 29; d. Camp 

Pickens, Va., October 6, 1861. 
Lyerly, Thomas S. ; en. June 14, 1861 ; a. 20; w. at 

McCormick, E. Laf. ; en. June 11, 1861 ; a. 2"/; det. 

as brigade blacksmith, August 12, 1862. 


McCormick, Hiram S. ; en. June 19, 1861 ; a. 22; det. 

as Regiment teamster. 
McKenzie, W. White; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 24; det. 

hospital steward, August, 1861 ; d. July 10, 1862. 
McLaughlin, Silas M.; en. June 12, 1861 ; a. 29; h. d. 

for disease. 
Meniss, George W. ; en. June lo^ 1861 ; a. 23; w. 

Seven Pines, June 27, 1862. 
Miller, Henry C. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 20; pr. Cor. 

November 4, 1862; pr. Ord. Sgt. ; w. Chancellors- 

Mills, R. A. ; en. June 3, 1861. 
Moore, David C. ; en. June 10, 1861 ; a. 19; w. Hagers- 

town ; d. 
Moore, William A.; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 24; w. Seven 

Pines; w. Hagerstown; d. 
Niblock, Frank K. ; k. Seven Pines. 
Pachell, Joseph; en. March 3, 1862; a. 18; d. of d., 

July 5, 1862, in Richmond. 
Pinkston, Thomas; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 19; k. Seven 

Pines, May 31, 1862. 
Plumer, William F. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 20; w. 

Seven Pines; d. Richmond, December, 1862. 
Rice, Allen G. ; en. June 1861 ; a. 23 ; d. at camp near 

Bull Run, September 23, 1861. 
Safret, Charles; en. March 11, 1862; a. 24; d. June 

2y, 1862, at camp hospital. 
Safret, Peter; en. March 15, 1862; a. 22; w. South 

Mountain, September 14, 1862; left on field; sent 

as nurse to Wilmington. 
Safret, Powel; d. 


Sears, John W. ; en. June 12, 1861 ; a. 28. 

Shinn, J. W. ; en. June 12, 1861 ; a. 30; pr. ist.-Sgt. 

1862; d. of d., at home. 
Sides, John M. ; en. June 3, 1861; a. 26. 
Smith, Jef. 

Stikeleather, M. W. ; en. March 11, 1862; a. 27. 
Webb, Abner; k. Seven Pines. 
Wilhelm, Jacob ; k. 

Company K (Rowan Rifle Guards) 



MAY 30, 1 86 1 


Francis M. Y. McNeely, Capt.; en. May 30, 1861 ; 
resigned May 31, 1862. 

W. C. Coughenour, ist. Lt. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 25; 
pr. Capt. May 31, 1862; w. Seven Pines; appointed 
Inspector-General of Ramseur's Brigade, August, 
1863; w. April 4, 1864, Amelia Courthouse. 

Marcus Hoffin, 2d. Lt. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; pr. ist. Lt. 
May 31, 1862; pr. Capt. August, 1863; appointed 
Capt. Com. Dept. 1864; w. Seven Pines. 

WilHams Brown, Jr. Lt. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; resigned 
November, 1861. 

Addison N. Wiseman, ist. Sgt. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 
24; pr. 2d. Lt. 1862; w. December 14, 1862; pr. ist. 


Lt. 1863; w. Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863; k. Win- 
chester, September 19, 1864. 
Wilbum C. Fraley, 3d. Sgt. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 21 ; 

pr. ist. Sgt. 1862; w. September 19, 1864. 
Moses L. Bean, 4th. Sgt.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 20; 

pr. 1st. Sgt. 1862; pr. 2d. Lt. April i, 1863; pr. ist. 

Lt. September 19, 1864; pr. Capt. February, 1865; 

w. May 12, 1864. 
James Bowers, ist. Cor.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 21; k. 

Seven Pines May 31, 1862, with Regimental Colors 

in his hands. 
John F. Kenter, 2d. Cor.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 23 ; pr. 

Q.-M. Sgt. November, 1861 ; c. Petersburg, Va. 
John L. Lyerly, 3d. Cor.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 2y ; 

James Crawford, 4th. Cor.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 2;^; 

elected 3d. Lt. Company B, Forty-second Regiment. 


Baity, Robt. A.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a 22; w. Chancel- 
lorsville,; d. of w. May 3, 1863. 

Barger, Paul; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 19; k. June 27, 
1862, Cold Harbor, Va. 

Barringer, John W. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 19; d. in 
camp, Manassas, Va. 

Bassinger, G. H.; en. September 7, 1862; a. 19; c. 
Sharpsburg; w. Spottsylvania. 

Bean, J. W. ; en. April 12, 1863; a. 39; w. Spott- 
sylvania, Va. 


Beaver, Alichael; en. January 12, 1861 ; a. 21; w. 
Fredericksburg, December 14, 1862. 

Bencini, M. A. ; c. September 19, 1864, Winchester, 

Blackner, Elon G. ; appointed 2d. Lt. Company F, 
Seventh Regiment. 

Bogle, David. 

Brown, Peter A.; en. January 14, 1861 ; a. 24; w. 
Seven Pines ; pr. Cor. 

Brown, Stephen A. ; k. Cold Harbor. 

Bryant, Lindsay; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 20. 

Buis, W. A,; en. January 14, 1861 ; a. 28; c. 

Carter, x^lfred C. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 21; w. June 
2y, 1862, Cold Harbor; w. Chancellorsville, May 
3, 1863. 

Carter, E. F. M. ; en. September 9, 1862; a. 30; c. 
Sharpsburg; k. Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863. 

Casper, Ambrose; en. March 9, 1862; a. 20; c. Sharps- 
burg; c. near Richmond. 

Casper, James C. ; en. January 29, 1861 ; a. 26; c. near 
Spottsylvania Courthouse, Va. 

Caster, Henry M. ; en. July 3, 1861 , a. 26; k. Win- 
chester, Va. 

Castor, John; en. March 16, 1862; a. 38; c. Sharps- 

Cauble, George A.; en. June 25, 1861 ; a. 22; k. June 
2y, 1862, Cold Harbor, Va. 

Church, N. N. ; en. September, 1861 ; a. 30; d. in 

Colley, Leroy C. ; en. ^lay 30, 1861 ; a. 22 ; k. Septem- 
ber, 1862, Sharpsburg, Md. 


Crawford, William H. ; appointed ist. Lt. Company 

F, Seventh Regiment. 
Crooks, Henry W. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 23; d. in 

camp 1 86 1. 
Crowel, John T. ; en. September 8, 1862; a. 20; k. 

Seven Pines. 
Crowel, R. E. ; en. April 13, 1863; a. 23; w. Spott- 

sylvania, Va. 
Cummings, William W. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 19; k. 

at Seven Pines. 
Davis, L. M. ; appointed Lt. in Company K, Fifth 

Deaton, John C; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 22; w. Seven 

Durell, W'ilHam M.; en. ]\Iay 30, 1861 ; a. 18; w. May 

12, 1864, at Spottsylvania Courthouse. 
Eddleman, J. A. ; en. March 15, 1862 ; a. 23 ; c. Sharps- 
burg, Md. ; c. Fisher Hill, Va. 
Eddleman, Jacob A. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 25 ; k. 

Seven Pines. 
Eller, Nelson A.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 19; w. Seven 

Pines; c. at Chancellorsville. 
Eudie, John J.; en. June 26, 1861 ; a. 22; tr. to light 

duty 1863 ; c. 
Fraley, Jacob L. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 30; k. Spott- 
sylvania Courthouse, May 12, 1864. 
Fraley, Jesse R. ; en. September, 1862 ; a. 25 ; appointed 

Assistant Surgeon, April, 1863. 
Freidheim, Arnold; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 23; w. 

Seven Pines ; pr. Cor. 


Fulk, Edward; en. March 15, 1862; a. 25; d. in 

Gardner, Frank S. ; d. in hospital. 
Glover, Jeremiah; en. June 29, 1861 ; a. 18. 
Glover, William H. ; en. June 26, 1861 ; a. 25; k. 

Sharpsburg, Md. 
Gorman, W. R. ; tr. to Regimental Band ; d. at home. 
Heilig, Philip A.; en. January 30, 1861 ; a. 19; w. 

Seven Pines; k. Spottsylvania Courthouse. 
Heirn, David; en. May 4, 1861 ; a. 30; d. Manassas. 
Henderson, C. A. ; appointed Assistant Surgeon in 

Sixth Regiment. 
Henderson, Leonard; appointed ist. Lt. Company F, 

Eighth Regiment. 
Hendricks, James L. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 22; d. 

Holdhouser, Crawford; c. Sharpsburg, Md. 
Holdhouser, Lewis D. ; en. March 7, 1862; a. 21; w. 

Seven Pines; w. May 3, 1863, Chancellorsville. 
Holdhouser, Milas M.; en. June 29, 1861 ; a. 21; c. 

Holdhouser, Otho; en. May 30, i86[; a. 25; pr. to 

Sgt. ; w. Seven Pines; k. Spottsylvania. 
Horah, George; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 20; appointed 

Lt. in Forty-sixth Regiment. 
Huff, William H. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 24; tr. to 

Riley's Battery. 
Hunt, M. F. ; appointed 2d. Lt. Company E, Fifth 

Hyer, Charles; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 25; in Regimental 



Irwin, Joseph C. ; May 30, 1861 ; a. 23 ; appointed 

Lt. Fifth Regiment; w. Sharpsburg, Md. 
Johnston, Daniel C. ; en. May 30^ 1861 ; a. 20; k. 

Seven Pines. 
Jones, Charles R. ; en. ]\Iay 30, 1861 ; a. 20; appointed 

Lt. in Fifty-fifth Regiment. 
Jones, Hamilton C. ; appointed Capt. Company K, 

Fifth Regiment. 
Josey, Wallace; en. Alarch 29, 1862; a. 20; w. June 3, 

1864, near Richmond; d. of w. 
Josey, Wilson R. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 18; k. Chancel- 

lorsville, May 3, 1862. 
Kelly, Joseph; en. April 12, 1863; a. 35. 
Kerr, James H. ; appointed Lt. in First Regiment. 
Kyle, Robert G. ; en. May 30,, 1861 ; a. 18; pr. Cor. ; k. 

Seven Pines. 
Landcherry, R. ; en. March 12, 1862; a. 30; d. in 

Lanier, Benjamin; en. ]\Iay 30, 1861 ; a. 18; k. Seven 

Lilly, W. T. ; en. ^lay 30, 1861 ; a. 18; discharged on 

account of ill health. 
Lillycrop, William; en. October 14, 1861 ; a. 24; w. 

Mechanicsville, Va. 
Locket, John B. ; en. I\Iay 30, 1861 ; a. 24; tr. to 

general hospital, as nurse. 
Long, Hamilton C. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 25 ; pr. 2d. 

Lt. November, 1861 ; w. Seven Pines ; resigned. 
Lowrence, Alfred A.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 18; k. 

Seven Pines. 


McCanless, James C. ; en. June 29, 1861 ; w. seven 

days' fight at Richmond. 
McDaniel, J. A.; en. September 22, 1861 ; a. 20; k. 

Sharpsburg, Md. 
McQueen, A. M.; en. March 20, 1862; a. 2y \ w. 

Seven Pines May 31, 1862; w. December 14, 1862, 

at Fredericksburg; d. of w. 
McQueen, Daniel M. ; en. March 21, 1862; a. 32; w. 

September 14, 1862 ; d. of w. 
McQueen, WiUiam; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 24; c. 

Petersburg, Va. 
Mahaly, Lewis; en May 30, 1861 ; a. 27; w. Chancel- 

lorsville. May 3, 1863; d. of w. 
Matthews, Bradley; en. July 14, 1862; a. 24; Musi- 
cian; w. 
Mauldin, James; en. March 9, 1862; a. 18; w. Seven 

Pines; d. of w. August 10, 1863. 
Mauney, John; en. June 14, 1861 ; a. 34; d. in camp. 
Meisenheimer, George; c. Sharpsburg, Md. 
Miller, Alfred W. ; en. July 3, 1861 ; a. 22; w. Septem- 
ber 14, 1862; d. of w. 
Miller, Calvin L. ; en. July 3, 1861 ; a. 22-, k. May 3, 

1863, Chancellorsville. 
Mills, Francis M.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 17; w. Seven 

Mitchell, Lueco; appointed Lt. in Riley's Battery. 
Moose, W. A.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 26; tr. to Band; 

d. in hospital. 
Morris, William; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 2(y\ w. Cold 

Harbor, June 2"], 1863; d. of w. 
Mowery, Andrew; en. May 30, 1861 ; a 24. 


Mowery, William G. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 28; d. in 

Meyer, Daniel; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 25; w. Seven 

Murr, William; en. June 22, 1861 ; a. 22; w. Septem- 
ber 19, 1864, Winchester, Va. 
Neave, Edward B.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 20; Leader 

Regimental Band. 
Neely, James W. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 20; w. Seven 

Pines ; discharged on account of wounds. 
O'Neal, Isaac P. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 25 ; c. Septem- 
ber 16, 1862, Sharpsburg. 
Owens, J. T. ; en. July 20, 1863; a. 36; k. Spott- 

sylvania, Va. 
Parker, William; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 18; pr. Cor.; 

w. Seven Pines ; w. Chancellorsville ; c. Sharpsburg, 

Patterson, Edward; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 28; w. 

Sharpsburg; w. May 19, 1864; tr. to Navy. 
Pearson, EH. 
Peden, John T. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 21; pr. Lt. in 

Fifty-fifth Regiment. 
Peeler, W. D. C. ; en. March 7, 1862; a. 22; w. Seven 

Pines ; c. Sharpsburg, Md. 
Pendleton, Ham Jones; pr. 5th. Sgt. Company F, 

Seventh Regiment. 
Ploughman, Solomon; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 27; k. 
Rendleman, Lawson M.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 20; 

k. Seven Pines. 
Roberts, Alfred H. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 21 ; w. near 

Charlestown, 1864. 


Roberts, James W. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; w. Seven 

Pines; tr. to light duty. 
Roberts, R. S. ; discharged on account of ill health. 
Rowzee, Allison H. ; d. in camp, 1861. 
Sanders, J. B. ; en. April i, 1863; a. 21. 
Smithdeal, AA^ilHam; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 19; dis- 
charged on account of w. Seven Pines. 
Snuggs, George D. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 25 ; w. 

Seven Pines; w. Chancellorsville ; c. Sharpsburg; 

w. Snickers' Ford, July 21, 1864. 
Snuggs, John; c. April 6, 1865. 
Severs, Henry C. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 19; w. Seven 

Pines; c. 1863, Sharpsburg, Md. 
Strayhorn, Samuel; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 21 ; k. Seven 

Thompson, John F. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 19; w. 

Cold Harbor, June 2"], 1862, as Courier. 
Thompson, Joseph F; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 27; w. 

December 14, 1862, Fredericksburg; d. of w. 
Thompson, N. A.; en. June 19, 1861 ; a. 18; d. in 

Trexler, Hiram A. ; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 25 ; d. Man- 
Troutman, M. B. ; en. March 16, 1862; a. 27; w. May 

3, 1863, Chancellorsville. 
Turner, J. McLeod; appointed Capt. Company F, 

Seventh Regiment. 
Turner, Levi ; en. March 7, 1862 ; a. 21 ; w. Seven 

Pines ; w. Spottsylvania. 
Weant, Matthew J.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 2i\ w. 

Seven Pines ; tr. to Regimental Band. 


Weant, William A.; en. May 30, 1861 ; a. 20; dis- 
charged on account of ill health. 

Williams, Henry; en. September 21, 1862; a. 24. 

Williams, Richard; en. ]\Iay 30, 1861 ; a. 24; pr. to 
Cor. ; w. Seven Pines. 

Williamson, Thomas G. ; appointed 2d. Lt. Company 
F, Seventh Regiment. 

Winter, George S. ; en. January 16, 1861 ; a 18; k. 
Seven Pines. 

Wise, Henry; en. March 9, 1862; a. 35; w. Seven 
Pines; d. of w. 

Wise, Tobias; en. March 9, 1862; a. 40; w. May 3, 
1863, Chancellorsville ; d. of w. 


Company E 


Samuel Reeves, Capt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 38; 

resigned March 8, 1862. 
Robert Hendry, ist. Lt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 32. 
M. F. Hunt, 2d. Lt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 21 ; w. 
Fred H. Sprague, Jr. 2d. Lt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 25. 
Jonathan Graham, ist. Sgt. ; en. June 6, 1861 ; a. 30; 
' d. of w. at Williamsburg, Va., May 8, 1862. 
John T. Rodman, 2d. Sgt. ; en. June 4, 1861 ; a 18. 
C. L. Reeves, 3d. Sgt. ; en. July 3, 1861 ; a. 35 ; h. d. 
David Morgan, 4th. Sgt. ; en. June 28, 1861 ; a. 22 ; pr. 

to 2d. Sgt., May 5, 1862. 
James Hendry, ist. Cor.; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 28; w. at 
Williamsburg; h. d. 


John R. Hunter, 2d. Cor.; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 43. 
Jere M. Miller, 3d. Cor.; en. June 29, 1861 ; a. 22; w. 

Seven Pines; k. at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863. 
Daniel Basinger, 4th. Cor.; en. June 14, 1861 ; a. 22; 

w. at Gettysburg, Pa. 


Baines, Levi; en. July 8, 1861 ; a. 22; pr. Sgt. ; w. at 

Cold Harbor; w. at Chancellorsville. 
Barrett, J. G. ; en. June 18, 1861 ; a. 18; pr. 5th. Sgt., 

August 31, 1863. 
Basinger, Emanuel; en. June 19, 1861 ; a. 21; w. at 

Wilderness and at Gettysburg. 
Basinger, Henry; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 44; w. at 

Wilderness and Gettysburg. 
Basinger, James J. ; en. July 6, 1861 ; a. 25. 
Basinger, John; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 31. 
Basinger, William A.; en. June 29, 1861 ; a. 2y; k. at 

Williamsburg, Va., May 5, 1862. 
Beaver, Daniel; en. June 29, 1861 ; a. 30. 
Beaver, Monroe; en. June 29, 1861 ; a. 2y ; w. at 

Beek, William; en. June 11, 1861 ; a. 21. 
Bond, William J.; en. June i, 1861 ; a. 23; w. at 

Gettysburg; pr. to 3d. Sgt. August 31, 1863. 
Boyle, John; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 18. 
Brown, Adam; en. June g, 1861 ; a. 30. 
Brown, Henry M. ; en. July 3, 1861 ; a. 20; w. at Wil- 
liamsburg, Va. 
Bryant, John J.; en. July 15, 1862; a. 22; d. of d. 

November 16, 1862. 


Carr, William A.; en. April 23, 1861 ; a. 18; pr. to 2d. 
Lt. from Company A, Third Regiment, April 13, 

Clodfelter, D. E. ; en. June 29, 1861 ; a. 21 ; w. at Wil- 

Clodfelter, William C. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 26; d. of 
d. January, 1862. 

Clutts, Jere; en. July 3, 1861 ; a. 22. 

Cruse, Munroe; en. June 11, 1861 ; a. 25; w. at 
Chancellorsville ; pr. Cor., April 30, 1863. 

Cunningham, Pat; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 18; d. of w. at 
Gettysburg, July 5, 1863. 

Dickens, Thomas; en. July 2, 1861 ; a. 31. 

Duckworth, J. W. ; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 23. 

Duke, George; en. June 11, 1861 ; a. 18. 

Earnhardt, Levi T. ; en. July 6, 1861 ; a. 18. 

Ellar, W^illiam ; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 24. 

Fight, Samuel J.; en. June 28, 1861 ; a. 20. 

File, Ivy W. ; en. June 19, 1861 ; a. 22. 

Gillespie, John; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 22; w. at Wil- 

Hadley, R. ; en. September i, 1861 ; a. 22. 

Hargaty, Pat; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 20; k. at Wil- 
liamsburg, May 5, 1862. 

Hartman, Jacob A.; en. June 29, 1861 ; a. 19. 

Hewitt, D. H.; d. of w. at Gettysburg, July, 1863. 

Johnson, Calvin; en. July 2, 1861 ; a. 30. 

Johnson, Green; en. July 8, 1861 ; a. 18. 

Kelly, John; en. June 17, 1861 ; a. 31; d. of d., May 
5, 1863. 


Kennedy, George A. ; en. July 25, 1861 ; a. 40. 

Kinney, M. L. ; en. June 8, 1861 ; a. 23. 

Lane, David; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 19. 

Lanier, Israel; en. June 17, 1861 ; a. 23; k. at Chan- 
cellorsville, May, 1863. 

Long, G. W. ; en. June 19, 1861 ; a. 20; pr. Cor. Au- 
gust 31, 1863; w. at Gettysburg. 

McGuire, Mike; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 22. 

McNeelis, Condie; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 28. 

Mauldin, James; en. June 22, 1861 ; a. 18. 

Medly, William A.; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 27; d. of 
d. August, 1861. 

Miller, Calvin; en. June 6, 1861 ; a 25. 

Miller, D. L. ; en. July 6, 1861 ; a. 21 ; d. of d., 1862. 

Mills, William; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 31 ; d. of d., April, 

Morris, Richland; en. September i, 1861 ; a. 26; k. at 
Williamsburg, May 5, 1862. 

Murdy, John; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 20; w. at Williams- 

Newson, C. C. ; en. August 19, 1861 ; a. 19; w. at 
Williamsburg and Chancellorsville. 

O'Donnel, Francis; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 18. 

Parker, John; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 24; d. of d., 1862. 

Parker, WilHam L. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 18. 

Parks, James O. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 24. 
Parks, Jesse A.; en July 20, 1861 ; a. 24; w. at Wil- 
liamsburg and Chancellorsville. 
Parnell, Frank; en. June 24, 1861 ; a. 22. 
Patten, A. W. ; en. July 15, 1862; a. 22; missing at 


Peacock, William L. C. ; en. June 19, 1861 ; a. 22. 

Pence, Jake; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 44. 

Porter, James H.; en. June 29, 1861 ; a. 32. 

Rawlins, B. ; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 43 ; w. at Seven 

Riggsbey, C. C. ; en. July 15, 1862; a. 29. 

Riggsbey, William H. ; en. July 15, 1862; a. 25. 

Robinson, J. M. ; en. July 4, 1861 ; d. at Bull Run, 
July 25, 1862. 

Rufty, G. W.; en. June 13, 1861 ; a. 18. 

Scott, John; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 37; pr. to Cor., Octo- 
ber 31, 1862; w. at Gettysburg. 

Singleton, J. V. ; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 29. 

Sloop, Joel G. ; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 19; w. at Williams- 

Steel, William; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 37; pr. to 3d. Sgt., 
October 31, 1862; k. at Gettysburg, July, 1863. 

Stoup, Thomas; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 18; d. of d., 1861. 

Waller, George; en. June 11, 186 1 ; a. 20; k. at Gettys- 
burg, July I, 1863. 

West, R. C.; en. April 23, 1861 ; a. 18; pr. to 2d. Lt. 
from Company A, Third Regiment, April 13, 1863. 

West, S. B.; en. j\Iay 16, 1861 ; a. 26; pr. Capt. 

Wilheim, Jesse; en. June 28, 1861 ; a. 30. 

Company K 


Hamilton C. Jones, Capt.; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 24; 

pr. to Lt.-Col. Fifty-seventh Regiment. 
J. A'l. Jones, ist. Lt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 2y. 


L. IM. Davis, 2d. Lt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 22; pr. to 

Joseph C. Irwin, 2d. Lt. ; en June 22., 1861 ; a. 23. 
Caesar Guttenberg, ist. Sgt. ; en. April 29, 186 1 ; a. 33 ; 

w. Chancellorsville. 
William T. Fesperman, 2d. Sgt.; en. June 13, 1861 ; 

a. 25 ; pr. to 2d. Lt. 
Paul Barringer, 3d. Sgt.; en. July 4, 1861 ; a. 29; pr. 

to ist. Sgt. January i, 1863. 
George Miller, ist. Cor. ; en June 25, 1861 ; a. 22. 
George Heilig, 2d. Cor.; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 25; pr. 

to 2d. Lt. for gallantry. 
Calvin Phillips, 3d. Cor.; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 22; d. 

Richmond, April, 1862. 
Frankhn D. Julian, Musician; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 16. 


Allen, Jasper; en. July 16, 1861 ; a. 18; k. Gettysburg, 

July, 1863. 
Atkinson, J. H. ; en. July 30, 1861 ; a. 34. 
Basinger, John A.; en. August 8, 1862. 
Beaver, David; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 35. 
Beaver, David; en. August 8, 1862. 
Beaver, E. M. ; en. August 8, 1862 ; a. 31. 
Beaver, H. M.; en. August 8, 1862; a. 28; d. of d., at 

Strasburg, Va., November 11, 1862. 
Beaver, Jeremiah; en. August 8, 1862; a. 2J \ w. 

Chancellorsville; d. at home, August 7, 1863. 
Beaver, Joseph; en. August 8, 1862; a. 30. 
Beaver, L. A.; en. August 8, 1862; a. 23. 
Beaver, Rufus; en. August 8, 1862; a. 20. 


Beaver, Simeon; en. August 8, 1862; a. 33; d. near 
Charlestown, W. Va., on march. 

Best, Allison ; en. August 8, 1862 ; a. 19. 

Bost, G. M.; en. August 8, 1862; a. 24; d. November 
29, 1863^ near Gordonville. 

Bostian, Aaron; en. August 8, 1862; a. 28; k. July i, 
1863, Gettysburg. 

Bostian, A. J.; en. August 8, 1862; a. 31. 

Bostian, Andrew; en. August 8, 1862; a. 34. 

Bostian, Eli; en. August 8, 1862; a. 32. 

Bostian, William; en. August 8, 1862; a. 24. 

Bradshaw, Francis; en. February 25, 1861 ; pr. to Cor. 
for meritorious conduct. 

Bray, J. F. ; en. July 15, 1861 ; fell out of ranks, Au- 
gust, 1862, and never heard from. 

Brewer, Elijah; en. July 15, 1862; w. at Gettysburg. 

Bringle, L. D. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 18; w. Gettysburg. 

Brown, Charles; en. June 12, 1861 ; a. 30. 

Butler, Martin; en. July 12, 1861 ; a. 25; k. Williams- 
burg, May' 5, 1862. 

Carver, Kyle; en. August 22, 1861. 

Cash, A. G.; en. August 8, 1862. 

Gates, Calvin; en. July 6, 1861 ; a. 36; d. Richmond. 

Cauble, Pleasant; en. June 27, 1861 ; a. 21 ; pr. to Cor. 
February, 1862. 

Coan, R. H. ; en. July 7, 1861 ; a. 18; k. Williamsburg, 
May 5, 1862. 

Coleman, J. A. ; en. August 8, 1862. 

Craven, W. H. ; en. July 15, 1862; fell out of ranks 
August, 1862, and never heard from. 

Cress, Absalom; en. August 8, 1862. 


Cruse, Joseph; k. 

Cruse, Tobias; en. August 8, 1862; k. at Gettysburg, 
July I, 1863. 

Davis, Jackson; en. July 12, 1861 ; a. 44; pr. to 5th. 

Deal, Levi; en. August 8, 1862; w. severely at Gettys- 

Deberry, Richard L. ; en. June 11, 1861 ; a. 19. 

Deberry, William; en. June 18, 1862. 

Dolan, Alfred; en. June 8, 1861 ; a. 21. 

Earnhart, Calvin; en. August 8, 1862; d. November, 

1862, at Guinea Station. 
Earnhart, David; en. August 8, 1862. 

Earnhart, Isaac; en. August 8, 1862; k. July i, 1863, 

Earnhart, J. C. ; en. August 8, 1862. 
Eller, Charles A.; en. February 7, 1862; w. severely 

at Williamsburg. 
Eller, Hamilton; en. February 7, 1862; w. severely at 

Seven Pines. 
Fesperman, J. H. ; en. August 8, 1862. 
File, Noah; en. August 8, 1862. 
Fink, J. C. ; en. August 8, 1862; d. of d., April i, 

1863, at Fredericksburg. 

Fink, J. F. ; en. June 2, 1861 ; a. 19. 

Fink, J. M.; en. August 8, 1862; d. of d., February 

21, 1863, at Richmond. 
Fry, Pleasant; en. June 10, 1861 ; a. 19; pr. to 2d. 

Cor.; d. of d., at Richmond, August, 1862. 
Gardner, J. W. ; en. July 15, 1862; d. May 3, 1863^ 

Guinea Station. 


Garver, Benjamin; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 18. 

Garver, John M.; en. July 8, 1861 ; a. 21. 

Hancock, Thomas; en. July 5, 1861 ; a. 28. 

Hardester, E. H,; en. July 15, 1862; fell out of ranks 
on march to Maryland, and not heard from. 

Hardester, L. W. ; en. July 15, 1862; w. at Sharps- 

Heilig, J. M.; en. August 8, 1862; a. 24; k. July i, 
1863, Gettysburg. 

Heilig, Julius; en. June 8, 1861 ; a. 18; w. Williams- 
burg and pr. to Cor. for gallantry. 

Heilig, J. W. ; en. August 8, 1862; a. 31. 

Heifer, Edward; en. June 20, 1861 ; a. 21. 

Hill, E. S.; en. July 15, 1862; d. December 31, 1862, 
Guinea Station. 

Hill, Jesse; en. July 15, 1862; fell out of ranks on 
march to Maryland, and not heard from. 

Hill, W. H. ; en. July 15, 1862; fell out of ranks on 
march to Maryland, and not heard from. 

Huie, Elias J.; en. June 17, 1861 ; a. 31. 

Jones, Levi ; en. August 16, 1861 ; a. 22. 

Jones, R. B. ; en. July 15, 1862; a. 40; w. Gettysburg. 

Keith, George; en. August 8, 1862; a. 28; k. July i, 
1863, Gettysburg. 

Kluttz, EH; en. August 8, 1862; a. 35. 

Kluttz, Joseph; en. August 8, 1862; a. 35; d. Decem- 
ber 18, 1862, near Fredericksburg. 

Leach, D. W. ; en. July 15, 1862; a. 19. 

Leach, E. E. ; en. July 15, 1862; a. 35; w. Gettysburg; 
d. of w. July 15, 1863. 


Lefler, \^'illiam ; en. June 28, 1861 ; a. 21 ; w. Gettys- 

Lentz, L. B. ; en. August 8, 1862; a. 23; d. of d., 
November 14, 1862, near \\'inchester, Va. 

Lippard, A. L. J.; en. August 8, 1862; a. 21 ; w. Get- 

Lippard. E. S. P.; en. August 8, 1862; a. 32. 

Luther, George; en. July 15, 1862. 

Maxwell, J. R. ; en. June 28, 1861 ; a. 21. 

Miller, Jesse; en. August 8, 1862; a. 34; w., arm 

Mofifit, B. F., en. July 15, 1862; a. 19; d. of d., Novem- 
ber I, 1862, Richmond. 

Nance, H. H. ; en. July 15, 1862. 

Nance, J. M. ; en. July 15, 1862. 

Newell, WilHam G. ; en. July 12, 1861 ; a. 50; d. of 
d., at Camp Wigfall, Va. 

Nichols, Columbus; en. July 5, 1861 ; a. 19. 

Pechel, IMiles ; en. June 19, 1861 ; a. 2'] ; d. of d. at 

Phillips, D. J. ; en. August 26, 1861 ; a. 28. 

Porter, Otis; en. August 31, 1861 ; a. 47. 

Potter, James; en. June 21, 1861 ; a. 41 ; d. 

Powe, Hugh T. ; en. August 8, 1862 ; a. 33 ; severely 
w., etc., at Gettysburg, and d. in enemy's hands. 

Quinn, Michael; en. July 26, 1861 ; a. 17; tr. to a 
South Carolina Battalion. 

Rimer, Reuben H. ; en. July 2, 1861 ; a. 22. 

Robinson, J. ]\I.; en. August i, 1861 ; a. 27; k. May 
5, 1862, Williamsburg, Va. 


Rose, J. A.; en. August 8, 1862; a. 22; d. of d., 
March 5, 1863, at home. 

Rose, R. A.; en. August 8, 1862; a. 20; d. of d., 
Farmville, Va., March 26, 1863. 

Saf rit, EH ; en. August S, 1862 ; w. at Gettysburg,. 

Safrit, Moses; en. May 19, 1863; a. 37; w. Gettys- 
burg; d. of w. July 19, 1863. 

Scott, WiUiam; en. June 12, 1861 ; a. 22. 

Seaford, Edmund; en. August 8, 1862; w. severely 
at Gettysburg. 

Shupping, John A.; en. June 17, 1861 ; a. 27. 

Sikes, J. P.; en. July 3, 1861 ; a. 36; d. May, 1862, in 
enemy's hands, of w. 

Snider, W. L. ; en. July 15, 1862; fell out of ranks, 
August, 1862, not since heard from. 

Steed, C.; en. July 15, 1862; fell out of ranks, Au- 
gust, 1862, not since heard from. 

Stikeleather, Alex.; en. June 30, 1861 ; a. 21; k. Cold 
Harbor, June 2y, 1862. 

Stirewalt, Jacob; en. June 20, 1861 ; a. 35. 

Sugart, W. C. ; en. July 15, 1862; w. severely at 

Swink, James; en. June 10, 1861 ; a. 19. 

Thompson, S. G. ; en. July 15, 1862; fell out of ranks 
August, 1862^ not since heard from. 

Varner, J. G. ; en. July 15, 1862; fell out of ranks 
August, 1862, not since heard from. 

Wade, Benjamin F. ; en. June 14, 1861 ; a. 28; d. Au- 
gust, 1862, at Camp Wigfall. 

Watson, ]\Iichael; en. July 25, 1861 ; a. 16. 


West, William; en. July 14, 1861 ; a. 30. 
Winders, Abner; en. June 12, 1861 ; a. 22; d. of d. 
at Richmond. 

Officers, Field and Staff 

Charles F. Fisher, Col.; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 40; k. 

Manassas July 21, 1861 
A. M. Nesbit, Surgeon; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 45; tr. 

to a Virginia Regiment, July 15, 1861. 
Julius A. Caldwell, Assistant Surgeon; en. May 16, 

1861 ; a. 32. 
C. A. Henderson, Assistant Surgeon; en. May 16, 

1861 ; a. 26. 

Company A 
James C. Turner, Capt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 22. 

Company G 

James A. Craige, Capt.; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 20; pr. 

to Major Fifty-seventh Regiment, July 17, 1862; w. 
R. Rush Smith, ist. Lt. ; en. May 26, 1861. 
James T. Rosenborough, 2d. Lt. ; en. May 26, 1861. 
John P. M. Barringer, ist. Sgt. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; 

a. 25; k. Seven Pines, May 31, 1862. 
David M. Basinger, 2d. Sgt. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 

23;-pr. to ist. Sgt. November i, 1862. 


William C. Cooper, 3d. Sgt. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 21 ; 

d. of w. received at Sharpsburg, September 20, 

George H. Brown, 4th. Sgt.; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 20; 

pr. to ist Sgt. July i, 1863; w. at Second Manassas; 

w. and c. at Gettysburg. 
William Owens, ist. Cor.; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 20; 

k. May 31, Seven Pines. 
Lewis H. Rothrock, 2d. Cor. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 21 ; 

pr. 2d. Lt. December 20, 1861 ; pr. ist. Lt. 
Abram Miller, 3d. Cor. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 20. 
Richard Graham, 4th. Cor.; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 19. 


Allen, Bartley ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 28; c. November 
7, 1863, Rappahannock Railroad Bridge. 

Atwell, Charles F. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 24; pr. Cor. 
November 3, 1863. 

Baker, Joseph N. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 19; c. Novem- 
ber 7, 1863, Rappahannock Railroad Bridge. 

Earnhardt, John C. ; en. March 5, 1862; a. 24; c. at 
Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 

Earnhardt, Julius A.; en. July 9, 1862; a. 19; d. in 

Bencini, Moses A.; en. March 12, 1862; a. 16; tr. to 
Company K, Fourth Regiment. 

Elackwelder, Alex. W. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 23; k. 
Seven Pines, May 31, 1862. 

Blackwelder, Jacob S.; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 21; c. 
July 2, 1863. 

Bostian, George W. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 18. 


Bostian, John A.; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 20; c. Novem- 
ber 7, 1863, Rappahannock Railroad Bridge. 

Bringle, John; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 18; c. November 
7, 1863, Rappahannock Railroad Bridge. 

Brolly, James; en. May 29, 1862; a. 28; d. of d. 

Brown, J. McNeely. 

Cauble, WilHam Martin; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 23; c. 
November 7, 1863, Rappahannock Railroad 
Bridge; w. Seven Pines. 

Correll, Joseph. 

Correll, Joseph; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 29. 

Corriher, Amos B.; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 19; k. Ma- 
nassas July I, 1861. 

Corriher, Jacob R. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 24; k. Ma- 
nassas July I, 1861. 

Corriher, Wash. E. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 18; k. 
Seven Pines May 31, 1862. 

Craige, Clethus; en. March 15, 1862; a. 18; k. at 
Cedar Run, 1864. 

Cress, Thomas; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 25; k. Sharps- 
burg, September 17, 1862. 

Dancy, Naphthall L. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 23 ; k. 
Manassas July i, 1861. 

Eagle, Alex.; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 33; d. of d. at 
Liberty, Va., June 20, 1862. 

Eagle, Moses I.; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 19; d. of d. 
October 4, 1861. 

Edwards, Hannibal. 

Edwards, T. E. ; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 17. 

Fesperman, Levi A.; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 23; c. 
Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 


Freeze, Caleb; en. September ii, 1861 ; a. 37; d. of d., 

Richmond,, July 10, 1862. 
Freeze, Mike; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 19; d. of d. 

September 4, 1861. 
Freeze, Wiley; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 18; d. of d. 

November 26, 1861. 
Gibbons, Anderson; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 22. 
Graham, John C. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 22; c. Rap- 
pahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 
Graham, Levi A. 
Graham, R. Frank; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 19; w. at 

Second Fredericksburg battle ; pr. 2d. Cor. 
Greene, Fortune; en. March 13, 1862; a. 49; d. at 

Richmond, July 10, 1862. 
Gullet, Andrew J. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 21 ; w. and c. 

at Gettysburg, July, 1863. 
Hall, James O. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 19; h. d. August 

4, 1861. 
Hearne, George. 

Heilig, John F. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 19; c. Rappa- 
hannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 
Hess, John; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 20; k. at Manassas 

Junction, July 21, 1861. 
Holt, James A.; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 20; w. below 

Richmond, Va. 
Howard, John; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 23; w. and c. 

Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863; 

w. at Manassas. 
Johnson, Harrison; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 18; c. at 

Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 
Josey, Moses C. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 20. 


Josey, W. R. ; d. of d. in hospital. 

Lee, James. 

Lewis, John R. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 39; d. at 

Richmond, September i, 1862. 
Lipe, Caleb J. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 21. 
Lipe, John M. ; en. March 3, 1862 ; a. 18; d. in hospital. 
Love, H. C. 
Miller, Abram H. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 26; pr. 2d. 

Lt. December 2, 1862. 
Miller, Emanuel; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 25; c. Rap- 
pahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 
Miller, Ebenezer H.; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 22; c. at 
Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 
Miller, Henry W. A.; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 21 ; pr. 2d. 

Lt. Forty-second Regiment, March 15, 1862. 
Miller, H. W.; w. at Manassas. 
Miller, Jacob W.; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 25; w. at Ma- 
nassas, July 21, 1861. 
Miller, John L. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 20; k. at Sharps- 
burg, September 17, 1862. 
Miller, Martin M. ; en. March 5, 1862; a. 28; w. at 

Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. 
Miller, R. A.; en. February 5, 1862; a. 19; c. Rappa- 
hannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 
Miller, William Westley; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 19; w. 

at Seven Pines, May 31, 1862; pr. 4th. Cor. 
Morgan, Calvin R. ; en. March 3, 1864; a. 18; w. Win- 
chester, Va., both legs broken, one amputated. 
Morgan, Moses Levi; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 23; k. 
Gaines' Farm, June 2"/, 1862. 


Morgan, Noah; en. March 3, 1864; a. 18; w. October 
18, 1864. 

Nance, Shadrack; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 27; d. in p. 

Noah, George W. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 25; k. Ma- 
nassas Junction, July 21, 1861. 

Overcash, James W. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 24; c. at 
Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 

Overcash, John S. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 21; c. at 
Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 

Owens, Henry C. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 19; pr. to Sgt. 
November i, 1862; c. 

Owens, Joseph F. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 20; c. at Rap- 
pahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 

Owens, William R. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 26; k. Seven 
Pines, May 31, 1862. 

Penninger, Wilson; en. March 19, 1862; a. 26; d. in 
hospital, Richmond. 

Pogue, Elias James; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 2^ \ c. Rap- 
pahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 

Porter, William Henry; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 23; k. 
Seven Pines, May 31, 1862. 

Redwine, Peter W. ; en. ]\Iay 29, 1861 ; a. 18; k. at 
Gaines' Farm, July ly, 1862. 

Rendleman, Laurence T. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 19; k. 
at Seven Pines. 

Rendleman, Tobias; w. at Richmond, May 31, 1861. 

Ritchie, Charles; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 28; c. June 27, 

Ritchie, Henry W. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 20; w. at 
Sharpsburg, September 17, 1862. 


Ritchie, Jacob M. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 27; c. Rap- 
pahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 

Ritchie, William M.; en. ]\Iay 29, 1861 ; a. 23; h. d. 
October, 1861. 

Russel, James W. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 21 ; w. and c. 
at Gettysburg, July i, 1863. 

Safrit, Jacob Monroe; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 19; k. at 
Manassas Junction, July 21, 1861. 

Setzer, Jason D. ; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 19; k. Ma- 
nassas Junction, July 21, 1861. 

Sheppard, John; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 34; c. at Rap- 
pahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 

Shinn, William F. ; en. September 15, 1861 ; a. 25; w. 
at Gettysburg, July i, 1863. 

Shullibarrier, William S.; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 19; w. 
at Sharpsburg, September 17, 1862. 

Shuping, Mike; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 22; h. d. Novem- 
ber 16, 1861. 

Shuping, Noah R. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 21 ; w. at 
Second Manassas, August 29, 1862. 

Sloop, David Alex. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 23 ; tr. to 
Regimental Band, December i, 1862. 

Sloop, William J. A.; en. July i^ 1861 ; a. 18; d. of 
d. September 15, 1861. 

Smart, T. R. 

Smith, J. ; d. of d. at Ashland hospital. May 6, 1862. 

Smith, Jacob S.; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 21; k. at Ma- 
nassas Junction, July 21, 1861. 

Smith, James; en. March 19, 1862; a. 30; w. at Fred- 
ericksburg, December 13, 1862. 


Smith, William A.; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 19; k. at 

Seven Pines, May 31, 1862. 
Smith, William H. ; w. at Seven Pines. 
Smith, W. J. 
Spears, J. F. 
Sronce, Jacob ; d. of d. at Camp Fisher, January 6, 

Starrett, George M. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 19; w. at 

Seven Pines. 
Starrett, John E. D. ; en. ]\Iarch 15, 1862; a. 19; c. at 

Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 
Stuart, Thomas R. ; en. March 15, 1862; a. 23; c. at 

Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 
Swisher, Alex. C. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 23. 
Swisher, Claudius W. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 18; c. at 

Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 
Swisher, J. C. 
Thaxton, Thomas C. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 20; w. at 

Second Manassas, August 29, 1862. 
Thomason, Frank W. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 28; d. 

at Richmond, July i, 1862. 
Thomason, James W. ; en. September 13, 1861 ; a. 23; 

d. at Montgomery Springs, Va., November 29, 1862. 
Thomason, Jesse B.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 20; c. 

Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 
Thomason, John P.; en. September 13, 1861 ; a. 25; 

w. at Sharpsburg, September 17, 1863. 
Thomason, Pink J. ; w. at Richmond. 
Trexler, Adam; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 20. 
Trexler, ]\Iarcus; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 22; c. at Rap- 
pahannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 


Upright, Eli; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 22\ c. at Rappa- 
hannock Railroad Bridge, November 7, 1863. 

Walker, Joseph M.; en. October 15, 1861 ; a. 21 ; k. at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

Waters, John. 

Wedlock, W. 

\\'ilson, Joseph L. ; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 21; pr. to 

Yost, Solomon; en. May 29, 1861 ; a. 20; pr. to Cor. 
July I, 1862. 


Company A 


John G. Knox, ist. Lt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 21; pr. 
to Capt. April 4, 1862. 


Knox, Joseph A.; en. May 29, 1863; a. 21; k. at 
Gettysburg, July 8, 1863. 

Company E 

Burwell, Henry; en. August i, 1862; a. 23; w. at 

Link, John; en. August i, 1862; a. 24. 
Link, Oliver; en. August i, 1862; a. 30. 
Miller, Jacob C. ; en. August i, 1862; a. 33; w. Spott- 

sylvania Courthouse, May 12, 1864. 


Parker, James A.; en. August i, 1862; a. 18; w. at 
Sharpsburg; k. Spottsylvania Courthouse, May 12, 

Stokes, Obadiah; en. May 16, 1862; a. 25; d. of d., 
November, 1862. 

Company F 

John McLeod Turner, Capt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 19; 
pr. to Major May 3, 1863; pr. to Lt.-Col. ; w. in 
side at Newbern, N. C. ; w. in head at Second Ma- 
nassas; dangerously w. at Fredericksburg, Va., De- 
cember 13, 1862; w. through right lung and in the 
head, in foot and through waist, at Gettysburg, 
July 3^ 1863, by which he was permanently disabled. 

William H. Crawford, ist. Lt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 
28; pr. to Capt. Company B, Forty-second Regi- 

John R. Pearson, 2d. Lt. ; en. October 10, 1863; k. in 
front, Petersburg, Va., 1864. 

Thomas G. Williamson, 2d. Lt. ; en. !May 16, 1861 ; 
a. 23. 

Elon G. Blackmer, 3d. Lt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 22. 

Hamilton, J. Pendleton, 5th. Sgt. ; en. June 4, 1861 ; 
a. 28; missing in battle of Newbern, N. C. 

James C. Johnson, ist. Cor. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 21. 

William C. Fesperman, 4th. Cor. ; en. July 8, 1861 ; 
a. 22; pr. to 1st. Sgt. October, 1862; w. at Rich- 
mond; w. at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 

John W. Rough, Drummer; en. July 18, 1861 ; a. 18. 


Arey, B. C. ; en. August 20, 1862. 
Ayers, Solomon K. ; en. June 21, 1861 ; a. 21; pr. to 

Sgt. 1863, for gallantry and good conduct. 
Baker, William; en. July 2, 1861 ; a. 19. 
Basinger, B. P. ; en. August 20, 1862 ; w. at Chancel- 

lorsville, May 3, 1863. 
Basinger, Harrell M.; en. August 20, 1862; c. at 

Blackburn, I. H. 

Bostian, Jacob A. ; w. at Ream Station. 
Brown, James H. ; en. June 20, 1861 ; a. 24; k. at 

Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863. 
Cauble, David M.; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 19; pr. to 

Cor. January i, 1863 ; w. below Richmond. 
Cline, James; en. October 20, 1861 ; a. 56. 
Coyle, Adam; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 19; w. at Chancel- 
Deberry, David S.; en. June 13, 1861 ; a. 17; c. at 

Earnhardt, Lorenzo S. ; en. June 13, 1861 ; a. 18; c. at 

Gettysburg and exchanged. 
Eller, Caleb; en. August 20, 1862. 
Eller, Jesse; en. August 20, 1862. 
Fight, Henry T. ; en. June 8, 1861 ; a. 21 ; pr. to Cor. 

Colorbearer at Gaines' Mill, where w., and w. at 

File, EH. 

Fleming, Richard. 
Graham, Hezekiah C. ; en. July r, 1861 ; a. 34. 


Hagler, Charles W. ; en. July 20, 1861 ; a. 19; w. at 

Fredericksburg, leg amputated. 
Headinger, Wiley; en. June 4, 1861 ; a. 26. 
Hill, Henry G.; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 19; k. at Ox Hill, 

September i, 1862. 
Hooks, George E. ; en. June 5, 1861 ; a. 25. 
Johnson, John; en. July 8, 1861 ; a. 18. 
Kinnerly, Charles W. ; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 20. 
Kinnerly, John A.; en. June 6, 1861 ; a. 23; k. at 

Williamsport, Md., June 6, 1863. 
Kluttz, W. Lawson. 

Knox, James G. ; en. April 7, 1862; a. 28. 
Mills, Woodson D. ; en. June 3, 1861 ; a. 40; k. Ox 

Hill, September i, 1862. 
Morgan, John G. ; en. August 20, 1862. 
Myers, John H. ; en. June 15, 1861 ; a. 19; k. at 

Frazier's Farm, June 30, 1862. 
Owens, Giles S. ; en. July 3, 1861 ; a. 22. 
Pennington, George B. ; en. June 4, 1861 ; a. 21 ; w. at 

Pennington, John. 
Phillips, D. V. 
Pinkston, T. R. 
Quillman, George. 
Reid, Calvin; d. of w. received at Battle of Jones' 

House, October, 1864. 
Reid, Jesse; drowned in Yadkin River in sight of his 

home, returning from Army of Northern Virginia 

after Lee's surrender. 
Reid, Milas. 
Ridenhour, A. H. 


Rimer, H. F. 

Robinson, S. W. 

Rowe, Peter. 

Rufty, Rufus . 

Stokes, W. C. ; d. of w. received at Sharpsburg, 

September 24, 1862. 
Swink, Edward. 
Turner, W. L. 
Watkins, L. 
Watson, Albert W. 
Wilkinson, John; en. August 10, 1861 ; a. 30; c. at 

Williamson, E. 
Wyatt, Thomas. 


Company F 


Leonard A. Henderson, 2d. Lt. ; en. May 16, 1861 ; a. 
19; pr. Capt. November, 1862; c. at Roanoke Island, 
February 8, 1862 ; k. while leading his Regiment in 
a charge at Cold Harbor, June i, 1864. 


Ashley, Wilburn; en. August 5, 1861 ; a. 19; w. se- 
verely at Roanoke Island, N. C, February 8, 1862. 

Bostian, Andrew; en. August 10, 1861 ; a. 36. 

Bostian, Wiley; en. July 20, 1861 ; a. 21; w. at Roa- 
noke Island, February 8, 1862. 


Rogers, A. J.; en. March 4, 1864; a. 17; enlisted on 

his own accord for forty years. 
Sloop, Luther; en. August 4, 1863; ^- i^- 

Company H 
Earnhardt, Crusoe; en. March 3, 1863. 
Ketchey, William R. ; detailed as Courier for General 

Kistler, G. C. ; en. June 2y, 1863. 
Patterson, J. E. ; k. at Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 1864. 
Patterson, S. G. ; en. September i, 1862; w. at Harri- 
son, Va., September 30, 1864. 

Company K 

Pinkney A. Kennerly, Capt. ; en. July 5, 1861 ; a. 38. 

William H. Howerton, ist. Lt. ; en. July 5, 1861 ; re- 

John J. Bell, 2d. Lt. ; en. July 5, 1861 ; a. 56; pr. to ist. 
Lt. ; w. at Roanoke Island ; resigned. 

WilHam M. Wilhelm, 2d. Lt. ; en. July 5, 1861 ; a. 33 ; 
pr. to 1st. Lt. October 15, 1862. 

Wilson W. Morgan, ist. Sgt. ; en. July 5, 1861 ; a. 32; 
d. while on sick furlough at Salisbury, N. C. 

Stephen A. Shuman, 2d. Sgt.; en. July 5, 1861 ; a. 16; 
pr. to ist. Sgt.; c. Cold Harbor, Va. 

John C. Moore, 3d. Sgt.; en. July 5, 1861 ; a. 26; 
resigned on own account ; c. at Cold Harbor, Va. 

S. T. Chafin, 4th. Sgt.; en. July 5, 1861 ; a. 22; h. d. 


Joseph E. Ide, 5th. Sgt. ; en. August i, 1861 ; a. 44; c. 

at Cold Harbor, May 31, 1864. 
Henry A. Kale, ist. Cor.; en. August 2, 1861 ; a. 27; 

resigned, on detached duty. 
William Rainey, 2d. Cor.; en. July 5, 1861 ; a. 25 ; tr. 

to Fifty-seventh Regiment, January 31, 1864. 
Philip Ivey Miller, 4th. Cor.; en. August 6, 1861 ; a. 

26; pr. to 2d. Lt. March, 1863; shot through right 

lung at Plymouth, N. C. ; k. at Fort Harrison, Va., 

September 30, 1864. 


Agner, H. C. ; en. August 2, 1861 ; a. 18; h. d. 
Agner, Lewis; en. September 4, 1862; a. 34; w. at 

Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 1864. 
Agner, William; en. July 15, 1861 ; a. 19; w. Bermuda 

Hundred, May 20, 1864; k. at Petersburg, August 

19, 1864. 
Barger, George A.; en. July 15, 1862; a. 17; c. Cold 

Harbor, May 31, 1864. 
Barger, George H.; en. December 17, 1862; a. 2^; d. 

in p. 
Barger, Jacob; en. August 23, 1861 ; a. 21 ; c. at Cold 

Harbor, May 31, 1861. 
Barger, Moses J.; en. August 28, 1861 ; a. 21 ; pr. 2d. 

Barker, Cicero R. ; en. August 12, 1861 ; a. 13; pr. 

Drum-Major of Regiment, 1863. 
Barnhardt, William A. ; w. at Drewry's Bluff, May 18, 



Barringer, David M. ; en. September 3, 1861 ; a. 16; k. 

in front, Newbern, N. C, February 2, 1864. 
Basinger, Andrew ; en. July 27, 1861 ; a. 20; pr. to Cor. ; 

c; d. in p. 
Basinger, John; en. August 28, 1861 ; a. 19; h. d. 
Bean, W. Hunter; en. September 14, 1862; a. 25; leg 

amputated at Bermuda Hundred, May 20, 1864. 
Boggs, Peter; en. August 10, 1861 ; a. 18; h. d. 
Brockman, John G. ; en. July 20, 1861 ; a. 51; w. at 

Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 1864; d. in hospital at 


Brothers, . 

Brown, Alike; en. December 17, 1862; a. 38; d. of d. 

April, 1863. 
Burriss, Solomon; w. at Drewry's Bluff, May 18, 

Cadwell, Jesse B. ; en. August i, 1861 ; a. 40; seriously 

w. at Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 1864. 
Canup, Benjamin F. ; en. April 14, 1863, d. in p. 
Canup, Milas A.; en. April 14, 1863; d. in p. 
Clark, James W. ; en. December 20, 1862; a. 18; c. 
Clark, John; d. in p. 

Colley, John T. ; en. September 2, 1861 ; a. 24; c. 
Colley, Samuel B. ; en. September 2, 1861 ; a. 20; pr. 

to Cor. ; w. at Battery W^agner, S. C. ; w. in two 

places at Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 1864. 
Cranford, Stephen J.; en. July 18, 1861 ; a. 46; h. d. 
Crotser, Joseph; en. July 3, 1862; a. 16; d. of d. Au- 
gust, 1863. 
Cruse, Rufus J.; en. July 18, 1861 ; a. 20; pr. to Cor.; 

c. ; d. in p. 


Deal, Charles A.; en. July 14, 1861 ; a. 28; k. at Plym- 
outh, N. C, April 20, 1864. 
Deal, Jacob A.; w. at Bermuda Hundred, yiay 20, 

Eagle, George; en. August 31, 1861 ; a. 20; d. of d. 

December, 1863. 
Etheridge, William; en. July 16, 1861 ; a. 36; w. at 

Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 1864. 
Farr, F. M. ; en. July 11, 1861 ; a. 20; disabled by 

wounds received at Battery Wagner, S. C. 
Gallimore, Roby; w. at Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 

Gates, Jesse C. ; w. twice at Plymouth, N. C., April 

20, 1864. 

Goodman, ; d. of d. 

Harkey, Paul R. ; en. July 15, 1861 ; a. 19; k. at Ber- 
muda Hundred, May 20, 1864. 
Hartman, W. F. ; en. September 5, 1861 ; a. 16; d. of d. 

March, 1862. 
Hess, Thomas; k. at Fort Harrison, Va., September 

30, 1864. 
Hoffman, M. C.; w at Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 

Holhouser, J. R. ; en. July 2y, 1861 ; a. 21 ; c. at Cold 

Harbor, May 31, 1864. 
Holhouser, Wiley M. ; en. August 6, 1861 ; a. 28; h. d. 
Holobough, George M. ; en. July 21, 1861 ; a. 19; c. at 

Cold Harbor, May 31, 1864. 
House, James H. ; en. July 14, 1862 ; a. 30; w. Drewry's 

Bluff, May 13, 1864. 


Jenkins, John W. ; en. July i6, 1861 ; a. 30 ; pr. to Cor. ; 
w. at Drewry's Bluff, May 13, 1864; w. and c. at 
Fort Harrison, Va., September 30, 1864. 

Johnson, Ransom; k. at Kinston, N. C, March 9, 

Kale, Pinkney C. ; c. 

Kestler, Cornelius; w. at Fort Harrison, Va., Septem- 
ber 30, 1864. 

Kestler, James H. ; en. July 22, 1861 ; a. 21 ; d. of d. 

Kestler, WiUiam A.; en. July 22, 1861 ; a. 19; w. at 
Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 1864; c. at Cold Harbor, 
May 31, 1864. 

Ketchney, John I. ; en. July 31, 1861 ; a. 22 ; k. at Plym- 
outh, N. C, April 20, 1864. 

Lanning, . 

Lefler, William M. ; en. July 25, 1861 ; a. 31 ; k. by a 
fall from railroad bridge at Salisbury, N. C, July, 

Lentz, John. 

Linebarrier, John M. ; en. August 12, 1861 ; a. 18; d. 
of d. 

Lineberrier, James; en. November 10, 1862; h. d. 

Lucas, John H.; en. July 11, 1861 ; a. 18; h. d. 

Lucas, John; en. November 8, 1861 ; a. 35; d. of d. 
November, 1861. 

Lyerly, Alex. M. ; en. December 11, 1863; a. 17; c. 

McGuire, Thomas; en. August 10, 1861 ; a. 21; w. at 
Bermuda Hundred, May 18, 1864. 

McKinley, ; d. of d. August 20, 1864. 

Melton, Wallace; en. July 6, 1861 ; a. 21; tr. 


Miller, Crawford A.; en. August 6, 1861 ; a. 21 ; d. of 

d. November, 1862. 
Miller, John Wilkes ; w. at Fort Harrison, September 

30, 1864; w. at Bentonville, N. C, March 19, 1865. 
Morgan, Abram; en. July 17, 1861 ; a. 28; w. at Plym- 
outh, N. C, April 20, 1864. 
Morgan, Ivey C. ; en. July 17, 1861 ; a. 21; pr. Cor.; 

w. seriously at Drewry's Bluff, May 13, 1864. 
Morgan, John C. ; w. at Fort Harrison, September 

30, 1864. 
Murph, John L. ; k. at Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 

Murph, J. R. ; en. July 13, 1861 ; a. 25 ; w. at Roanoke 

Island, February 8, 1862; w. at Bermuda Hundred, 

May 20, 1864; w. at Bentonville, N. C, March 20,. 

Newson, J. E. ; en. July 31, 1861 ; a. 23; c. three times. 
Peeler, Moses J.; en September 14, 1862; a. 20; d. of 

d. January, 1863. 
Plummer, Frank E. ; c. 
Plummer, William J.; en. November 22, 1861 ; a. 18; 

w. at Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 1864. 
Price, Thomas; en. September 6, 1861 ; a. 18. 
Propst, Henry M. ; en. September 14, 1862 ; a. 21 ; c. 
Propst, William D. ; en. September 14, 1862; a. 34; d. 

of d. at Wilmington, N. C, June, 1863. 
Rainey, John; k. at Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 1864. 
Rainey, WilHam ; en. August 2^, 1861 ; a. 24; tr. to^ 

Fourth Regiment, 1862. 


Reeves, Charles; en. November 10, 1862; a. 36; h. d. 

Riley, . 

Rimer, John L. ; en. July 6, 1861 ; a. 16; w. at Plym- 
outh, N. C, April 20, 1864. 

Rimer, Leonard; en. July 14, 1861 ; a. 40; h. d. 

Rimer, Milton F. ; en. November 17, 1861 ; a. 14; k. at 
Battery Wagner, S. C, August 31, 1863. 

Rowzee, Claudius W. ; en. August 2"], 1861 ; a. 25; 
pr. Hospital Steward in Navy. 

Rufty, James R. ; en. September 14, 1862; a. 22; de- 
tailed as miller. 

Sawyer, Robert W. ; en. September 6, 1861 ; a. 15; h. 
d., but remained on his own account and took a drum 
until large enough to handle a musket; w. through 
the hand at Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 1864, and 
pierced by four balls at Fort Harrison, Va., Septem- 
ber 30, 1864; d. in hands of the enemy. 

Sawyer, WiUiam R. ; en. July 6, 1861 ; a. 18; c. at 
Cold Harbor, June i, 1864. 

Seaford, W. M. ; en. July 31, 1861 ; a. 25; w. and re- 
fused to leave the field at Plymouth, N. C, April 
20, 1864, and k. the same day. 

Shaver, Abram; en. July 17, 1861 ; a. 21 ; d. in p. 

Shaver, Alex. ; en. July 26, 1861 ; a. 21 ; c. 

Sheppard, Daniel ; en. July 8, 1861 ; a. 23 ; d. in p. 

Shipton, Hiram; en. August 23, 1861 ; a. 17; tr. to 
Engineering Corps, June, 1863. 

Sloan, James T. ; en. July 6, 1861 ; a. 20; w. at Roa- 
noke Island, February 8, 1862. 


Spears, Josiah W. ; en. July 6, 1861 ; a. 27; d. of d. 
Stoner, Alfred; en. August 31, 1861 ; a. 18; d. of d. 

November, 1861. 
Swink, George R. ; en. July 13, 1861 ; a. 18; w. at 

Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. 
Swink, Leslie D. ; en. July 15, 1861 ; a. 18; w. and c. at 

Cold Harbor, June i, 1864; d. in p. 
Swink, Peter; leg amputated at Plymouth, N. C, April 

20, 1864. 
Swink, Peter R. ; en. July 15, 1861 ; a. 45; d. of d. at 

Richmond, Va., August 5, 1864. 
Taylor, D. C. S. ; c. 

Thompson. John; en. July 2"/, 1861 ; a. 43; h. d. 
Tries, Peter; c. 
Weant, Alex. W. 
White, James R. H. ; pr. Cor. ; c. 
Wormington, James; en. July 30, 1861 ; a. 22; w. at 

Sullivan's Island, S. C. ; d. in p. 
Wright, \\'illiam M.; en. July 24, 1861 ; a. 41 ; d. in p. 
Wyatt, Gilbert 1. ; en. July 6, 1861 ; a. 32; k. at Battery 

Wagner, S. C, August 28, 1863. 
Wyatt, James I. ; en. July 17, 1861 ; a. 22 ; d. of d. 
Wyatt, Wilson R. ; en. July 6, 1861 ; a. 32; d. of d. 

March, 1862. 

This entire Company with its Regiment was captured on 
Roanoke Island, N. C, February 8, 1862; retained as prisoners 
for two weeks and paroled; exchanged and reorganized at 
Raleigh, N. C, September, 1862; assigned to CHngman's 
Brigade, where it remained until its surrender with Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston's Army, at Greensboro, N. C, April 26, 


Company B 
John S. Henderson. 



Calvin S. Brown, Capt. 

Company K 
Smith, J. L. ; en. April 25, 1861 ; a. 21; pr. to Sgt. 
Forty-second Regiment. 


Company F 


Clomminger, Alonzo ; a. 22 ; k. at Chancellorsville, 

Va., May 3, 1863. 


Company B 


Bemister, Thomas; en. May i, 1861 ; a. 25; tr. to 

Company D, November 30, 1862. 


Company I 


Todd, Giles; d. of d., 1863. 

Fred C. Fisher; attached to Gen. W. H. F. Lee's 

A. H. Boyden; attached to Gen. R. F. Hoke's Staff. 

Company C 
Williamson, P.; en. July 15, 1862; a. 56. 

Benjamin F. Moore; appointed Adjt. April 26, 1862; 
w. at Mechanicsville, Va. 


Company A 


Bell, Robert O. B. ; en. April 20, 1861 ; a. 24; d. of d., 

at Sahsbury, N. C, August 5, 1863. 
Castor, Daniel; en. March 16, 1862; a. 35; d. of d. at 

Hanover Junction, Va., April 18, 1863. 
Correll, Adam M. ; en. June 7, 1861 ; a. 22. 
Deal, George H. ; en. June 7, 1862 ; a. 28. 
Fink, D. C; en. April 20, 1861 ; a. 27. 


Fink, Henry H. ; en. May 3, 1861 ; a. 21. 

Gordy, John W. ; en. 1862; a. 39; w. at Cold Harbor; 

k. at Chancellorsville, Va., May, 1863. 
Lingle, Alfred; en. Alarch 19, 1862; a. 25. 
Patterson, I. Frank; en. June 7, 1861 ; a. 18; arm 

amputated at Chancellorsville, Ya. 
Petchel, Jacob V.; en. June 7, 1861 ; a. 24; w. at ]\Ial- 

vern Hill. 
Wensil, Henry A.; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1861 ; a. 24; w. at 

Gettysburg, Pa. 

Company D 
Bringle, Nicholas; en. September 6, 1862; a. 42. 
CalHcut, Pascal; en. September 6, 1862; a. 23. 
Clifford, Branch G. ; en. September 6, 1862; a. 18. 
Edgerson, John; en. September 6, 1862; a. 28. 
Eller, Joshua; en. September 6, 1862; a. 28; w. at 

Eller, Moses; en. September 6, 1862; a. 34; sent to 

hospital September 17, 1862; missing. 
Eller, Richard E. ; en. September 6, 1862; a. 36; d. of 

d. at Winchester, Va., November, 1863. 
Eudy, William C. ; en. September 6, 1862; a. 19; d. of 

d. at Winchester, Va., April 2, 1863. 
File, Milas A. ; en. September 6, 1862 ; a. 33. 
Hill, Henry; en. September 6, 1862; a. 32. 
Lutrick, Alfred N. ; en. September 6, 1862; a. 28; d. 

of d. at Richmond, Va., July 6, 1862. 


Stirewalt, Frank A.; en. September 6, 1862; a. 32; w. 

at Chancellorsville. 
Stone, Charles W. ; en. September 6, 1862; a. 31. 
Misenheimer, M. R. ; en. September 6, 1862; a. 30. 

Company H 

Eller, Eli; en. September 3, 1862; d. of d. at Rich- 
mond, Va. 

Eller, James; en. September 3, 1862. 

Eller, Samuel; en. September 3, 1862; leg amputated 
at Gettysburg, Pa. 

Frick, John; en. September 4, 1862; k. at Gettysburg, 
July, 1863. 

Lemley, B. T. ; en. September 4, 1862. 

Lemley, D. A.; en. September 4, 1862. 

Vandervort, W. K. G. ; en. September 4, 1862; se- 
verely w. at Chancellorsville, Va. 

Wyatt, G. W.; en. August i, 1862. 

Wyatt, J. E.; en. September 4, 1862. 

Wyatt, W. W. ; en. September 4, 1862; k. at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., July, 1863. 

Company I 
Dickson, M. B.; en. September 23, 1862; a. 34. 


F. N. Luckey; en. September 25, 1861 ; Assistant Sur- 
geon; pr. to Surgeon, February, 1862. 

Company D 
Arey, G. W. ; en. March 15, 1862; a. 32; w. 
Canup, D. A. ; d. of d. 
Lyerly, Hartwell. 
Malt, Isaac C. ; d. of d. 
Malt, J. P. ; w. at Gettysburg. 
Miller, A. D. ; k. at Gettysburg. 
Parker, B. P. ; k. at Sharpsburg. 
Parker, John A. ; d. of d. 


Company K 


Dunn, George; en. July i, 1863 ; a. 43. 

Thompson, James; en. July i, 1863; a. 37; d. of d., at 

Morton's Ford, December 12, 1863. 
West, WiUiam; en. July i, 1863; a. 40. 

Company K 
McLaughlin, W. H. ; en. May 2";, 1863 ; a. 36. 



Company C 


Frank B. Craige, 2d. Lt.; en. February 20, 1864; a. 

18; pr. to 1st. Lt. July 28, 1864. 

Company G 
Miller, H. W. ; en. September 23, 1864; a. 38. 
Owens, W. F. ; en. September 23, 1864; a. 35. 


Company D 


William A. Houck, Capt. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 

35; pr. to Lt.-Col. on reorganization of Regiment; 

John Graham, 2d. Lt. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 37; 

pr. to I St. Lt. October 25, 1861 ; resigned. 
John P. Parks, Lt. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 27; pr. 

1st. Lt. April 18, 1862; k. below Richmond, June 

30, 1862. 
Robert S. Cowan, 2d. Sgt. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 

22] pr. to 2d. Lt. April 18, 1862; k. below Rich- 
mond, June 30, 1862. 
James Basinger, 3d. Sgt. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 

30; pr. to 2d. Lt. July 20, 1862; d. of w. received at 

Sharpsburg, September 18, 1862. 


P. A. Sloop, 4th. Sgt. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 21; 

severely w. at Chancellorsville. 
W. A. Kilpatrick, 5th. Sgt. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; 

a. 26; w. at Chancellorsville. 
C. K. McNeely, ist. Cor.; en. September g, 1861 ; a. 

25; pr. to Lt. July, 1862; pr. to Capt. September 

7, 1862. 
James B. Parker, 2d. Cor. ; en. September, 1861 ; a. 37. 
Edward Sloop, 3d. Cor. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 

34; d. of d. at Richmond, July 30, 1862. 


Atkinson, Thomas J.; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 21; 

pr. to Sgt. April, 1862; d. of d. 
Atwell, B. M. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 18; d. of w. 

received at Richmond. 
Atwell, George A.; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 18; pr. 

to Sgt.-Major February, 1863; pr. to Lt. Company 

E; pr. to Capt. August, 1863. 
Atwell, George L. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 17; d. 

of d. April 25, 1863, at Fredericksburg, Va. 
Baker, Henry. 
Barnhardt, Wiley. 
Barnhardt, William; k. at Petersburg, Va. 

Bostian, . 

Brown, Henry T. ; en. September 9, 1861. 
Clodfelter, John T. ; en. September g, 1861 ; a. 19; k. 

at Petersburg, Va. 
Corriher, Joel; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 25 ; w. 
Dancy, A. L. ; en. May 15, 1862; d. of d. September, 

1862, at Danville, Va. 


Davis, William ; d. of d. at High Point, N. C. 

Douglas, Augustus; d. of d. 

Douglas, Joseph A. 

Douglas, Samuel ; pr. to 3d. Lt. ; d. of d. 

Edmiston, A. H.; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 23; w. 

Eller, Green; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 29. 

Eller, Obadiah; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 21; pr. to 

Sgt. September i, 1863. 
Elliott, William F. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 19; d. 

of d. in hospital, October 24, 1862. 
Ellis, John W. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 20; pr. to 

Sgt. May 3, 1863. 
Foster, George; en. September g, 1861 ; a. 16. 
Freeland, James. 

Frieze, Miles W. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 19. 
Glover, James; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 17. 
Harrill, William; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 38; d. of 

w. received at Richmond. 
Hodgins, Martin ; leg amputated. 
Jamison, M. S. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 37. 
Kistler, T. H. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 20; pr. to 

Cor. July, 1863; w. at Manassas; d. of w. received 

at Culpeper Courthouse. 
Leazer, William A.; en. September 9, 1861. 
Lowder, Daniel R. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 18; arm 

amputated at Ox Hill. 
Lowrance, F. A.; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 18; pr. to 

Sgt.; k. at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863. 
Lowrance, J. C. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 20. 
McLaughlin, E. C. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 28; w. 


McLaughlin, J. H. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 30; w. 

at Ox Hill ; w. at Sheppardstown. 
McLaughlin, S. W. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 39. 
McNeely, James A.; en. May 15, 1863; a. 29; d. of d. 
McNeely, James K. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 35 ; pr. 

to Cor. ; pr. to Capt. 
McNeely, J. R. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 24; k. at 

Richmond, July 27, 1862. 
Martin, J. S. A.; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 18; d. of 

w. received at Mechanicsville. 
Miller, Franklin. 

Miller, J. A.; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 21 ; k. at Get- 
Miller, J. F. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 25 ; d. of d. 
Overcash, G. M. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 18; w. at 

Gettysburg; w. at Wilderness. 
Overcash, H. F. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 20; d. of d. 

July II, 1862, at Richmond. 
Overcash, H. J.; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 21. 
Overcash, H. W. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 23. 
Overcash, John J. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 27 ; d. of 

d. at High Point, N. C., August 28, 1861. 
Overcash, R. A.; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 19; pr. to 

Cor. ; w. 
Overcash, S. S.; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 20; d. of d. 

August, 1862. 
Parks, B. C. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 42. 
Pehel, Levi ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 41. 
Pickler, David; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 17; d. of w. 

received at Richmond. 


Seckler, John F.; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 40; d. of 

w. received at Richmond. 
Sloan, Junius J. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 25 ; d. of d. 

June, 1862, at Richmond. 
Stirewalt, J. F.; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 22. 
Torrence, Samuel ; d. of d. 
Voils, Jackson; d. of d. 
Waggoner, Frank. 
Weaver, John AI. 
Williford, James F. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 20; w. 

at Richmond. 
\\'imford, John A. ; en. September 9, 1861 ; a. 52. 

Company E 
Atwell, G. A.; en. July 29, 1863; pr. to 2d. Lt. 

Company I 
McLaughlin, J. H. ; en. May 6, 1863 ; a. 39. 


Company B 
James R. Crawford, Capt. 
A. B. Wright, ist Lt. 


Robert W. Price, 2d. Lt. ; w. above Richmond, Decem- 
ber 10, 1864. 

J. F. Dodson, Jr. 2d. Lt. 

J. Smith; en. March 10, 1863; 2d. Sgt. 

W. P. Shuford; en. January 17, 1862; 3d. Sgt. 

H. A. Harman; en. January 27, 1862; a. 26; 4th. Sgt.; 
w. at Chafin's Farm. 

R. C. Cobb; en. January 27, 1862; Cor. 


Beefie, W. F. ; en. January 27, 1862 ; a. 24; k. at Peters- 

Beeker, H. ; en. January 27, 1862; a. 22; pr. to 4th. 

Blackwelder, W. ; en. January 27, 1862. 

Boyden, A. H. ; det. as Courier for Maj.-Gen. R. F. 

Brown, H. ; en. January 27, 1862 ; d. at home. 

Burns, W. ; en. January 2y, 1862 ; w, at Kinston. 

Carper, W. C. ; en. January 2y, 1862. 

Cauble, Benjamin; en. January 27, 1862. 

Cauble, J. G. ; en. March 11, 1863. 

Cauble, Mike; en. January 27, 1862. 

Cauble, Samuel; en. January 2y, 1862. 

Clark, J. C. ; en. January 27, 1862; tr. to Thirteenth 

Clomlinger, ; en. January 27, 1862; tr. to Thir- 
teenth Regiment, Company K. 

Connell, J.; en. January 27, 1862; k. at Petersburg. 

Council, J.; en. January 27, 1862; k. at Petersburg. 

Correll, J.; en. January 27, 1862. 


Coughenour, Thomas A.; en. January 27, 1862; tr. 
to Regimental Band. 

Cowan, B. F. ; en. January 27, 1862; w. at Petersburg. 

Daniel, W. ; en. January 2^, 1862; k. at Bermuda 

Daniel, W. J. 

Dillard, J. ; en. January 2"], 1862. 

Dolin, A.; en. January 2^, 1862; w. at Blackwater. 

Doy, Daniel. 

Dry, D. ; en. January 2j, 1862. 

Eagle, P.; en. January 2^, 1862; w. at Petersburg. 

Eagle, W. ; en. January 27, 1862. 

Exum, J. W. ; en. January 27, 1862; k. at Cold Har- 
bor, May 30, 1864. 

Fesperman, George; en. January 2"], 1862; d. at home, 

Fink, M.; en. January 27, 1862. 

Fry, J. P.; en. January 27, 1862; w. at Petersburg. 

Hambry, R. C. ; en. January 2^, 1862; w. at Kinston. 

Hess, George; en. January 27, 1862. 

Hess, Levi; en. January 27, 1862. 

House, D. ; en. January 2"/, 1862. 

House, John; en. January 27, 1862. 

House, Thomas; en. January 2"/, 1862; k. at Cold 

House, W. ; en. January 27, 1862; w. at Bermuda 

Hunt, Jason; en. January 27, 1862. 

Isenhour, J., Sr. ; en. January 27, 1762. 

Isenhour, J., Jr. ; en. January 27, 1862 ; w. at Peters- 


Kerr, John; en. January 27, 1862; d. at Tarboro. 
Kestler, H. A.; en. March 10, 1863; k. at Cold Har- 
Kestler, William H. ; w. at Bermuda Hundred. 
Kiser, J.; en. January 27, 1862; w. 
Knox, B. ; en. January 27, 1862. 

Knox, T. ; en. January 2"], 1862 ; k. at Sheppardsville. 
Love, W. H. ; pr. Drum-Major of Regiment. 

McGhee, ; en. January 27, 1862. 

Martin, John; en. March 10, 1863; k. at Petersburg. 

Miller, E. ; en. January 27, 1862; w. at Richmond. 

Mills, N. N.; en. January 28, 1862. 

Mills, C. ; en. January 2'j, 1862. 

Montgomery, James. 

Moore, A. C. ; en. January 27, 1862; k. at Petersburg. 

Moore, J.; en. January 2'], 1862; d. at home. 

Moore, S. J.; en. January 2^], 1862. 

Munroe, Peter. 

Overcash, Allison. 

Parnell, W. ; en. January 2'j, 1862. 

Pennington, David. 

Phifer, D. ; en. January 27, 1862; w. at Kinston. 

Phifer, W. ; en. January 27, 1862. 

Phillips, C. ; en. January 27, 1862. 

Pig, Hugh; en. January 27, 1862; w. at Petersburg. 

Pig, Ris; en. January 27, 1862. 

Reese, C. ; en. January 2y, 1862. 

Reese, W. ; en. January 2^, 1862. 

Richie, M. ; en. January 2^, 1862; k. at Kinston. 

Ruff, J. C. ; en. January 27, 1862. 


Rumple, W. ; en. January 2^, 1862; w. at Richmond, 

December 10^ 1864. 
Sanders, \V. ; en. January 27, 1862. 
Sharp, R. ; en. March 10, 1863. 
Shuford, A. L. ; en. January 27, 1862 ; pr. to Ord. Sgt. ; 

w. at Petersburg. 
Sipe, J.; en. January 27, 1862; k. at Kinston. 
Smith, Theodore; en. January 2'], 1862; w. at Cold 

Stillerell, L. ; en. March 10, 1863; k. at Petersburg. 
Stillwell, L. ; en. January 2y, 1862. 
Stoner, W. ; en. March 10, 1863; w. at Kinston. 
Taylor, L. ; en. January 2^, 1862. 
Thompson, S. ; en. January 2^, 1862; d. in Camp. 
Trexler, B. C. ; en. January 2^, 1862. 
Tucker, Daniel; en. January 27, 1862. 
Tucker, J.; en. January 2'], 1862. 
Wade, J.; en. January 2"], 1862. 
Walton, Allen. 
Walton, L. W. ; en. March 10, 1863; tr. to Regimental 

Walton, R. ; en. January 2^, 1862; d. at Richmond. 

Company C 

Black, John; en. ^larch 18, 1862; a. 42; w. at Peters- 

Black, Thomas; en. March i, 1864; a. 18; d. of d. 
October i, 1864. 

552 history of rowan county 

Company D 
Joseph M. Roark, Capt. ; en. February 28, 1862; a. 

Robert R. Crawford, ist. Lt. ; en. February 28, 1862; 

a. 22; pr. Capt. November 25, 1862. 
Leonidas W. Crawford, 2d. Lt. ; en. February 28, 

1862; a. 21 ; pr. to ist. Lt. ; c. at Cold Harbor, June 

3, 1864. 
Edward A. Rusher, 2d. Lt. ; en. February 28, 1862; 

a. 30; k. at Petersburg. 


Aldmand, Archibald; en. March 15, 1862; a. 23. 

Barringer, Henry; en. March 24, 1862; a. 23; k. 

Basinger, Henry; en. March 11, 1862; a. 45; w. se- 

Basinger, John G. ; en. March 11, 1862; a. 28. 

Boyer, Moses; en. March 24, 1862; a. 22; c. at Cold 

Bradshaw, Levi ; en. March 20, 1862 ; a. 54. 

Casper, Munroe; en. March 15, 1862; a. 21. 

Davis, Martin; en. March 24, 1862; a. 41. 

EUer, Cornelius; en. March 24, 1862; a. 28; d. in 
hospital, December 25, 1862. 

Eller, David ; en. March 24, 1862 ; a. 28. 

Eller, Tobias; en. March 24, 1862; a. 30. 

Fulenwider, John; en. March 18, 1862; a. 35. 

Hess, Caleb A. ; en. March 22, 1862 ; a. 19. 

Hess, William; en. March 22, 1862; a. 30. 


Hoffman, Henry; en. :\Iarch 22, 1862; a. 19. 
Holhouser, Jeremiah; en. March i, 1862; a. 18. 
Kestler, George B. ; en. March 18, 1862; a. 25. 
Kluttz, Levi; en. March 18, 1862; a. 36; d. of d. 

]March 10, 1863. 
Koon, Richard M. ; en. March 18, 1862; a. 18. 
Loftin, Lindsay; en. :\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 36. 
Morris, James; en. March 17, 1862; a. 39. 
Pinkston, George \V. ; en. March 18, 1862; a. 62. 
Pinkston, Matthew L. ; en. March 18, 1862; a. 35. 
Rainey, Isaac A.; en. March 18, 1862; a. 34; c. at 

Cold Harbor; d. in p. 
Sheets, John; en. March 17, 1862; a. 36; d. in hospital, 

April 26, 1863. 
Shields, Joseph P.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 35. 
Smith, Michael; en. March 4, 1862; a. 29. 
Trexler, Henry A. ; en :\Iarch 18, 1862 ; a. 21. 
Troutman, W. G. ; en. March 18, 1862; a. 18; w. at 

Butler's Tower. 
Waller, Jesse; en. March 4, 1862; a. 49. 
Wilhelm, William A.; en. March 4, 1862; a. 22. 

Company G 

James A. Blackwelder, Capt. ; en. i\Iarch 15, 1862; 

a. 40. 
Augustus Leazer, ist. Lt. ; en. March 15, 1862; a. 19. 
Henry W. A. Miller, 2d. Lt. ; en. July i, 1861 ; a. 21; 

pr. from private in Company G, Sixth Regiment; 

w. twice. 


William L. Atwell, 2d. Lt. ; en. July 2, 1861 ; a. 30; 

resigned August 8, 1862; re-enlisted as private, 

IMarch 15, 1864; d. of d. August 3, 1864. 
Charles A. Miller, 2d. Lt. ; en. ]\Iay 5, 1862 ; w. se- 
verely at Petersburg. 
David A. Atwell, ist. Sgt. ; en. April 11, 1862; a. 19; 

tr. from Company B. 
John A. Hess, 2d. Sgt.; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 2^. 
David ^I. Cooper, 3d. Sgt.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 29. 
Jacob J. Bostian, 4th. Sgt. ; en March 19, 1862 ; a. 47. 
William W. Graham, 5th. Sgt.; en. March 17, 1862; 

a. 23; k. at Petersburg, July 30, 1864. 
Alphonzo L. Atwell, ist. Cor.; en. ]\Iarch 29, 1861 ; 

a. 21. 
John C. Leazer, 2d. Cor.; en. ]\Iarch 29, 1862; a. 21. 
John W. Rumple, 2d. Cor. ; en. ]\Iarch 29, 1862 ; tr. to 

Regimental Band. 
James F. Rumple, 3d. Cor.; en. March 29, 1862; a. 30. 
John C. Wilhelm, 4th. Cor.; en. March 29, 1862; a. 

21 ; pr. to 1st. Cor. 
Jesse H. xA.lbright. Musician; en. March 15, 1861 ; a. 

28; d. of d. at Weldon, N. C, March, 1863. 
George A. Cooper, ^Musician ; en. March 17, 1862; 

a. 18. 


Allman, Xelson ; en. ]\Iay 30, 1862; a. 17. 
Atwell, James A.; en. I\Iay 19, 1862; a. 46. 
Atwell, John C. ; en. ]\Iay 17, 1862; a. 21; d. of d. at 

Lynchburg, \'a., August 15, 1862. 
Atwell, Joseph E. ; en. January i, 1864; a. 18. 


Atwell, O. W. ; en. May 19, 1862; a. 2"]. 
Atwell, William A. ; en. January 10, 1863 ; a. 16. 
Baker, John M. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 21. 
Blackwelder, Henry C. ; en. March 24, 1862; a. 18. 
Blackwelder, S. T. ; en. May 15, 1862; a. 16. 
Brandy, William W. ; en. April 25, 1862; a. 30; pr. 

to Cor. ; pr. to Sgt. 
Beaver, George F. S. ; en. May 5, 1862; a. 22. 
Beaver, Jacob H.; en. November 6, 1862; a. 18; k. 

near Fort Fisher, N. C, December, 1864. 
Beaver, Levi A.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 32. 
Bostian, Andrew; en. March 19, 1862; a. 37. 
Bostian, Jacob J.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 20; k. March 

10, 1865. 
Bostian, James M. ; en. June 6, 1862; a. 17. 
Bostian, John M. ; en. October 8, 1862; a. 18. 
Bostian, William AL; en. March 19, 1862; a. 21. 
Brown, George A.; en. March 22, 1862; a. 22. 
Brown, James L. ; en. May 5, 1862; a. 18. 
Brown, John M. ; en. March 22, 1862; a. 20. 
Brown, Joseph, en. March 27, 1862; a. 24. 
Brown, Laurence; en. August 25, 1863; a. 18. 
Brown, William L. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 26. 
Cleaver, Daniel M. ; en. March 27, 1862; a. 16. 
Coburn, James; en. March 19, 1863; a. 47. 
Cooper, G. A. 
Cooper, Joseph E.; en. March 3, 1864; a. 18; k. at 

Petersburg, July 10, 1864. 
Correll, Daniel; en. March 19, 1862; a. 42. 
Corriher, Henry C. ; en. March 19, 1863 ; a. 22 ; pr. to 



Corriher, James F. ; en. March 19, 1863; a. 19; pr. to 

Corriher, Thomas W. ; en. -March 19, 1862 ; a. 22. 
Deal, Alex. ; en. March 19, 1862 ; a. 33. 
Deal, David; en. March 19, 1862; a. 32. 
Deal, FrankHn W. ; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 28; d. of 

w. received at Petersburg, July 30, 1864. 
Deal, Jacob, Sr. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 49. 
Deal, Jacob, Jr.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 25; d. of d. 

Deal, John A.; en. December 24, 1862; a. 18; k. Octo- 
ber 9, 1863, by accident on W. & W. Railroad. 
Deal, John L. ; en. April 10, 1863 ; a. 37. 
Deal, Samuel; en. March 19, 1862; a. 30. 
Deal, W. A.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 33. 
Deal, WilHam E. ; en. May i, 1862; a. 31. 
Felcher, Archibald W. ; en. February 2, 1863 ; a. 37. 
Fesperman, Frederick; d. of d. at Lynchburg, Va., 

Fesperman, John A.; en. September 14, 1863; a. 18. 
Fesperman, John M. ; en. ]\Iarch, 1862; a. 18; d. of d. 

at Lynchburg, June 28, 1862. 
Fonts, James S. ; en. November 3, 1862; a. 18; d. July 

24, 1864, of w. received at Petersburg. 
Fouts, John D. ; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 20. 
Fonts, William H. ; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 21; pr. to 

Freeland, William R. ; en. December 24, 1862 ; a. 18. 
Freeze, Caleb M. ; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 28. 
Freeze, Henry E. ; en. ]\larch 19, 1862; a. 30. 
Freeze, Ivel J.; en. March 21, 1862; a. 24. 


Garver, L. B.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 19. 

Hampton, David A.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 20. 

Hampton, John W. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 22. 

Karriker, Jacob L. ; en. May, 1863; a. 32; k. June 18, 
1864, at Petersburg. 

Karriker, Jacob P.; en. March 17, 1862; a. 19; k. June 
18, 1864, at Petersburg. 

Karriker, John A.; en. March 3, 1864; a. 18. 

Karriker, William A.; en. March 17, 1862; a. 21. 

Kluttz, Alex.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 25; d. of d. at 
Richmond, August 25, 1864. 

Kluttz, Jesse A.; en. August 25, 1863; a. 18. 

Lawrence, David A. ; en. August 14, 1863 : a. 18. 

Leazer, David M.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 28. 

Leazer, James W. ; en. May 12, 1862; a. 37. 

Leazer, Wilham F. ; en. March ig, 1862; a. 21; d. 
September 21, of w. received at Petersburg. 

Leazer, William H. ; en. May i, 1862 ; a. 26 ; k. at New- 
port Barracks, February 2, 1864. 

Lipe, E. J.; en. April 10, 1863; a. 26. 

Lipe, Jacob S.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 25; pr. to Cor. 

Lipe, WilHam A. ; en. July 8, 1862 ; a. 28; w. at Peters- 
burg twice. 

Lippard, John T. ; en. May, 1862; a. 25. 

Litaker, Wilham R. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 38. 

Lynch, Andrew J.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 32; d. of 
d. July 13, 1864, at Petersburg. 

Martin, Levi A. C. ; en. August 17, 1862; a. 18. 

Miller, Andrew A.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 19. 

Miller, John D. ; en. August 14, 1863; a. 18. 


Miller, Samuel A.; en. July 27, 1863; a. 18; d. of d. 

at Goldsboro, X. C, October 10, 1864. 
Overcash, George F. ; en. August 14, 1863; a. 18. 
Overcash, Samuel; en. IMarch 19, 1862; a. 2']. 
Overcash, Solomon W. ; en. May 10, 1862; a. 28. 
Pechel, A. J.; en. October 17, 1863; a. 18. 
Pechel, F. ]\I. ; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 37; d. of d. at 

Petersburg, September, 1862. 
Pechel, John; en. March 19, 1862; a. 45. 
Pechel, Solomon; en. I\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 35. 
Rhimer, Thomas H.; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 24. 
Richey, John D. ; en. ]\Iarch 3, 1864; a. 18. 
Richey, John R. ; en. March 3, 1864; a. 18 
Ridding, Rufus M. ; en. February 20, 1863; a. 37; d. 

of d. at Goldsboro, N. C.,, July 31, 1863. 
Rogers, George R. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 34. 
Rogers, Jeremiah ; en. March 19, 1862 ; a. 20. 
Rose, John A.; en. April 24, 1862; a. 29; severely w. 

at Petersburg. 
Sechler, James P.; en. ]\Iarch 22, 1862; a. 33; se- 
verely w. at Petersburg, July 8, 1864. 
Shulinbarger, J. L. ; en. August 14, 1863; a. 19. 
Shuping, Absalom A.; en. April 2, 1862; a. 28; d. of 

d. August 13, 1864, at Petersburg. 
Shuping, Andrew F. ; en. April 5, 1862; a. 22. 
Sloop, Henry O., Sr. ; en. March 19, 1862 ; a. 32. 
Sloop, Henry O., Jr.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 18; w. at 

Smith, Henry C.; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 19. 
Smith, John W. ; en. Alarch 19, 1862; a. 33. 
Smith, Joseph \\'. ; en. July 27, 1863 ; a. 18. 


Smith, Samuel; en. March 19, 1862; a. 32; d. of d. at 

Kinston, X. C, September 14, 1863. 
Smith, Thomas H. ; en. March ig, 1862 ; a. 32. 
Upright, W'ilHam ; en. April 2, 1862 ; a. 32. 
Walcher, James L. ; en. ^larch 19, 1862; a. 20. 
Yost, F. ^I. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 30; d. of d. ^lay, 

1862, at Salisbury, N. C. 


Company K 


M. B. Hemphill, 4th. Cor.; en. ]\Iay 10, 1862; a. 26; 

pr. to 2d. Cor. 


Company A 


Buchanan, John; en. April 15, 1863; a. 39. 

Cole, J. \y.; en. April 15, 1863; a. 19; k. at Peters- 

Davis, James; en. April 23, 1863; a. 40. 

Glover, Charles; en. April 15, 1863; a. 32. 

Glover, R. J.; en. April 15, 1863; a. 20. 

Goodman, Christopher; en. April 15, 1863; a. 38; d. 
of d. at home. 

Hill, J. L. ; en. April 15, 1863; a. 39; k. at \\'ilder- 

Hodge, Richard; en. April 15, 1863; a. 39; c. at 
Petersburg, ^larch, 1865. 


Leonard, William; en. April 15, 1863; a. 39. 
Mahaley, Charles; en. April 15, 1863; a. 37. 
Mahaley, Lawrence; en. April 15, 1863; a. 38. 
Mesimor, Bedford; en. April 15, 1863; a. 36. 
Overcash, Alex. ; en. April 18, 1863 ; a. 30. 
Overcash, J. J.; en. April 18, 1863; a. 37. 
Overcash, J. W. ; en, April 15, 1863; a. 35. 
Penninger, Paul; en. April 30, 1863; c. 
Rhymer, D. A.; en. April 15, 1863; a. 37. 
Ritchie, John; en. April 15, 1863; a. 36; w. 
Sides, Levi; en. April 15, 1863; a. 37; c. 
Summers, James; en. April 15, 1863. 
Ward, B. F. ; en. April 15, 1863; a. 34. 
Wyatt, R. H. ; en. April 15, 1863; a. 28; w. at Wilder- 



William L. Saunders, Capt. ; a. 26; pr. to !Major Octo- 
ber I, 1862; pr. to Lt.-Col. January i, 1863; pr. 
to Col. January i, 1864; w. at Fredericksburg. 

Nathan N. Fleming, ist. Lt. ; en. April 3, 1862; a. 36; 
pr. to Capt. October i, 1862; w. at Sharpsburg; k. 
May 5, 1864, at Wilderness. 

George Horah, 2d. Lt. ; a. 20; pr. ist. Lt. ^larch 20, 
1863 5 k. May 5, 1864. 

William B. A. Lowrance, ist. Sgt. ; en. May 19, 1862; 
a. 20; pr. 2d. Lt. October 7, 1862 ; was in Old Bethel 


John J. Stewart, 2d. Sgt. ; en. May 19, 1862; a. 23; pr. 

to 1st. Sgt. October 7, 1862; pr. to 2d. Lt. April 

6, 1863. 
Jacob Kluttz, 3d. Sgt.; en. May 19, 1862; a. 36; pr. 

to 2d. Sgt.; pr. to ist. Sgt. 
L. G. Holhouser, 4th. Sgt.; en. February 13, 1862; a. 

24; pr. 3d. Sgt.; pr. 2d. Sgt. 
John F. Agner, 5th. Sgt.; en. May 19, 1862; a. 29; 

arm amputated at Wilderness. 
Charles G. Harryman, ist. Cor.; en. December 20, 

1862 ; a. 33 ; pr. 4th. Sgt. ; pr. 3d. Sgt. ; w. at Wilder- 
Benjamin Holhouser, 2d. Cor.; en. February 29, 1862; 

a. 23 ; pr. to 5th. Sgt. ; d. of d. November 17, 1862. 
A. Calib Basinger, 3d. Cor.; en. May 19, 1862; a. 34; 

pr. ist. Cor.; pr. 5th. Sgt. 


Barger, A.; en. April 13, 1862; a. 40. 

Barringer, A. M. ; en. April 13, 1863; a. 37; w. 

Basinger, Eli. 

Basinger, George; en. March 19, 1862; a. 44; d. of w. 

received at Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
Basinger, Joe; en. February 15, 1862; a. 17; d. of w. 
Basinger, Munroe; en. April 13, 1863; a. 39. 
Beaver, Jesse, en. March 19, 1862; a. 35. 
Beaver, John P.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 25; k. at 

Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
Bost, John J.; en. ]\Iarch 22, 1862; a. 20; missing 

since September 7, 1862. 
Bost, Moses A. 


Best, W. H.; en. March 18, 1862; a. 19. 

Brandon, R. A. 

Brown, John D. A.; en. March 20, 1862; a. 23. 

Canup, David S.; en. IMarch 19, 1862; a. 28. 

Canup, John; en. March 19, 1862; a. 18; d. of d. at 
home, November 24, 1862. 

Canup, Wiley. 

Chandler, David; en. April 8, 1862; a. 37. 

Crawford, P. C. ; en. April 7, 1862; a. 24. 

Dunn, William; en. March 20, 1862; a. 30; c. 

Earnhardt, Eli; en. February 19, 1862; a. 23; d. of d. 
at Petersburg, June 30, 1862. 

Eagle, David; en. March 19, 1862; a. 35. 

Frieze, David. 

Gardner, James; en. April 13, 1862; a. 38. 

Goodman, George; en. March 15, 1862; a. 30. 

Grady, James; en. March i, 1862; a. 40; d. at Drew- 
ry's Bluff, January 16, 1862. 

Grady, William; en. April i, 1862; a. 18. 

Guhn, Abner H. ; en. March 15, 1862; a. 30. 

Guhn, Milas; en. April 13, 1863; a. 40; d. of d. Febru- 
ary, 1865. 

Harkey, Christopher; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 50; h. d. 

Heilig, Green. 

Holhouser, A. M. 

Holhouser, F. M. 

Holhouser, James; en. April 13, 1863; a. 37. 

Holhouser, J. R. ; en. IMarch 26, 1862; a. 26; d. of d. 
IMarch 2, 1863. 

Holhouser, Paul. 


Holhouser, W. P.; en. May 6, 1862; a. 19; d. of d. 

June 4, 1862. 
Honbarger, Eli; en. April 13, 1863; a. 26. 
Honbarger, Jacob; en. April 13, 1863; a. 18. 
Horah, Rowan; en. March 13, 1862; a. 24; h. d. 
Hurley, James O. ; en. March 15, 1862; a. 22. 
Johnson, WiUiam ; en. April 13, 1863; a. 28; d. of d. 


Kluttz, Jeremiah; en. April 13, 1863; a. 22. 

Kluttz, Tobias; en. March 19, 1862; a. 36; k. at 

Linn, Thomas I. 
Lyerly, Jesse. 
Lyerly, Martin; d. of d. 
Mahew, Newton; en. May 19, 1862; arm amputated at 

Miller, A. W. ; en. April 13, 1863; a. 34. 
Miller, Daniel; k. 

Miller, David; en. May 13, 1862; a. 38; d. of d. 
Miller, John; en. April 13, 1863; a. 40. 
Miller, John D. 

Miller, John Eli; en. March 19, 1862; a. 36. 
Miller, Levi; en. April 13, 1863; a. 36. 
Misenheimer, C. A.; en. April 13, 1863; a. 36. 
Newman, James A.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 25; d. of 

d. at Drewry's Blufif, June 20, 1862. 
Newman, J. P.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 23; d. of d. at 

Goldsboro, N. C, June 7, 1863. 
Owens, H. C. ; en. April 22, 1862; a. 20; w. in three 

Parks, D. ]\L ; en. April 13, 1863; a. 30. 


Peeler, Munroe; en. March 19, 1863; a. 33; d. of d. 
Penninger, Tobias; en. March 19, 1862; a. 36. 
Phipps, A. A.; en. April 13, 1863; a. 36; h. d. 
Pigg, Hugh; en. ^larch 22, 1863; a. 17. 
Pless, John L. A.; en. April 13, 1863; a. 18; k, at 

Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
Powlas, Moses C. ; en. March 19, 1863; a. 18; k. at 

Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
Propst, Valentine. 

Rimer, David; en. April 13, 1863; a. 38; d. of d. 
Rogers, William. 

Rumple, P. A.; en. April 13, 1863; k. 
Seaford, Eli ; k. 
Seaford, Henry. 

Shuping, Mike; en. April 13. 1863; a. 21. 
Sides, R. A.; en. April 13, 1863; a. 22. 
Sloop, Abram; en. April 13, 1863; a. 36; w. at South 

Anna Bridge. 
Stiller, WilHam; en. March 19, 1863; a. 24. 
Trexler, Adam; k. at Hatcher's Run, 1865. 
Trexler, Rufus, en. ^larch 11, 1863; a. 22\ w. at 

South Anna Bridge. 
Waggoner, C. A.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 23. 
Waller, Frederick; en. April 13, 1863; a. 38. 
Waller, George; en. April 13, 1863; a. 36; d. of d. 

Waller, Jacob, en. March 19, 1862; a. 35. 
Waller, John; en. IMarch 11, 1862; a. 36; d. of d. 

W^alton, B. T. ; en. April 13, 1863; a. 40; d. of d. 

September 22, 1863. 


Weaver, George M. ; en. April 13, 1863 ; a. 38. 
West, Thomas W. ; en. ]\Iarch 31, 1862; a. 36. 
Wilhelm, W. L. ; en. April 13, 1863; a. 37. 
Williams, ^M. ; en. April 13, 1863; a. 38; d. of d. 
Wise, Benjamin; en. March 18, 1862; a. 23; k. at 

Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
^^'^ise, Pleasant. 
Woods, J. B.; en. April 13, 1863; a. 40; d. of d. at 

Lynchburg, 1863. 
Wyatt, R. R. 
Wyatt, \Vilson M. J.; en. March 15, 1862; a. 20. 


Company H 


Elliot, S. L. ; en. October 17, 1862; a. 18. 

Frieze, Jacob; en. October 17, 1862; a. 38; w. at Get- 

Shuford, F. ; en. October ly, 1862; a. 25; d. of d. 
November, 1863. 


Company A 


Thomas J. \\'itherspoon, ist. Lt. ; en. May, 1861 ; a. 
22; k. at Sharpsburg, September 17, 1862. 

566 history of rowan county 

Company C 
Elliott, W. A.; en. Alarch 19, 1862; w. 


Company C 


P. B. Chambers, Capt. ; pr. to ]\Iajor; resigned. 
Henry A. Chambers ; pr. to Capt. from Fourth Regi- 
Giles Bowers, ist. Lt. ; en. Alarch 13, 1862; a. 41. 
Charles C. Krider, 2d. Lt. ; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1862 ; a. 27 ; 

leg amputated at Petersburg, March 25, 1865. 
James T. Ray, ist. Sgt. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 26. 
A. F. Ludwick, 2d. Sgt.; en. j\Iarch 18, 1862; a. 32; 

d. of d. May 14, 1862. 
Thomas F. Robinson, 3d. Sgt.; en. Alarch 19, 1862; 

a. 31. 
M. A. Noah, 4th. Sgt.; en. March 24, 1862; a. 23; k. 

at Malvern Hill, July i, 1862. 
Munroe Barger, 5th. Sgt.; en. IMarch 19, 1862; a. 33. 
F. H. Mauney, ist. Cor.; en. April 9, 1862: a. 16; w. 

at Petersburg and ^^'eldon Railroad. 
James F. Watson, 2d. Cor.; en. ]\Iarch 19, 1862; a. 

22; d. of d. July 10, 1862. 
Simeon W. Hatley, 3d. Cor.; en. ]March 18, 1862; a. 

26; d. of d. July 2, 1862. 
Julius A. Lylerly, 4th. Cor.; en. ]^Iarch 19, 1862; tr. 

to Petersburg and \\'eldon Railroad. 



Albright, George; en. September 24, 1863; a. 40. 

Albright, Mike. 

Bailey, Daniel; en. March 18, 1862; a. 37. 

Barber, John R. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 24; d. of d. 

Barger, Jacob A.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 26. 

Beeker, Philip S. ; en. ]\Iarch 18, 1862; a. 32; d. of d. 

at Front Royal, November 20, 1862. 
Benson, Samuel; en. March 18, 1862; a. 25; w. at 

Bermuda Hundred, May 20, 1864. 
Bunn, J. C. ; en. March 18, 1862; a. 31. 
Chambers, R. M.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 22; d. of d. 

April 23, 1863. 
Cole, James B. ; en. March 24, 1862; a. 19; w. at 

Cook, Thomas M. ; en. ^larch 19, 1862; a. 34; k. at 

Cress, Lawson; en, September 23, 1863; a. 21 ; k. at 

Drewry's Bluff, May 16, 1864. 
Daniel, Wiley B. ; en. March 18, 1862; a. 24; k. at 

Drewry's Bluff, May 16, 1864. 
Earnhardt, Moses G. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 26. 
Elliot, JuHus A.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 23. 
Felker, William; en. March ig, 1862; k. at Drewry's 

Bluff, May 16, 1864. 

Finch, ; d. of d. 

Frieze, Jacob; en. ^larch 19, 1862; a. 24; k. at Peters- 

GalHmore, W. B. ; en. July 7, 1862; a, 17; k. at Sharps- 
burg, September 16, 1862. 


Geisler, John; en. March 15, 1862; a. 40; pr. to 2d. 

Sgt. ; k. at Weldon Railroad. 
Gillean, John N. ; en. July 7, 1862; a. 29; d. of d. 

November, 1862. 
Graham, H. C.; en. April 12, 1862; a. 18; d. of d. 

October 11, 1862. 
Graham, Joseph C.; en. September 23, 1863; a. 40. 
Graham, Richard S. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 25; d. of 

d. August 15, 1862. 
Hall, Thomas F. ; en. April 29, 1862 ; a. 30. 
Harkey, Milas ; en. March 24, 1862; a. 21; w. at 

Harrison, B. A.; en. March 25, 1862; a. 39; h. d. 
Hartman, John B. ; en. March 22, 1862; a. 21. 
Henly, John D. ; en. April 4, 1862; a. 49. 
Hill, WiUiam J.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 45; k. at 

Hoffman, Atlas ; en. March 19, 1862 ; a. 22 ; d. of d. 

May 23, 1862. 
Holhouser, John; en. March 19, 1862; a. 19; d. of d. 

May 10, 1862. 
Johnson, W^illiam ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 21. 

Jordan, ; k. at Petersburg. 

Kern, Daniel; en. March 21, 1862; a. 21. 
Ketchey, Noah. 
Lentz, Caleb. 

Lentz, EH C. ; en. March 22, 1862 ; a. 25. 
Link, James M. ; en. March 22, 1862; a. 28. 
Lyerly, Alex. ; Regimental Colorbearer. 
Lyerly, Isaac; en. July 7, 1862; a. 24. 
McCandless, D. A. ; en. September 9, 1863 ; a. 18. 


McCandless, James. 

McCarn, George W. ; en. March 18, 1862; a. 20; w. at 

Malvern Hill. 
Mask, Marion; en. IMarch 19, 1862; a. 28; k. at 

Menis, Andrew; en. September 23, 1863; a. 49. 
Menis, James F. ; en. March 9, 1862; a. 22; d. of d. 

December, 1862. 
Mesamor, George W. ; en. March 20, 1862; a. 19. 
Miller, Alex. M. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 33. 
Miller, James; en. September 23, 1863; a. 36; d. of d. 
Nash, Abraham; en. March 15, 1862; a. 34. 
Nash, Wylie A.; en. April 15, 1862; a. 32. 
Plummer, Matthew; en. March 19, 1862; a. 24. 
Powlas, Jesse. 

Ratts, B. R. ; en. September 23, 1863; a. 44. 
Rice, Joseph A.; en. April 18, 1863; a. 22; d. of d. 
Rice, William G. ; en. September 16, 1863 ; a. 18. 
Ritchie, George M. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 32; k. at 

Robinson, James H. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 28; w. at 

Rogers, Henry H. ; en. September 23, 1863; a. 18. 
Shaver, Alvin W. ; pr. to Cor. 
Shuping, Andrew. 
Sides, Ransom; en. March 18, 1862; a. 31; k. at 

Skeen, Jesse; en. March 18, 1862; a. 29. 
Smith, John C.; en. May 11, 1862; a. 18; d. of d. 

March 26, 1862. 


Stikeleather, John McC. ; en. September 23, 1863; 

a. 22. 
Stone, R. A.; en. March 24, 1862; a. 24; pr. to Cor. 
Stone, Robert. 
Summers, John. 

Terrell, John; en. March 19, 1862; a. 27. 
Thomas, James; en. March 19, 1862; a. 32; k. at 

Thomason, William A.; en. April 18, 1863; a. 31; w. 

at Petersburg. 
Thompson, Benjamin T. ; en. July 7, 1862; a. 20. 
Thompson, John N., Sr. ; en. March 10, 1862; a. 26; 

pr. to ist. Sgt. 1862; pr. to 2d. Lt., December 29, 

Thompson, John N., Jr.; en. March 19, 1862; a. 18; 

k. at Malvern Hill, July i, 1862. 
Thompson, Thomas L. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 26. 
Thompson, William A,; en. March 16, 1862; a. 31; 

w. at Petersburg. 
Thompson, WilHam H. ; en. Alarch 18, 1862; a. 22; pr. 

to 4th. Cor., December 25, 1862; k. at Weldon 

Railroad, 1864. 
Troutman, T. 
\\'atson, D. F. 
Watson, James F. ; d. of d. 
Watson, John B. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 20; k. at 

IMalvern Hill, July i, 1862. 
Watson, Thomas T. ; en. March 19, 1862; a. 19; k. at 

IMalvern Hill, July i, 1862. 
W'illiams, John C; en. ]\Iarch 18, 1862; a. 21; d. of 

w. received at Malvern Hill. 


\\'ise, Alexander. 

Wise, Edward; en. ^larch 19, 1862; a. 32; w. at 

IMalvern Hill. 
Yontz, Julius. 

Company K 
Padget, Marble S. ; en. October 8, 1862; a. 25. 


Company A 


William H. Howard, Capt. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 34. 

\\'illiam C. Lord, Capt. ; a. 20 ; pr. from Seventh Regi- 
ment; d. of w. received at Fredericksburg. 

A. E. Temple, Capt.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24; w. at 

Abner L. Cranford, ist. Lt. ; en. July 4, 1862, a. 21 ; 
d. of d. July 2, 1863. 

James H. Sloan, 2d. Lt. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 23; d. of 
d. July 8, 1863. 

John H. Hall, ist. Sgt. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 21. 

James A. Houston, 2d. Sgt.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 44; 
d. of w. received at Fredericksburg. 

Stephen W. Miller, 4th. Sgt.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 23; 
d. of d. January 20, 1863. 

W. C. Correll. 5th. Sgt.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 2"/. 


J. W. Thompson, 2d. Cor.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 25; 

w. at Fredericksburg. 
H, G. Cranford, 3d. Cor.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 20. 
R. E. Beaver, Alusician; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24; w. at 

J. W. Winders, Musician; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26; w. 

at Fredericksburg. 


Beaver, A. A.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26. 

Brawley, W. B.; en. July 3, 1862; a. 19; d. of d. 
February 26, 1863. 

Boger, J. W. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 20; d. of d. Novem- 
ber 10, 1862. 

Boger, R. A.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 20. 

Casper, D. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 34. 

Deal, A.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 18. 

Deal, L. A. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 27. 

Emery, W. W. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 37. 

Fisher, J. R. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24; w. at Fredericks- 
burg at First and Second Battles. 

Graham, J. W. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 27. 

Graham, W. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 29. 

Harrison, R. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 30. 

Hodges, J. C. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 23. 

Hodges, J. H. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 25. 

Johnson, J. D. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 19; d. of d. March 
16, 1863. 

Josey, L. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 28 ; w. at Second Fred- 

Josey, T. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 31. 


Ketchey, J. L. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24. 

Kilpatrick, L. W. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 21 ; k. at Gettys- 

Kluttz, A. L. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24. 

Kluttz, C. F. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 22 ; w. at Fredericks- 
burg, First and Second Battles. 

Lyerly, H. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 30; k. at Second 

McNeely, S. A.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 29. 

Menis, J. C. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26. 

Miller, D. A.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 23. 

Miller, J. C. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 21. 

Miller, J. R.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 22; k. at Fredericks- 
burg, December 13, 1862. 

Miller, J. W. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 21; d. of d. Feb- 
ruary, 1863. 

Moore, C. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 29. 

Patton, J. M.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 33. 

Phillips, J. L. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28. 

Ritchie, G. W. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26. 

Ritchie, J.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 29; w. at Fredericks- 

Ritchie, P. A. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 32. 

Rufty, W. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26. 

Rusher, A. W. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28; w. at Gettys- 

Shoff, J. C.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 22. 

Shoff, O. H. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 19; w. at Fredericks- 

Shuping, A. A. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28. 

Shuping, W. M. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26. 


Stiller, J. M.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26. 
Walton, M. J.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 30. 
Wilhelm, M. S. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26. 
Wise, W. A. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 25 ; w. at Fredericks- 

Company C 


John Beard, Capt. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28. 

F. M. Graham, ist Lt. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 33; k. at 

Harper's Ferry, July 5, 1862. 
J. W. Miller, 2d. Lt. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 32 ; pr. Capt., 

in Company E; c March 6, 1863. 
H. D. Verble, 2d. Lt. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 31; c. at 

Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, November 6, 1863. 
A. M. A. Kluttz, ist. Sgt. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26; d. 

of d. February 24, 1863. 
Paul Peeler, 2d. Sgt.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 29; w. at 

Jacob J. Albright, 3d. Sgt.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 32; c. 

November 6, 1863. 
James S. Graham, 4th. Sgt.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 25; 

k. May 3, 1863, at Chancellorsville. 
Cranford Holhouser, 5th. Sgt.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28; 

d. of d. October 19, 1862. 
Albert Miller, ist. Cor. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 28 ; d. of d. 
Alex Peeler, 2d. Cor.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26; c. 

November 6, 1863. 
Lucius P. Wade, 3d. Cor.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 21 ; 

k. at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 


John M. Cowan, 4th. Cor.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 20; 
c. November 6^ 1863. 


Albright, Peter, en. July 4, 1862; a. 33; c. November 
6, 1863. 

Albright, Peter R. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 30; w. at 

Albright, William M. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 32; d. of w. 
received at Fredericksburg. 

Baker, H. J.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 32; c. November 
6, 1863. 

Barringer, E. J.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 20. 

Basinger, John; en. July 4, 1862; a. 33; d. of d. 

Beaver, Alex. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 30; w. at Fredericks- 
burg; d. April 10, 1863. 

Beaver, Cranford; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28; c. Novem- 
ber 6, 1863. 

Beaver, J. ]\L ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 32. 

Beaver, Tobias; en. July 4, 1862; a. 29; missing at 

Blackwell, George; en. July 4, 1862; a. 20; d. of w. 
received at Chancellorsville. 

Blackwell, John; en. July 4, 1862; a. 30; w. at Gettys- 

Bostian, D. M.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 23; c. November 
6, 1863. 

Bostian, J. A.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26; d. of d. 

Brown, Allen; en. July 4, 1862; a. 18; k. 

Brown, Nathan; en. July 4, 1862; a. 25; c. November 
6, 1863. 


Burgess, A. A.; en. September 15, 1863; a. 51 ; d. of d. 

Carriker, L. B. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 18. 

Casper, A. M.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 30. 

Castor, H. A.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 30; w. at Harper's 
Ferry, July 6, 1864. 

Castor, J. F.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24. 

Cauble, J. M.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 41; d- o^ ^v. re- 
ceived at Chancellorsville. 

Clouts, William L. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 30 ; d. of w. 

Colley, J. M. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 25. 

Correll, Samuel ; en. September 15, 1863 ; a. 18; d. of d. 
November 16, 1863. 

Criswell, J. D. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28; d. of d. 

Criswell, W. C. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 18. 

Earnhardt, A. S. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 24; w. at Gettys- 

Earnhardt, Benjamin; en. July 4, 1862; a. 34; missing 
at Chancellorsville. 

Earnhardt, Edward; en. July 4, 1862; a. 33. 

Eddleman, J. M. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24; w. at Chan- 

Eddleman, W. C. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 19. 

Eddleman, W. H. C. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 19; d. of w. 
received at Chancellorsville, January 28, 1863. 

Eller, John; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28. 

Eller, John M. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24. 

Eller, Joseph; en. July 4, 1862; a. 19; d. of d. January 
28, 1863. 

Fesperman, S. R. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 20; c. November 
6, 1863, at Rappahannock Railroad Bridge. 


Frieze, George; en. July 4, 1862; a. 20; c. November 

6, 1863. 
Fry, N. W. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24; d. of d. January 

16, 1863. 
Gardiner, J. \V. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 20; d. of d. 
Gaskey, George; en. December 29, 1862; a. 36; d. of d. 

May 8, 1863. 
Gaskey, Joshua; en. July 4, 1862; a. 23; \v. at \\'in- 

chester, September 19, 1864. 
Gillespie, Richard T. ; en. November 29, 1862; a. 18; 

d. of d. February 8, 1863. 
Graham, R. F. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 35; c. November 

6, 1863. 
Graham, \\\ T. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 30; d. of w. 
Goodman, A. M.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28; k. in works 

at Petersburg, March, 1865. 
Hare, J. M. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 18; c. November 6, 

Hartman, Alex. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 19 ; c. November 

6, 1863. 
Heilig, A. H. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 2y, w. at Chan- 

Heilig, J. M.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 33; k. at Blount 

Jackson, November, 1864. 
Heilig, Richard; en. July 4, 1862; a. 31 ; c. November 

6, 1863. 
Hemrick, George; en. July 4, 1862; a. 20; d. of d. 

April 15, 1863. 
Holhouser, Calvin; en. July 4, 1862; a. 21; d. of d. 

April 15, 1863. 


Holhouser, Eli; en. July 4, 1862; a. 29; c. November 

6, 1863. 
Holhouser, M. A. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 33 ; c. Novem- 
ber 6, 1863. 
Kerr, James Mc. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 27; d. of d. 

October 14, 1863. 
Lawrance, J. S. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 17; c. November 

6, 1863. 
Lingle, W. A.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 31; w. at Win- 
chester, September 19, 1864; c. twice. 
Lipe, S. J.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 33; c. November 6, 

Lyerly, Alex.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 35; c. November 

6, 1863. 
Lyerly, Charles ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 33 ; c. November 

6, 1863. 
Lyerly, Jacob; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24; d. of d. 
McConnaughey, George C. ; en. October 22, 1863; 

a. 25. 
Maloney, J. S. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28; d. of d. 
Maxwell, A. W. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28; c. October 

6, 1863. 
Maxwell, John; en. July 4, 1862; a. 32; h. d. 
Menis, F. E. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 21; c. October 6, 

Menis, Munroe; en. July 4, 1862; a. 33; c. October 

6, 1863. 
Miller, C. J. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 23. 
Miller, John M.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 20; d. of d. 

December 22, 1862. 
Miller, Joseph; en. July 4, 1862; a. 37; d. of w. 


Miller, J. R. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 19; w. at Fredericks* 

Minsey, William; en. July 4, 1862; a. 16; c. October 

6, 1863. 
Misenheimer, Morgan; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28; c. 

February 6, 1865. 
Niblock, Alex.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 21 ; d. of d. June 

19, 1863. 
Niblock, Benjamin; en. July 4, 1862; a. 35; d. of d. 

January 22, 1863. 
Niblock, Thomas; en. July 4, 1862; a. 27-, c. October 

6, 1863. 
Overcash, Michael; en. July 4, 1862; a. 51; d. of d. 

May 25, 1863. 
Pace, John F. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 18; pr. to Sgt. for 

gallantry at Fredericksburg. 
Peeler, J. A. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 31 ; c. October, 1863. 
Peeler, J. C. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 19; d. of d. May 

29, 1863. 
Peeler, J. M. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 29. 
Peeler, M. M. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24; d. of d. Novem- 
ber 23, 1863. 
Peeler, Solomon; en. July 4, 1862; a. 30; c. October 

6, 1863. 
Penny, J. A.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 20. 
Phifer, J. C; en. July 4, 1862; a. ^^^ 
Phifer, J. Cowan; en. July 4, 1862; a. 35; d. of d. 

January 9, 1863. 
Propst, S. D. M.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 22\ w. at Fred- 



Propst, S. M. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 20 ; d. of d. February 
15, 1863. 

Rendleman, J. L. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 26 ; c. November 
6, 1863. 

Rimer, S. M. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26; d. of d. April 
15, 1863. 

Rose, W. A.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 23; d. in prison. 

Safrit, William; en. July 4, 1862; a, 34. 

Shulebarger, J. L. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 18; c. Novem- 
ber 6, 1863. 

Sloop, Moses; en. July 4, 1862; a. 2y; d. of d. Novem- 
ber 19, 1862. 

Waggoner, C. J.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 29. 

W'aggoner, D. M. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 27. 

Wilhelm, J. B. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 26; d. of d. 
February i, 1863. 

Wilhelm, John; en. July 4,, 1862; a. 30. 

Wilhelm, L. A.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 32; w. at Win- 

Winecoff, J. M.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 19; d. of d. 
November 16, 1862. 

Company H 


William H. Howerton, Capt. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 32; 

Richard F. Hall, 2d. Lt. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 17; k. at 

Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
A. L. McCanless, ist. Cor.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 22. 


A. A. Scott, 2d. Cor. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 35 ; d. of w. 

received at Fredericksburg. 
D. M. Barrier, 3d. Cor.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 31. 
James M. Walker, 4th. Cor.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 32; 

d. of \v. received at Gettysburg. 


Casey, James; en. July 4, 1862; a. 33. 
Conrey, Martin; en. July 4, 1862; a. 22. 
Crider, John H. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 16. 
Hackett, James; en. August i, 1862; a. 33. 
Havi^kins, Wesley; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 17. 
Howerton, James H. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 24. 
Kinerly, Robert C. ; en. July 4, 1862 ; a. 2y. 
McCorkle, W. A. ; en. July 4, 1862. 
Russel, McKinzie; en. July 4, 1862; a. 24. 
Smith, Joshua; en. July 4, 1862; a. 52. 
Tonstall, WiUiam H. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 28. 
Webb, J. P.; en. July 4, 1862; a. 17. 

Company I 


Albert W. Howarton, ist. Lt. ; en. July 4, 1862; a. 27. 

Company K 


A. A. Miller, Capt. ; k. at Fredericksburg, 1862. 
E. A. Propst, ist Lt.; pr. Capt. December 25, 1862 
h. d. 1863 ; re-enlisted in First Regiment Cavalry. 


M. L. Brown, 2d, Lt. ; k. at Fredericksburg, December 
13, 1862. 

J. R. Pinkston, 3d. Lt. ; k. at Fredericksburg, Decem- 
ber 13, 1862. 

J. C. Lentz, I St. Sgt. ; w. at Fredericksburg, December 
13, 1862, from which he died. 

J. H. Trott, 2d. Sgt.; w. at Fredericksburg, December 

13, 1862, from which he died. 

G. A. J. Sechler, 3d. Sgt. ; pr. to 3d. Lt. December 

14, 1862 ; pr. to 1st. Lt. May 26, 1862 ; pr. Capt. 1863. 
T. S. Rice, ist. Cor.; pr. to 2d. Sgt. 1862. 

W. A. Penninger, 2d. Cor. ; d. of d. 
W. H. Dean, 3d. Cor.; d. of d. 
Caleb Barger, 4th. Cor. 


Aaron, Henry. 

Alsabrook, T. A. ; k. at Fredericksburg, 1862. 

Benson, J. B. 

Black, J. A. 

Black, M. B. ; w. at Fredericksburg, 1862. 

Bostian, A. A. 

Canup, D. A. 

Cheshier, J. W. ; d. of d. 

Cornell, J. L. 

Correll, J. W.;d. of d. 

Correll, W. W. ; d. of d. 

Corriher, R. A. ; arm amputated at Fredericksburg, 

Corriher, R. A.; w. at Fredericksburg, 1862. 
Craver, A. J. 


Dickson, C. B. 

Earnhardt, N. 

Elliot, J. H. ; d. of d. 

Ennis, W. C. 

Farris, C. D. 

Gibbons, J. R. 

Hare, J. M. 

Hartsell, M. L. ; d. of d. 

Howard, B. W. ; d. of d. 

Howell, T. L. ; w. at Fredericksburg, 1862. 

Howell, W. R.; d. of d. 

Jacobs, G. W. ; d. of d. 

Kennedy, D. C. ; w. at Fredericksburg, 1862. 

Kepley, J. A. 

Kluttz, E. M.; d. of d. 

Kluttz, G. C. ; w. at Fredericksburg, 1862. 

Kluttz, Henry. 

Kluttz, Jesse. 

Litaker, G. A. ; k. at Fredericksburg, 1862. 

Miller, D. M.; d. of d. 

Morgan, L. 

Morgan, Solomon ; arm amputated at Fredericksburg. 

Mowery, A. J. 

Pinkston, J. F. ; d. of d. 

Rebles, J. T. ; k. 

Shaver, David. 

Sides, John. 

Swicegood, J. A, 

Swink, Henry ; d. of d. 

Swink, G. B. ; d. of d. 

Swink, J. R. ; d. of d. 


Thomason, R. M. 
Thompson, J. L. 
Trott, Willis; d. of d. 
Walton, A. L. ; d. of d. 
Windows, T. C. 


Company B 


W. H. Overman, Capt. 

J. J. Trotter, ist Lt. ; d. in camp. 

N. D. Fetzer, 2d Lt. 

R. M. Furman, 3d. Lt. 

H. C. Peeler, ist. Sgt. 

Henderson Fisher, 3d. Sgt. 

Lee Heilig, Cor. 

Calvin Klutts, Colonel's Orderly. 


Barringer, Paul. 

Beaver, E. 

Belk, \N. R. 

Bost, Henry. 

Bostian, Amos. 

Bostian, Moses. 

Brown, J. F. E. 

Brown, Joseph. 

Brown, S. J. M. 

Canup, John. 

Corriher, Henry; d. in camp. 


Cozort, Jesse. 
Daniel, James. 
Deal, John. 
Earnhardt, Moses. 

Goodman, Jackson ; w. at Bentonville. 
Goodman, Pink; w. at Weldon. 
Hill, Frank. 
Holhouser, Osborn. 
Hollobough, John. 
Holtshouser, Munroe. 
Hunter, William ; pr. to Lt. Company E. 
Keifnie, M. 
Kestler, J. C. 
Kirk, Henry. 
Laurence, J. W. 
Lentz, Alfred. 
Lyerly, Tobias. 
May, Frank. 

Miller, John \Y. ; tr. to Eighth Regiment ; vv. at Ben- 
Miller, Milas. 
Mitchell, J. V. 
Montgomery, C. A. 
Morgan, Alexander. 

Morgan, John C. ; tr. to Eighth Regiment. 
Olderson, J. B. 
Pethel, Frank. 
Redwine, Osborn. 
Richie, Henry. 
Shaver, John I. 
Shoaf, R. A. 


Shuping, Jacob. 

Shuping, Lock. 

Sloop, Abram. 

Stirewalt, David. 

Stirewalt, Jerry; d. in camp. 

Thomason, Turner ; tr. 

Upright, Jerry. 

Vanderburg, Osbom. 

Waller, John. 

Waller, Peter; d. in camp. 

Weant, William. 

Wilhelm, George. 

Wyatt, John. 

Yost, Jacob. 



Company A 

" Officers 

AA'illiam G. Watson, Capt. 

Armfield. M. L. 
Burke, A. L. 
Repult, W. C. ; d. of d. 


Company I 


Tait. Alexander I. ; c. at Vicksburg, Miss. ; July 4, 

1863 ; c. at Columbus, Ga,, 1865. 


George M. Buis, Sergt.-Major; w. 


Company D 


McNeely, Julius D. ; tr. to General Hospital No. 10, 
Salisbury, N. C. 


Company B 


G. A. Bingham; en. 1861 ; elected 3d. Lt. ; pr. ist. Lt. 

acting Capt. 
George Heinrich, ist. Sgt. ; en. 1861 ; c. 
J. A. Clodfelter; en. 1861 ; 2d. Sgt.; c. at Brandy 

Station ; re-c. the same day ; c. at Berksville. 


Bingham, C. J.; en. December, 1862; w. at Ream's 

Station, August 25, 1864. 
Hudson, J. A. ; tr. from First North CaroHna, 1862. 
Leonard, Joe B.; en. 1861. 
Lyerly, William; en. 1862. 
Nooley, William; en. 1861. 
Rice, Albert; en. 1861. 


Rice, Davis; en. 1863. 
Robinson, J. F. ; en. 1861. 
Woodson, H. N. ; en. 1861. 

Company H 
Buis, John H. ; c. at Richmond, 1865. 


Johnson, Thomas P. ; Paymaster's Clerk ; tr. to Fort 
Fisher, N. C. 



ABDUCTION of Dunn and 
Boote, 168. 

ABOLITION of Borough Sys- 
tem, 330. 

ABORIGINES, the, n \ their 
religion, 38. 

ACADEMIES, 113, 401; Clio's 
Nursery, 113; Crowfield, 113; 
Zion Parnassus, 113; 367. 

ACT, Embargo, of 1808, 338. 

— Navigation, 128. 

— Non - Intercourse, suspended, 

— Stamp, 129. 

ACTS of first Court of Rowan, 

ADDRESS of President Wash- 
ington to people of Salisbury, 

ADULATION rebuked by Presi- 
dent Washington, 248. 

AFRICAN Slavery, 347; first 
cargo of slaves brought from 
Africa, 348 ; slaveship "De- 
sire," 348 ; character of, mild 
and paternal, 349 ; runaway 
slaves (111.), 351. 

— Slave trade, resolved against, 

AGILITY, feats of, William 
Young excels in, 160, 232. 

AHREND, Rev. Gottfried, 382. 

AKENATZY, Island of, 264. 

ALABAMA, Sixth Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

ALAMANCE, 43; battle of, 122. 

ALBEMARLE, ironclad ram 
(see Honor, Roll of). 

ALDRICH, Rev. N., 395- 

ALEXANDER, Dr. Joseph Mc- 
Knitt, 166. 

— Hon. Nathaniel, elected Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina, 301. 

— Rev. S. C, 370. 

— Richard H., member of Gen- 
eral Assembly, 462. 

ALLEGIANCE, Oaths of. Con- 
sciences of Regulators en- 
tangled by, 125. 

ALLEMAND, Henry, J. J. 
Bruner attends school of, 21. 

AMBASSADOR to France, Gen. 

William Richardson Davie 

appointed, 276. 
AMERICAN Ambassador 

sneered at by Napoleon, 276. 
— grievances, 128. 
— Revolution, causes of, 127. 
— Revolution, Daughters of the, 

Elizabeth Maxwell Steele 

Chapter, officers and members, 

ANDREWS, Rev. Silas, 378. 
ANSON County set off, 50. 
ANTHONY, Rev. J. B., 394. 
APPEARANCE of the country, 


APPROACH of Methodism into 
the Rowan section, 397. 

ARAMANCHY (see Alamance). 

ARKANSAS, Gov. Montford 
Stokes removes to, 334. 

ARTILLERY, Rowan (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

ASBURY, Bishop, preaches in 
Salisbury, 399. 

ASHE, John, 125, 188. 

ASSEMBLY, General, 63 ; mem- 
bers of, 159, 266, 271, 287, 289, 
301, 303, 306, 308, 310, 312, 
322, 323, 330, 462. 

ATKINSON, Bishop, 455- 

ATTA Calla Culla, Chief of 
Cherokees, sues for peace, no. 

ATTIRE feminine, old-time, 243. 

ATTORNEY - General Romulus 
M. Saunders, 462. 

— Waighstill Avery, 271. 

AUTHOR, sketch of (see 

— of Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, 113. 

AVERITT, Rev. J. C, 477- 

AVERY, Col. Isaac T., 271. 

— Col. Moulton, 2-J2. 

—Col. Waightstill W., 272. 

— Judee Alphonso C, 272. 

— Waightstill, Esq., 269; obtains 
license to practice law, 270 ; 
chosen King's Attorney, 271 ; 
member of Provincial Con- 
gress, 271 ; Attorney-General 
of North Carolina, 271; rep- 
resents Burke County in Leg- 



islature, 271 ; owns extensive 
library, 271. 

BACK Creek Presbyterian 

Church, 369, 370; ministers, 

BAKER, John, 70. 

— Rev. Archibald, 376. 

— Samuel, 70. 

BALFOUR, Col. Andrew, 230; 
murder of, by Colonel Fan- 
ning, 229. 

BALL at Hughes' Hotel, in hon- 
or of President Washington, 

— Rev. Hope Hull at a, 399. 

BAXXS between Mary Stuart 
and James Bothwell, pro- 
claimed by John Craig, 326. 

BAPTIST Churches of Rowan, 
the, 473 ; Paul Palmer estab- 
lishes church at Perquimans, 
474; William Sojourner estab- 
lishes church on Kehukee 
Creek, 474; Flat Creek Church, 
475 ; Corinth Church, 475'; 
Gold Hill Church, 476 ; Mount 
Zion Church, 476; Trading 
Ford Church, 476 ; Salisbury 
Church, 477 ; colored church- 
es, 479. 

BAPTISTS, Separate, 474. 

BARIUM Springs Orphan Home, 
Rev. Jethro Rumple first pres- 
ident of, 18. 

BARR, Rev. John A., 378. 

—Rev. J. Scott, 378. 

BARRACKS cf 1814, 341. 

BARRIXGER, Gen. Paul's 

children, 285. 

— Paul, Esq., jz. 

BARROX, Commodore, 337. 

BATTLE, Hon. William H., 454. 

— of Alamance, 122. 

— of Brandy wine, 188, 420. 

— of Brier Creek, Xorth Caro- 
lina militia at, 188. 

— of Bull Run, Colonel Fisher 
killed at, 21, 263, 324. 

— of Cedar Run, Clitus Craige 
killed at, 329. 

— of Cold Harbor, Lieut. Leon- 
ard Henderson killed at, 302. 

— of Cowpens, 197 ; boys "play" 
in presence of Colonel Tarle- 
ton, 220 ; Major Francis Mc- 
Corkle at, 294. 

• — of Eutaw, Major James Ruth- 
erford killed at, 138. 

—of First Manassas, Colonel 
Fisher killed at, 21, 263, 324. 

BATTLE of Guilford Court- 
house, Gen. William Richard- 
son Davie at, 276; Captain 
Weitzell at, 468. 

— of Hanging Rock, Major 
Davie at, 275. 

—of Hobkirk's Hill, 218, 233, 276. 

— of King's Mountain, 191 ; Major 
Francis McCorkle at, 294. 

— of Manassas, First, Colonel 
Fisher killed at, 21, 263, 234. 

— of Monmouth, Xorth Carolina 
Continentals at, 188. 

— of Moore's Creek Bridge, 127. 

— of Princeton, Xorth Carolina 
Continentals at, 188. 

— of Ramsour's Mill, Tories 
defeated at by Col. Francis 
Locke, 153; Major Francis 
McCorkle at, 294. 

— of Stono, Major Davie wound- 
ed at, 187, 275 ; X'orth Caro- 
lina militia at, 189. 

— of Tohopeka, 344. 

— of Torrence's Tavern, Major 
Francis McCorkle at, 294. 

BEALE'S Meeting-House, 400. 

BEARD, Capt. John, 248; his 
Company of Light Horse escort 
President Washington, 248, 

— John, Jr., member of General 
Assembly, 462. 

— John Louis, 81. 

— Lewis, 263 ; owned Island Ford 
Place, 264. 

— Valentine, 184, 264; fought 
under Washington, 264. 

BEARD'S (Locke's) Bridge, 2^1. 

BEATTIE'S Ford, 198. 

BECKWITH, Bishop John W., 

BELIEF in witches, 356. 

BEQUEST, Col. John Brandon's 
to Davidson College, 284. 

— Maxwell Chambers', to David- 
son College, 319. 

— of Library, by Samuel Young, 

BERGER, Col. George Henry, 
member of Committee of Safe- 
ty, 467- 

BERXHARDT, Rev. Christian 
Eberhard, 383. 

BERXHEIM, Rev. G. D., D.D., 

BESSENT, Rev. C. W., 477- 

BETHEL, Old, Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 



BETHPHAGE Presbyterian 

Church, 370. 

BEUTHAHN, Rev. Mr., 382. 

BIBLICAL names bestowed on 
sons, 167. 

BIRTHDAY of George Wash- 
ington celebrated, 345. 

BISHOP Asbury preaches in 
Salisbury, 399. 

— Atkinson, 455. 

— John W. Beckwith, 455. 

— L. S. Ives, 435, 443, 450, 452; 
ordains Rev. Thomas F. Davis, 
Jr., 454; ordains Rev. John 
John Haywood Parker, 457 ; 
ordains Rev. Oliver S. Pres- 
cott, 458. 

— Madison, 421. 

— of Diocese of Xorth Carolina, 
Rev. Charles Pettigrew elected, 
421 ; Rev. John Stark Ravens- 
croft elected, 430. 

— of South Carolina, Rev. Thomas 
F. Davis, Jr., elected, 455. 

— Richard Channing Moore or- 
dains Rev. Robert Johnstone 
Miller, 427. 

— Ravenscroft, elected, 430 ; con- 
secrates Christ Church, 439. 

BLACKBOYS of Cabarrus, 123. 

BLADEX County set off, skj. 

BLIND Daniel menaces British 
forces, 210. 

BLOUNT, Rev. Mr., 420. 

BLOWING Rock, Rev. Jethro 
Rumple organizes church at, 16. 

BLUNT, King, Indian Chief, iii. 

BOAT of Diligence, sloop of war, 
captured, 130. 

BOGER, Rev. George, 469. 

BOLLES, Rev. Edwin A., 394. 

BONAPARTE, Napoleon, sneers 
at American Ambassador, 276 ; 
and the Milan Decree, 337. 

BOOKS, list of, in Samuel 
Young's library, 161. 

— rare, accumulated by Rev. John 
Morgan, 445. 

BOONE, Daniel (III.), facing 69; 
Memorial Cabin (111.), facing 
71; Trail Marker (111.), facing 

BOOTE and Dunn, abduction of, 

BOROUGH system, abolition of, 

BOTHWELL, James (see Banns). 

BOUNDARY and organization of 
Rowan County, 31, 32, 59. 

BOYDEN, Archibald Henderson 
(111.), facing 299. 

— Hon. Nathaniel, 302 ; Represen- 
tative in Congress, 303, 462 ; 
elected Judge of Supreme Court 
of North Carolina, 303, 462 ; 
represents Stokes County in 
Legislature, 303 ; represents 
Rowan County in Legislature, 
303 ; confirmed in St. Luke's 
Church, 460. 

BOYS "play" battle of Cowpens, 
in presence of Colonel Tarle- 
ton, 220. 

— Bucktail, 250. 

BRADDOCK'S defeat, no. 

BRAINARD, Rev. John, 366. 

BRANDON, Betsy (see Eliza- 

— Col. Alexander W., member of 
House of Commons of North 
Carolina, 287. 

— Col. James, made entry-taker, 
286 ; loses his property by 
depreciation of Continental 
money, 286. 

— Col. John, 283 ; makes bequest 
to Davidson College, 284. 

— Elizabeth, furnishes breakfast 
for President Washington, 249, 
283 ; married to Major Francis 
McCorkle, 297. 

— family, the, 281. 

— Matthew, 283; daughters of, 11, 
285 ; represents Rowan County 
in House of Commons of North 
Carolina, 287 ; represents Rowan 
in State Senate, 287. 

— Richard, 283. 

—William, 282. 

— William, Jr., 283. 

BRANDYWINE, battle of, 188, 

BRAUN family, the, 224. 

— Michael, 224; graveyard (111.), 
facing 221. 

BREAKFAST for President 
Washington furnished by Betsy 
Brandon, 249, 283. 

BRETHREN, United, purchase 
Wachovia tract, 57. 

BREVARD, Dr. Ephraim, at- 
tends Crowfield Academy, 113; 
reputed author of Mecklen- 
burg Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, 113. 

— John, 146, 200 ; settles in 
Rowan County, 147; represents 
Rowan County in Provincial 



Congress, 147; his house 
burned, 148. 

BRIDGE, Beard's (Locke's), 263. 

BRIER Creek defeat, North Caro- 
lina militia at, 188. 

BRITISH forces, Lieut. George 
Locke killed by, 152, 190; at 
Grimes, 201 ; menaced by 
Richard Gillespie and Blind 
Daniel, 210. 

— ministry. Lord North retires 
from, 235. 

— Parliament resolves in favor of 
peace, 233. 

BROCK, Rev. Moses, 403; first 
Methodist Conference in Salis- 
bury presided over by, 407. 

BROWN, Jeremiah, 227. 

— Frank, 228. 

— John L., 22(i, 

— Lewis v., 227. 

— Peter, 225. 

—Peter (M.), 226. 

—Rev. B. S., 395. 

—Rev. H. M., 396. 

—Rev. R. L., 396. 

— Thomas E., 22"]. 

BRUNER, John Joseph, 306: 
(111.), facing: 21; sketch of life. 
2\ \ attends Henry Allemand"s 
school, 21 ; works in printing 
office, 21; purchases Carolina 
Watchman, 22 ; married to Miss 
Mary Ann Kincaid, 22; joins 
Presbyterian church, 24 ; or- 
dained elder, 24 ; superintendent 
of Sunday School, 376. 

BRYAN, Captain, 185; Richmond 
Pearson lieutenant in his Com- 
pany, 307. 

BUCKTAIL boys, 250. 

BUFORD'S defeat in the Wax- 
haws, Hon. John Stokes 
wounded at, 333. 

BULL Run, battle of. Colonel 
Fisher killed at, 21, 263, 324. 

BULLET playing forbidden, 253. 

— throwing, long, 279. 

BUMPASS, Rev. S. D., 406. 

BUNCOMBE, Col. Edward, at 
Germantown, 188. 

BURKE County represented in 
Legislature by Waightstill 
Avery, 271. 

— Governor, captured by Colonel 

Fanning, 256. 
BURNS, Dr., 264. 
BURTON, Rev. R. O., 402, 408. 
BUTLER, Rev. Thornton, 470. 
BYNUM, Rev. W. S., 4S0. 

CABARRUS, Blackboys of, 123. 

— County, represented by Gen. 
John N. Phifer in State Senate, 

CABIN, Boone Memorial (111.), 
facing 71. 

CALDWELL, A. H., member 
of General Assembly, 462. 

— Andrew, represents Iredell in 
Legislature, 312. 

— David Franklin, member of 
House oi Commons from Ire- 
dell, 312; represents Rowan in 
Senate, 312; Speaker of Sen- 
ate, 312; Judge of Superior 
Court, 312, 462. 

— Elizabeth, married to Col. 
Charles Frederick Fisher, 453. 

— Family, the, 312. 

— Rev. Dr. David, 114, 

—Rev. Dr. Joseph, 368. 

CALF, Mrs. Faust's, impressed 
for Cornwallis' table, 219. 

CALHOUN, John C, 340. 

CALL, Rev. William C, 405. 

CAMDEN, S. C, Major James 
Smith imprisoned at, 142; 
North Carolina militia at, 189; 
Marquis de La Fayette visits, 
249 ; Rev. Thomas F. Davis, 
Jr., removes to, 455. 

CAMPBELL, Rev. Thomas S. 
J., 408. 

CANTHARD'S plantation, 201. 

CAPE Fear, Diligence, sloop of 
war, arrives in, 129. 

CAPTAIN Jack, brings Meck- 
lenburg Declaration to Salis- 
bury, 158, 420; Capture of 
boat from Sloop of War Dili- 
gence, 130. 

CAPTURE of boat from sloop 
of war Diligence. 130. 

— of Governor Burke, 256. 

CARDS and wheel, 241. 

CARGO of slaves brought from 
Africa, the first, 348. 

CAROLINA Watchman, The, 
founded by Hamilton C. Jones, 
Esq., 306 ; purchased by 
Joseph T. Bruner, 22. 

CAROLINIAN, The Western, 
Hon. Burton Craige editor of, 

CARTER, Rev. Mr., 476. 

CASWELL, Gen. Richard, 134, 

CATAWBA Indians, 30, 37; 
towns and number, 37, 43. 



CATHEY'S Church ( T h y - 
atira), 364, 369, 370. 

CATHOLICS, Roman, in 
Rowan, 479. 

CAUSES of the American Revo- 
lution, 127. 

CAVALRY Regiments, Rowan, 
in War between the States 
(see Honor, Roll of). 

CEDAR Run, Clitus Craige 
killed at battle of, 329. 

July, 242, 346; Washington's 
birthday, 345. 

CHAMBERS family, the 315. 

—Major P. B., 196. 

— Maxwell (i), Cornwallis* head- 
quarters at his house, 215, 315; 
, treasurer of Committee of 
Safety, 315. 

— Maxwell (2), graduate of 
University of North Carolina, 
316. . 

— Maxwell (3), 316; liberates 
slaves at his death, 318; 
makes bequest to Davidson 
College, 319- 

— William, member of General 
Assembly, 462. 

CHARACTER of German set- 
tlers in Rowan, 56. 

— of Indians, zi, Ar^- 

— of slavery in Rowan County, 

CHARLES II., grant of, 61. 

CHARLESTON, Lawson's His- 
tory of a Journey from, to 
Pamlico Sound, 30. 

— North Carolina Continentals at 
surrender of, 188. 

— Surrender of, 189. 

CHANGE of names, 79. 

CHAPLAIN of Congress, Rev. 
Jesse Lee serves as, 399. 

CHARLOTTE, called Hornets' 
Nest, 190; General Greene 
takes command of Southern 
army at, 196. 

CHARMS and spells, 35«. 

CHARTER of Town of Salis- 
bury, 94. 

— Regulations, 91. 

CHEROKEES, their country, 
78; sue for peace, no; John 
Long killed by, 260. 

CHESHIRE, Rev. J. B., 457- 

CHILDS, Rev. J. W., 406. 

CHRIST Church, 426; conse- 
crated by Bishop Ravenscroft, 


CHRISTMAS, John Dunn's 
house decked with evergreens 
at, 416. 

CHURCH, Presbyterian, at 
Blowing Rock, 16. 

CHURCHES of Rowan, . the, 
363; Presbyterianism i n 
Rowan, 363 (see also under 
Presbyterianism) ; President 

Polk's forefathers and Thy- 
atira Church, 379 (see also 
under Polk) ; Lutheranism in 
Rowan, 381 (see also under 
Lutheranism) ; The Introduc- 
tion and Growth of Methodism 
in Rowan County, 397 (see also 
under Methodism) ; Episcopacy 
in Rowan County, 409 (see al- 
so under Episcopacy) ; German 
Reformed Church, 465 (see al- 
so under German Reformed) ; 
The Baptist Churches of 
Rowan, 473 (see also under 
Baptist) ; Protestant Methodist 
churches, 479 ; Northern Meth- 
odist churches, 479 ; Roman 
Catholics, 479 ; Colored church- 
es, 479. 

CIDER press, old tree used as 
fulcrum of, 231. 

CIRCUIT, Salisbury Methodist 
Episcopal, 397 ; Yadkin, 397. 

CLAPP, Professor, 470. 

CLARKE family records, 52. 

CLEGG, Rev. Baxter, 406. 

CLERK, Town, of Salisbury, 
James McEwen elected, 252. 

CLERKS of Superior Court (see 
Superior Court). 

— of Supreme Court (see Su- 
preme Court). 

CLIFFORD, Rev. Branch G., 

CLIO'S Nursery, 113. 

CLOUD, Capt. Jerry, 341. 

— Hon. John M., 341. 

COERCION of Crown officers, 

CCDFTMAN, Rev. J. H., 394- 

COINCIDENCE, singular, at 
death of Gen. John Steele, 267. 

COKESBURY, first Methodist 
school in section, 401. 

COLD Harbor, Lieut. Leonard 
Henderson killed at battle of, 

COLES, William Temple, 72, 84. 

COLLi::-GE. Davidson (see Dav- 
idson College). 



COLONIES, English Church in, 

COLORED churches in Salis- 
bury, 479- 

COLORS, painters', tax im- 
posed on, 130. 

COMET of 1811, the, 339- 

COMMITTEE of Safety, Rowan, 
173; approve resolutions of 
Provincial Congress, 180; en- 
dorse young ladies' resolutions, 
192; fix price of powder, 180; 
members of, 141, 144, 157, 168, 
175, 294, 467; first meeting of, 
175; resolutions of, 156, 175; 
Maxwell Chambers treasurer 
of, 315- 

— to locate University of North 
Carolina, Gen. William Rich- 
ardson Davie serves on, 276. 

COMMON, The, 95- 

— law marriages, 88. 

COMMONS, British House of, 
resolves in favor of peace, 233. 

— North Carolina House of. Gen. 
John Steele elected to, on day 
of his death, 267; members of, 
287, 308, 310, 312, 462. 

COMPANY, Captain Bryan's, 
185, 307- , 

— Captain Krider's, 345. 

— Forks of Yadkin, 186. 

COMPTROLLER of the Treas- 
ury, Gen. John Steele ap- 
pointed, 266. 

CONE, Rev. W. H., 392, 395- 

McCorkle dies in, 298; Frank 
Craige in, 333 ; Hon. Kerr 
Craige in, 333 ; James Craige 
a Major in, 333 (see also 
States, War between the). 

— Congress, Hon. Burton Craige 
a member of. 332. 

CONFERENCE, first Methodist 
in Salisbury, Rev. Moses Brock 
presides over, 407. 

Luke's Church, 453, 460. 

James Macay trustee of, zjz. 

CONGRESS, Provincial, 131, 
"^n, 271 ; members of, 133, 
134, 135, 137, 147, . IS"©, 156, 
168; adopts resolutions, 133, 
175; resolutions of, approved 
by Rowan Committee of 
Safety, 180. 

— Confederate, Hon. Burton 
Craige a member of, 332. 

CONGRESS, Continental, Hon. 
William Sharpe represents 
Salisbury District in, 144. 

— first Provincial, North Caro- 
lina not represented in, 131. 

— United States, Rowan members 
of, 152, 266, 301, 303, 308, 321, 
322, 331, 462; Gen. John Steele 
a member of the first, 266 ; de- 
clares war against England, 
341 ; Jesse Lee Chaplain of, 

CONNOR, Rev. William, 401. 

CONRAD, Rev. S. F., 477- 

CONSCIENCES of Regulators 
entangled by oaths, 125. 

Church, 439. 

CONSTABLES, the first, 69. 

tion, Hon. Charles Fisher a 
member of, 322. 

ander Martin a colonel in, 420. 

— Congress, Hon. William 
Sharpe represents Salisbury 
District in, 144. 

— Money, depreciation of, Col. 
James Brandon loses his prop- 
erty by, 286. 

lina, with Washington at bat- 
tle of Brandywine, 188; at bat- 
tle of Princeton, 188; at 
Germantown, 188; at battle 
of Monmouth, 188; made pris- 
oners at surrender of Charles- 
ton, 189. 

CONTINENT of Europe, and 
England, visited by Rev. 
Thomas F. Davis, Jr., 455. 

CONVENTION, Diocesan (see 

— North Carolina, Hon. Burton 
Craige offers ordinance of se- 
cession in, 332. 

COOPER, Rev. John, 401. 

CORINTH Baptist Church, 475- 

CORN shuckings, 240. 

CORNERSTONE of University 
of North Carolina laid, 276. 

CORNWALLIS, Lord, 160, 189; 
in Rowan County, 195; his 
headquarters in Salisbury, 195 ; 
at Maxwell Chambers', 215, 
315; accompanied to Salisbury 
by Josiah Martin, 218; commis- 
sary impresses Mrs. Faust's 
calf for his table, 219; departs 



from Salisbury, 232 ; surrenders 
at Yorktown, 233, 235. 

COUNCIL, Governor's, Archi- 
bald Henderson a member of, 

— Town, records of, 252. 

COUNTIES named after Gen. 
Griffith Rutherford, 139. 

COUNTRY, appearance of the, 

— of the Cherokees, 78. 

COURAGE and patriotism of 
General Washington avert mili- 
tary despotism, 236. 

COURT, the first Rowan, 67; 
acts of, 69. 

— Rowan, Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion read in, 158. 

— Superior, Judges of (see Supe- 
rior Court). 

— Supreme (see Supreme Court). 

COURTHOUSE, the, 73, 75'; 
old records in, 10; built, 75. 

held, 67 ; acts of first, 69 ; offi- 
cers of, 70. 

COWAN'S Ford, 198; General 
Davidson mortally wounded at, 

COWPENS, battle of, General 
Morgan defeats Tarleton at, 
197; boys "play," in presence 
of Colonel Tarleton, 220 ; Major 
Francis McCorkle at, 294. 

CRAIG family, the, 326. 

— John, coadjutor of John Knox, 
326; proclaims banns between 
Mary Stuart and James Both- 
well, 326. 

CRAIGE, Archibald, 71, 327. 

— Clitus, killed at battle of Cedar 
Run, 329. 

— David, Jr., 329. 

— David, Sr., 328. 

— Frank, in Confederate Army, 

— Hon. Burton, 329 ; his family, 
333, 453 ; graduate of Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, 330; 
editor of The Western Caro- 
linian, 330; elected to Legisla- 
ture, 330; (111.), facing 331; 
visits Europe, 331; elected to 
Congress, 331; offers ordinance 
of secession in North Carolina 
Convention, 332; member of 
Confederate Congress, 332 ; 
buried in Oak Grove cemetery, 

CRAIGE, Hon. Kerr (111.), fac- 
ing 333; in Confederate Army, 

— James, sheriff of Rowan 
County, 328. 

— James (2), Major in Confed- 
erate Army, 333. 

CRANE Creek, 46. 

CRAWFORD, Rev. Leonidas W., 

CREEK Indians, Andrew Jack- 
son operates against, 343 ; de- 
feated at Tohopeka, 344. 

CROOKS, Rev. R. F., 470. 

CROWFIELD Academy, 113. 

CROWN officers coerced, 124. 

CRYSTAL Springs, 52. 

CUPPELS, Rev. Mr., 420. 

DANCES, Indian, 40. 

DAUGHTERS of Matthew Bran- 
don, II, 285. 

— of the American Revolution, 
Elizabeth Maxwell Steele 
Chapter, officers and members, 3. 

— poetical names given to, 167. 

DAVIDSON College, Rev. Jethro 
Rumple attends, 16; Rev. 
Jethro Rumple a trustee of, 18; 
named after General Davidson, 
200 ; Col. John Brandon's be- 
quest to, 284 ; Maxwell Cham- 
bers' bequest to, 319; Rev. 
P. J. Sparrow Professor of 
Languages in, 375. 

— Gen. William, 191 ; mortally 
wounded at Cowan's Ford, 199; 
buried in Hopewell church- 
yard, 199; Davidson College 
named after, 200. 

— William Lee, 200. 

DAVIE County, introduction of 
Methodism into, 400 (see also 
under Methodism). 

— Gen. William Richardson, 187, 
190, 275 ; Governor of North 
Carolina, 275, 276; graduate of 
Princeton, 275'; wounded at 
battle of Stono, 187, 27^ ; at 
battle of Hanging Rock, 275 ; 
at Guilford Courthouse, 276 ; at 
Hobkirk's Hill, 276 ; at Ninety- 
Six, 276 ; on committee to 
locate L^niversity of North 
Carolina, 276 ; Grand ^Master of 
Masonic fraternity, 276 ; laid 
cornerstone of University of 
North Carolina, 276 ; ambas- 
sador to France, 276 ; sneered 
at by Napoleon, 276 ; polished 
and graceful orator, 277. 



DAVIS. Capt. Scotton, 70. 

— D. A., 376. 

—Rev. John W., 378. 

— Rev. Robert, 436. 

— Rev. Thomas F., Jr., 450 (see 
also under Episcopacy in 
Rowan County). 

—Rev. W. H., 378. 

DEACONS and elders of St. 
John's Church, 393. 

— of Salisbury Presbyterian 

Church, 266, Z7T' 

DEADLY miasma from Fro- 
hock's (Macay's) millpond, 94. 

DEARING, Lieutenant, 341. 

DECATUR, Commodore Stephen, 

DECLARATION of Independ- 
ence, Mecklenburg (see Meck- 

— of war against England, 341. 

DECREE, the Milan, 337. 

DEFEAT, Brier Creek, North 
Carolina militia at, 188. 

— of Braddock, no. 

— of Creek Indians at Tohopeka, 

— of Tarleton at Cowpens, 197. 

— of Tories at Ramsour's Mill, 

DEFENSE of Fort Meigs, 342. 

DENNY, Rev. J. C, 447, 469, 
470, 476. 

DENT, Rev. Hatch, 437. 

DEPARTURE of Cornwallis 
from Salisbury, 2^2. 

DEPRECIATION of Continental 
money. Col. James Brandon 
loses his property by, 286. 

DESCRIPTION, general, of 
Rowan County, 29. 

"DESIRE," slave ship, 348. 

DESPOTIC taxation, 128. 

DESPOTISM, military, averted 
by Washington, 236. 

DILIGENCE, sloop of war, ar- 
rives in Cape Fear, 129; boat 
captured, 130. 

DIOCESE of North Carolina, 
Rev. Charles Pettigrew elected 
Bishop of, 421; fifth annual 
convention, 427 ; Dr. Lueco 
Mitchell delegate to Conven- 
tion, 431 ; Rev. John Stark 
Ravenscroft elected fi r s t 
Bishop of, 430 ; twenty-fourth 
convention, 451; Col. Charles 
Frederick tisher delegate to 
Convention, 456. 

DIOCESE ■ of South Carolina, 
Rev. Thomas F. Davis, Jr., 
elected Bishop of, 455. 

Rowan, 269. 

DISTRESS of General Greene 
relieved by Elizabeth Maxwell 
Steele, 208, 368. 

DOBBS, Fort, erected. 109. 

DOSH, Rev. Dr. T. W., 395- 

DOUB, Rev. Dr. Peter, 406. 

DRAIGE, Rev. Theo. Drane, 104, 
415, 419, 475- 

DREHER, Rev. Godfrey, 388. 

— Rev. Daniel I., 394. 

DUNN and Boote, abduction of, 

— John, Esq., 70, 72, 83, 170, 415; 
buried near Dunn's Mountain, 
171; grave of, 11, 171, 228; his 
house decked with evergreens 
at Christmas, 416. 

DUNN'S Mountain, T2, 171. 

— graves, 228. 

DUTCH, Pennsylvania, 53. 

DYEING, Provincial, 242. 

EARLY life of Andrew Jackson, 

— Rowan, prairies in, 33. 

— settlers in Salisbury, in. 

— Society in Rowan, in. 

EARTHOUAKE of 181 1, 340. 

EDITOR, life of (see Bruner). 

EIGHTH Battalion Junior Re- 
serves (see Honor, Roll of). 

— Regiment (see Honor, Roll of). 

ELDERS and deacons of Salis- 
bury Presbyterian Church, 266, 


— of St. John's Church, Salisbury, 

ELECTION of vestrymen of St. 
Luke's Parish, by Presby- 
terians, 105, 415. 

ELEVENTH Regiment (Old 
Bethel) (see Honor, Roll of). 

ELIZABETH Maxwell Steele 
Chapter, Daughters of the 
American Revolution, officers 
and members, 3. 

ELLIS, Gov. John W., 310, 453; 
graduate of University of North 
Carolina, 310; represents 
Rowan in House of Commons, 
310, 462; elected Judge of Su- 
perior Court, 310, 462; elected 
Governor of North Carolina, 
310, 453, 462; buried in Oak 
Grove Cemetery, 311. 

— Rev. Reuben, 401. 



ELLYSON'S Mill, Col. Montford 
S. Stokes killed at, 335. 

EMBARGO Act of 1808, 338. 

EMPIE, Rev. Adam, 422, 426, 

ENGINEERS, First Regiment 
(see Honor, Roll of). 

ENGLAND, Congress declares 
war against, 341 ; Rev. John 
Morgan visits, 445 ; Rev. 
Thomas F. Davis, Jr., visits, 

ENGLISH Church in Colonies, 

— Graveyard, 87 ; Capt. Daniel 
Little buried in, 216; Albert 
Torrence buried in, 266. 

ENSIGN, Major James Smith 
serves as, under George III., 

EPISCOPACY in Rowan County, 

— Christ Church, 426 ; conse- 
crated by Bishop Ravenscroft, 

— John Dunn's house decked with 
evergreens at Christmas, 416. 

— Rev. Charles Pettigrew elected 
Bishop of Diocese of North 
Carolina, 421. 

— Rev. Francis J. Murdock, 45"9, 
460, 461. 

— Rev. George Badger Wetmore, 

— Rev. John Haywood Parker, 
267, 456, 460 ; ordained by 
Bishop Ives, 457. 

— Rev. John Huske Tillinghast, 

— Rev. John Morgan, 444 ; accu- 
mulates rare books, 445 ; visits 
England, 445. 

— Rev. John Stark Ravenscroft 
elected first Bishop of North 
Carolina, 430. 

— Rev. Robert Johnstone Miller, 
422 ; connected with Method- 
ism, 423 ; ordained by Luther- 
ans, 386, 424; attends fifth 
annual Diocesan Convention, 
427; ordained deacon and priest 
by Bishop Moore, 427 ; died, 

— Rev. Thomas F. Davis, Jr., 
45'o ; educated at University of 
North Carolina, 454 ; ordained 
by Bishop Ives, 454; removes 
to Camden, S. C., 455 ; elected 
Bishop of South Carolina, 455 ; 

becomes blind, 455 ; visi.s Eng- 
land and the Continen'^, 45 5. 

— Rev. William W. Spear, 446, 

— St. Luke's Parish, 412. 

— Twenty-fourth Diocesan Con- 
vention meets in St. Luke's 
Church, 451. 

EPISCOPAL members of the 
General Assembly, some, 462. 

— Methodist, Salisbury Circuit, 

— Settlers in Rowan, 436. 

ERECTION of Fort Dobbs, 109. 

ESPY, Rev. Thomas, 375. 

ESTABLISHMENT of religion 
in Rowan, 100. 

EUROPE, Hon. Burton Craige 
visits, 331; Rev. Thomas F. 
Davis, Jr., visits, 455. 

EUROPEAN settlers, the first, 

EUTAW, Major James Ruther- 
ford killed at battle of, 138. 

EVERGREENS, John Dunn's 
house decorated with, at Christ- 
mas, 416. 

EXORBITANT fees for marriage 
licenses, 88. 

EXTRACT from Organ Church 
records, 389. 

FADED Quilt, the, 248. 

FAMILIES living on the Yad- 
kin River one hundred years 
ago, 259- 

— Old, of Rowan, 281. 

— Salisbury, roll of, 252, 256. 

FAMILY of the McCorkles, the, 

FANNING, Col. David, 229; 
notorious Tory raider, 229 ; 
visits Salisbury, 229 ; murder 
of Balfour, 229 ; captures Gov- 
ernor Burke, 420. 

— Col. Edmund, 119; Associate 
Judge of Superior Court, 419. 

FARMING, old-time, 238. 

FAUST, Ensign, 343. 

— Mrs. Eleanor, 217; her favor- 
ite calf impressed for Corn- 
wallis' table, 219. 

FEAST, Waxsaw, 40. 

FEATS of agility, William 
Young excels in, 160, 232. 

FEES, exorbitant, for marriage 
licenses, 88. 

FEMININE attire, old-time, 243. 

FERRAND, Dr. Stephen L., 
457; member of General As- 
sembly, 462. 



FIFTEENTH Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

FIFTH Annual Diocesan Con- 
tion, Rev. Robert Johnstone 
Miller attends, 427. 

— Regiment Infantry (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

FIFTY-SECOND Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

(see Honor, Roll of). 

FIGHT of Captain Bryan and 
Lieutenant Pearson, 185. 

FIRST bench of elders in Pres- 
bj-terian Church, 266. 

— Bishop of North Carolina, Rev. 
John Stark Ravenscroft elected, 

— Cargo of slaves brought from 
Africa, 348. 

— Comptroller of the Treasury, 
Gen. John Steele appointed, 

— Constables, the, 69. 

— Court, the, 67 ; acts of, 69. 

— European settlers, the, 49. 

— Juries in Rowan, 70. 

— Manassas, Col. Charles Freder- 
ick Fisher killed at battle of, 
21, 263, 324. 

— Meeting of Rowan Committee 
of Safety, i75- 

— Members Methodist Church in 
Salisbury, 407. 

— Members Salisbury Presbyterian 
Church, 373. 

— Methodist Conference in Salis- 
bury, Rev. Moses Brock pre- 
sides over, 407. 

— Methodist school in section, 

— North Carolina Provincial Con- 
gress adopts resolutions, 133. 

— Organ in Rowan, at Organ 
Church, 385. 

— Presbyterian Church, Salisbury, 
371; Rev. Jethro Rumple called 
to, 16; (111.), facing 17; or- 
ganized, 373; first members of, 
372 ; elders and deacons of, 
266, 377; ministers sent out 
from, 378. 

— President of Barium Springs 
Orphan Home, Rev. Jethro 
Rumple elected, 18. 

— Provincial Congress, North 
Carolina not represented in, 

— Public meeting of Regulators, 

FIRST Regiment Engineers (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

— Regiment Infantry (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

— United States Congress, Gen. 
John Steele a member of, 266. 

— Years of peace, the, 235. 

FISHER, Col. Charles Frederick, 
232, 263, 453 ; volunteers at 
outbreak of War between the 
States, 263 ; killed at First 
Manassas, 21, 263, 324; student 
at Yale, 323 ; member of State 
Legislature, 323, 462; presi- 
dent of North Carolina Rail- 
road, 323 ; raises regiment in 
War between the States, 324 ; 
(111.), facing 325; buried in 
Salisbury cemetery, 325 ; con- 
firmed in St. Luke's Church, 
45'3 ; married to Elizabeth Cald- 
well, 453 ; elected delegate to 
Diocesan Convention, 456. 

— Family, the, 322. 

— Frances C. (Christian Reid), 
writer of fiction, 325; author of 
"Land of the Sky,'' 325; (111.), 
facing 327 ; confirmed in St. 
Luke's Church, 461. 

— Hon. Charles, 263, 322; repre- 
sents Rowan in State Senate, 
322; elected to Congress, 322; 
member of Constitutional Con- 
vention, 322 ; aids in reorgani- 
zation of St. John's Church, 

FISHING and hunting, 37, 238. 

FLAT Creek Baptist Church, 

FLAX growing and spinning, 

FOARD, Major Robert W., 291. 

FOIL, Professor, 470. 

FOLKLORE, 35'5 ; popular 

superstition, 355 ; belief in 
witches, 356; spells and 
charms, 358. 

FORCES, British (see British 

FORD, Beattie's, 198. 

— Cowan's, General Davidson 
mortally wounded at, 199. 

— Island, owned by Lev^'is Beard, 

FORKS of Yadkin Company, 

FORT Dobbs, erected, 109. 

— Meigs, defense of, 342. 



FORT Mimms, massacre of, 342 ; 
Dr. Spruce Macay Osborne 
killed at, 164, 342. 

— Prince George, no. 

FORTY-EIGHTH Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

FORTY-FIFTH Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

FORTY-NINTH Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

FORTY - SECOND Regiment 
(see Honor, Roll of). 

(see Honor, Roll of). 

FORTY-SIXTH Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

FOURTEENTH Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

FOURTH Creek Presbyterian 
Church, 364, 365, 367, 363. 

— of July celebrations, 242, 346. 

— Regiment Cavalry (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

— Regiment Infantry (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

— Texas Regiment (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

FRANCE, Gen. William Rich- 
ardson Davie appointed am- 
bassador to, zyd. 

FRANKLIN County, 423. 

— Hon. Meshack, 275. 

— Presbyterian Church, 370, 37/. 

FRATERNITY, Masonic, Gen. 
William Richardson Davie, 
Grand Master of, 276 ; organize 
Fulton Lodge, 441. 

FREEMAN, E. B., Clerk of Su- 
preme Court of North Caro- 
lina, 447. 

—Rev. G. W., 46, 451- 

— Rev. Jonathan Otis, M. D., 
ZT2., 446. 

FROHOCK, John, 86. 

—Thomas, 86, 87. 

FROHOCK'S (Macay's) mill- 
pond, deadly miasma from, 

FROST, Rev. S. Milton, D. D., 
404, 408. 

FULTON, John, 321. 

— Lodge organized by Masonic 
fraternity, 441 ; named after 
John Fulton, 321. 

GANO, Rev. John, 474. 

GEER, Rev. Edwin, 455. 

GENERAL Assembly of North 
Carolina, 63 (see also As- 
sembly, General). 

GENERAL description of Rowan 
County, 29. 

GEORGE III., Major James 
Smith serves as Ensign under, 
140; portrait of, and General 
Greene, 209. 

GEORGIA, William Kennon re- 
moves to, 172. 

GERMAN Reformed Church, 
465 ; Lower Stone, or Grace 
Church, 466, 471 ; Rev. Samuel 
Suther, 468; Mount Hope (St. 
Paul's) Church, 470 ; Shiloh 
Church, 470; St. Luke's Re- 
formed Church, 471; Mount 
Zion Reformed Church, 471 ; 
Mount Gilead Church, 472. 

— Settlers, 53 ; names and char- 
acters, 56. 

GERMANTOWN, Gen. Francis 
Nash at, 188; Col. Edward 
Buncombe at, 188; Colonel 
Irwin at, 188, 334. 

GHENT, treaty of, 345- 

GIBSON, William, 286. 

—Dr. Edmund R., 286. 

— James Brandon, 286. 

GILES, Hon. John, 321 ; grad- 
uate of University of North 
Carolina, 321 ; Clerk of Rowan 
Superior Court, 321 ; elected to 
Congress, 321. 

GILLESPIE, Richard, and Blind 
Daniel, menace British forces, 

— Lieut. James, 343. 

— Miss Margaret, 210; married to 
Rev. Dr. Samuel Eusebius 
McCorkle, 368. 

— Robert, 42, 210. 

GIVENS, Ned, 292. 

GLASS, tax imposed on, 130. 

GOLD Hill Baptist Church, 476. 

GOODMAN, Rev. Joseph, 406, 

GOVERNOR'S Council, Archi- 
bald Henderson a member of, 

GOVERNORS of North Carolina, 
Royal, 50; Tryon, 117, 125, 
416; Josiah Martin, 127, 218; 
Burke, 256; Gen. William 
Richardson Davie, 275, 276; 
Nathaniel Alexander, 301 ; John 
W. Ellis, 310, 453, 462; 
Montford Stokes, 334; Alex- 
ander Martin, 420. 

GOWERIE, Heights of, 35, 211; 
home of Albert Torrence, 265. 



GRACE German Reformed 
Church, 466, 471. 

GRACY, Jean, 379 ; memorial 
stone in Thvatira churchyard, 
379; (111.), facing 381. 

GRADUATES of University of 
North Carolina (see Univer- 

GRAEBER, Rev. Henry, 392. 

GRAHAM, Gen. Joseph, 343. 

GRANT of Charles II., 61. 

GRAVE of John Dunn, 11, 171, 

GILWES, Dunn's, 228. 

GREAT Alamance, 43; battle of, 

— Wolf of North Carolina, the 
(Governor Tryon), 117. 

GREEN, BTshop William M., 
of Mississippi, 439, 448. 

— Rev. Lemuel, 401. 

GREENE, Gen. Nathanael, in 
Rowan County, 195; takes com- 
mand of Southern army, at 
Charlotte, 196; his famous re- 
treat, 197; in Salisbury, 205; 
Dr. Read's account of, 207 ; 
Elizabeth Maxwell Steele re- 
lieves distress of, 208, 368 ; and 
portrait of George III., 209; at 
battle of Hobkirk's Hill, 218. 

GRIEVANCES, American, 128. 

GRIFFITH, Rev. R. H., 477. 

GRIMES, British Army at, 201; 

GROSECLOSE, Rev. L. C„ 394- 

GROWING and spinning flax, 

GROWTH of Methodism in 
Rowan, 397 (see also under 

GUARDS, Rowan Rifle (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

GUILFORD Courthouse, battle 
of. Gen. William Richardson 
Davie at, 276 ; Captain Weit- 
zell at, 468. 

GWALTNY, Rev. W. R., 477, 

HALE, E. J., 441- 

HALL, Rev. Dr. James, 36/, 

HALLING, Rev. Dr., 421. 
HAMPDEN-Sidney College, Rev. 

P. J. Sparrow president of, 375. 
HAMPTON, William, 256. 
HANGING Rock, Major Davie 

at battle of, 275. 
HARRIS, Rev. Mr., 367. 
— Richard, 290. 

HARRISON, Gen. William H., 

HARVEY, Col. John, 131; is- 
sues proclamation, 132. 

HATTERS, 241. 

HAWKS, Rev. Dr. Francis L., 
441, 454- 

HAYNE, Col. Isaac, 167. 

wallis in Salisbury, 195, 215, 

HEIGHTS of Gowerie, 35, 211; 
home of Albert Torrence, 265. 

HENDERSON, Archibald (2). 
267, 301 ; student at Yale, 301 ; 
student at University of Vir- 
ginia, 301 ; member of Gov- 
ernor's Council, 302. 

— Leonard, Chief Justice of Su- 
preme (Tourt of North Caro- 
lina, 274, 299, 301. 

— Dr. Alexander, 304. 

— Dr. Pleasant, 304. 

— Family, the, 298. 

— Hon. Archibald, 299 ; member 
of Legislature, 301 ; declines 
appointment to Supreme Court 
of North Carolina, 301 ; Repre- 
sentative in Con-gress, 301. 

— Jane C, 302. 

— John Lawson, Clerk of Su- 
preme Court of North Caro- 
lina, 304. 

— John Steele (111.), facing 295; 
302, 409. 

— Judge Richard, 274, 299. 

— Lieut. Leonard, killed at battle 
of Cold Harbor, 302. 

— Lieut. Richard, 302. 

— Major Pleasant, 304. 

— Samuel, 298. 

— Tippoo Sahib, 304. 

HENDREN, Rev. L. L., 404- 

HENKEL, Rev. David, 388. 

—Rev. Paul, 387. 

—Rev. Philip, 387. 

HEROISM of Margaret Phifer, 

HEWES, Hon. Joseph, 134. 

HILL, Indian, 45. 

HILLIAR, Richard, 70. 

HISTORY of a journey from 
Charleston to Pamlico Sound 
(Lawson's), 30. 

— of North (Carolina (Lawson's), 
32, 33- 

— of Presbyterianism in North 
Carolina, Rev. Jethro Rumple 
author of, 17. 


60 1 

HISTORY, Rev. Samuel Euse- 
bius McCoikle elected Profes- 
sor of, 368. 

HOBKIRK'S Hill, battle of. 
218, 23^, 276. 

HODGE, Rev. Mr., 476. 

HOLLIMAX, Ezekiel, 473. 

HOME mission work, Rev. 
Jethro Rumple pioneer in, 16. 

HONOR, Roll of, 483; Pay- 
master's Department, 484; 
Quartermaster's Department, 

484; Second Regiment Cavalry, 
484 ; Fourth Regiment Cavalry, 
485 ; Ninth Regiment Cavalry, 
485 ; First Regiment Engineers, 
486 ; Rowan Artillery, 486 ; 
First Regiment Infantry, 491 ; 
Second Regiment Infantry, 491 ; 
Fourth Regiment Infantry, 
491; Rowan Rifle Guards, 497; 
Fifth Regiment Infantry, 506; 
Sixth Regiment, 517; Seventh 
Regiment, 5'25 ; Eighth Regi- 
ment, 529 ; Tenth Regiment, 
538; Eleventh Regiment, 538; 
Old Bethel Regiment, 538 ; 
Thirteenth Regiment, 538 ; 
Fourteenth Regiment, 538 ; 
Fifteenth Regiment, 539; Six- 
teenth Regiment, 539 ; Twen- 
tieth Regiment, 539; Twenty- 
third ivegiment, 540 ; Twenty- 
sixth Regiment, 541 ; Twenty- 
eighth Regiment, 542; Thirtieth 
Regiment, 542 ; Thirty - first 
Regiment, 542 ; Thirty-third 
Regiment, 543 ; Thirty-fourth 
Regiment, 543 ; Thirty-fifth 
Regiment, 547 ; Forty-second 
Regiment, 547 ; Forty-fifth 
Regiment, 5519; Forty-sixth 
Regiment, 559; Forty-seventh 
Regiment, c6s ; Forty-eighth 
Regiment, 565 ; Forty-ninth 
Regiment, 566 ; Fifty-second 
Regiment, 571 ; Fifty-seventh 
Regiment, 571; Second Regi- 
ment Junior Reserves, 584; 
Eighth Battalion Junior Re- 
serves, 586; Sixth Alabama 
Regiment, 586; Tenth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, 587; Fourth 
Texas Regiment, 587 ; Tenth 
Virginia Cavalry, 587 ; Twelfth 
Virginia Regiment, 588 ; Iron- 
clad Ram "Albemarle," 588. 
HOOPER, Hon. William, 134. 
— Rev. William, 436. 

HOPEWELL Churchyard. Gen. 

William Davidson buried in, 

HORAH, Hu-^h, 2511. 256, 267, 

286, 345. 
HORNExS' Nest, 190, 195; 

Charlotte called, by Corn- 

waliis, 190. 
HOUSE firing, Margaret Phifer 

pleads to avert, 288. 
— of Commons, British, resolves 

in favor of peace, 233; North 

Carolina, Gen. John Steele 

elected to, on day of his death, 

267; members of, 287, 308, 

310, 312, 462. 
HOWELL, Rednap. the poet, 

HUDSON, Rev. H. T., D.D.. 

397, 404. 
HUGER, General, 197, 212. 
HUGHES, Joseph, 229; ball at 

hotel of, in honor of President 

Washington, 251. 
— Hudson, 230. 
HUIE, Robert, 291. 
HULL, Capt. Isaac, 342. 
— Rev. Hope, at a Ball, 399. 
HUNT, Meshack, 274. 
HUNTING and fishing, ;i7, 238. 
HURON Indians, 37. 
HUSBANDS, Herman, 119, 123. 
HYDLR Ali, son of Edward 

Jones named after, 304. 
— Archibald Henderson Boyden, 

facing 299. 
— Boone Memorial Cabin, facing 

— Boone Trail Marker, facing 77. 
— Col. Charles Frederick Fisher, 

facing 325. 
— Daniel Boone, facing 69. 
— Dr. J. J. Summerell, facing 

— Elizabeth Maxwell Steele 

Memorial Tablet, facing 209. 
— F i r s t Presbyterian Church, 

Salisbury, facing 17. 
— Gen. Andrew Jackson, at age 

of fifty, facing 277. 
— Gen. John Steele, facing 267. 
— Hon. Burton Craige, facing 

— Hon. Kerr Craige, facing 333. 
— Hon. Lee S. Overman, facing 

— James Graham Ramsay, M. D., 





— John Joseph Bruner, facing 21. 

— John S. Henderson, facing 295. 

— Map of Rowan County, 28. 

— Mrs. Frances Christine Fisher 
Tiernan (Christian Raid), fac- 
ing 327. 

— Old Map of Salisbury, 77. 

— Old Stone House, facing 221. 

— President James Knox Polk, 
facing 379. 

— Rev. Jethro Rumple, facing 15. 

— Runaway slave, advertisement, 

— Thyatira Church and Knox 
Memorials, facing 381. 

IMPOSITION of taxes on tea, 
glass, etc., 130. 

INAUGURATION Day, corres- 
ponding to date British Parlia- 
ment resolved in favor of peace, 

INCIDENTS at the Stone 
House, 221. 

— Revolutionary, 215'. 


burg Declaration of (see Meck- 

INDIAN Dances, 40. 

— Feast, Waxsaw, 40. 

—Hill, 45. 

— King Blunt, iii. 

— Massacre at Fort Mimms, 
342 ; Dr. Spruce Macay Os- 
borne killed at, 342. 

— Mounds, 41, 42, 45. 

— Ouiogozon, 41. 

— Theology, 38. 

— Towns, 37, 43. 

— War paint, 42. 

— Wars, the, 107. 

■ — Worship, 41. 

INDIANS, 37 ; character of, 37 ; 
number of, 37, 44; visit to Sal- 
isbury, 107. 

— Catawba, 37; towns and num- 
ber, 37, 43- 

— Cherokee, their country, 78 : 
sue for peace, no; John Long 
killed by, 260. 

— Creek, Andrew Jackson oper- 
ates against, 343 ; defeated at 
Tohopeka, 344. 

— Huron, 37. 

— Iroquois, 37. 

— Keyauwee, 37, 44. 

— Occoneechee, 37, 44. 

— Sapona, 44; mounds of, 42, 45; 
character of, 44. 

— Seneca (Sinnager), 37. 

INDIANS, Totero, 44- 

— Woccon, 37. 

INFANTRY, Regiments, Rowan, 

in War between the States 

(see Honor, Roll of). 
INGLE, Rev. John, 470, 471, 

burg Countv, 417. 

of Methodism in Rowan 
County, the, 397 (see also 
under ^Methodism). 

IREDELL County, represented 
in Legislature by Andrew 
Caldwell, 312; represented in 
House of Commons by David 
Franklin Caldwell, 312. 

IRONCLAD ram, Albemarle 
(see Honor, Roll of). 

IROQUOIS Indians, 37. 

IRWIN, Colonel, at German- 
town, 188, 334. 

ISLAND Ford, owned by Lewis 
Beard, 26-t. 

— near Sapona Town, 33. 

— of Akenatzj', 264. 

IVES, Bishop L. S., 435, 443, 
450, 452; ordains Rev. Thomas 
F. Davis, Jr., 454; ordains 
Rev. John Haywood Parker, 
457 ; ordains Rev. Oliver S. 
Prescott, 458. 

JACK, Captain, brings Mecklen- 
burg Declaration to Salisbury, 
158, 420. 

JACKSON, Gen. Andrew (111., 
at the age of fifty), facing 
277 ; born in North Carolina, 
277; his early life, 277; at- 
tended Queen's Museum Col- 
lege, 278; law student of 
Spruce Macay, 274, 278 ; lodged 
at Rowan House, 278; operates 
against Creek Indians, 343 ; de- 
feats Indians at Tohopeka, 344. 

TACOCKS, Rev. Tames G., 458. 

JEFFERSON, President Thomas, 

JENKINS. Rev. Daniel, 394- 

JERSEY Church, 272, 474, 476. 

— Meeting House, Hon. Spruce 
Macay buried in graveyard of, 

TOHNSTON, Rev. R. Z., 378. 

—Rev. William H., 378. 

JONES, Edward, names son after 
Hyder Ali, 304. 

— Hamilton C, Esq., 305 ; grad- 
uate of University of North 



Carolina, 305'; member of Leg- 
islature, 306, 462 ; Reporter for 
Supreme Court of North Caro- 
lina, 306 ; founded The Caro- 
lina Watchman, 306. 

JONES, Hyder Ali, 304. 

JOPPA Presbyterian Church 
(Mocksville), 371. 

JORDAN, Rev. F. M., 478. 

JOURNEY from Charleston to 
Pamlico Sound, Lawson's His- 
tory of a, 30. 

JUDD, Rev. Bethel, 422. 

JUDGES of Superior Court (see 
Superior Court). 

— of Supreme Court (see Su- 
preme Court). 

JULIAN, Benjamin, 287. 

—Rev. Kiah P., 378. 

JULY the fourth, celebrations of, 
242, 246. 

JUNIOR Reserves (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

JURIES in Rowan, the first, 70. 

KADAPAU (Catawba) Indians, 
37, 43. 

KAEMPFER, Rev. Jacob, 392. 

KEHUKEE Creek, William So- 
journer establishes Baptist 
Church on, 474. 

KENNON, Col. William, 134, 
168; represents Salisbury in 
Provincial Congress, 134, 168; 
member Rowan Committee of 
Safety, 168; signs Mecklen- 
burg Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, 168; prime mover in 
abduction of Dunn and Boote, 
168; removes to Georgia, 172. 

KENTUCKY, Tenth Cavalry 
(see Honor Roll of). 

KERR, Rev. Mr., 369. 

KETCHIE, Rev. W. R., 392. 

KEYAUWEE Indians, 37, 44. 

KILPATRICK, Rev. Joseph D., 

— Rev. Abner, 369. 

— Rev. Josiah, 369. 

KIMBALL, Rev. Whitson, 396. 

KINCAID, Miss Mary Ann, 
married to John Joseph 
Bruner, 22. 

— Thomas, 286. 

— William Mortimer, Esq., 287. 

KING Blunt, Indian Chief, iii. 

— Charles II., grant of, 61. 

— George III., Major James 
Smith serves as Ensign under, 
140 ; portrait of, and General 
Greene, 209. 

KING, Lord Proprietors sell to 

the, 49- 
KING'S Attorney. WaightstiU 

Avery chosen, 271. 
— Mountain, battle of, 191 ; 

Major Francis McCorkle at, 

KNOX, Jean Gracy, 379; me- 
morial stone in Thyatira 

churchyard, 379; (111.), facing 

— John, John Craig coadjutor of, 

— John (2), 379; memorial stone 

in Thyatira churchyard, 379; 

(111.), facing 381. 
— Memorials and Thyatira Church 

(111.), facing 381. 
KREISSON, Jacob, 388. 
KRIDER, Capt. Jacob, 344; 

punishes refractory soldier, 

344 ; names of his Company, 

—Rev. B. S., 370. 
LADIES, Young, resolutions of, 

endorsed by Rowan C o. m - 

mittee of Safety, 192. 
LaFAYETTE, Marquis de, visits 

Camden, S. C, 249; at battle 

of Brandywine, 420. 
LAMBETH, Rev. William, 476, 

477, 478, 479. 
"LAND of the Sky," Christian 

Reid author of, 325. 
LANTZ, Rev. John, 469, 47o. 
LAW School, conducted by 

Richmond Ai. Pearson, 309. 
LAWS, Parish, loi. 
LAWSON'S History of a 

journey from Charleston to 

Pamlico Sound, 30. 
— History of North Carolina, 2,2, 

LEE, Rev. Jesse, 397 ; chaplain 
to Conarress, 399. 

lina, 63; members of, 159, 266, 
271, 287, 289, 301, 303, 306, 
308, 310, 312, 322, 323, 330, 
462 ; Gen. John Steele elected 
to, on day of his death, 267. 

LERCH, Rev. Dr. B., 469. 

LIBERTY, Sons of, 119. 

LIBERATION of slaves by Max- 
well Chambers, 318. 

LIBRARY, Rev. John Morgan's, 

— Samuel Young's, 161 ; list of 
books in, 161; bequest of, 161. 

— WaightstiU Avery's, 271. 



LIFE, Early, of Gen. Andrew 
Jackson, z-j-j. 

— of Author vsee Rumple). 

— of Editor (see Bruner). 

— Social, in Rowan, 107, iii. 

LIGHT Horse, Rowan, escort 
President Washington, 248, 251. 

LILLIXGTON, John A., mem- 
ber of General Assembly, 462. 

LINN, Rev. J. A., 396. 

LIST of members of Rowan 
Committee of Safety, 175. 

— of books in Samuel Young's 
library, 161. 

LITTLE, Capt. Daniel, buried in 
English graveyard, 216. 

LOCKE, Col. Francis, 295 ; de- 
feats Tories at Ramsour's Mill, 
153; monument to, in Thyatira 
graveyard, 153; in United 
States Senate, 153. 

— Family, the, 154. 

— Hon. Matthew, 124, 149, 154; 
represents Rowan in Provincial 
Congress, 150; member of 
United States Congress, 152. 

— Lieut. George, 187, 190; killed 
by British forces, 152, 190. 

— Mrs. Moses A., 343. 

LOCKE'S (Beard's) Bridge, 263. 

Lv^NG, Alexander, Esq., 259, 
260, 261. 

— Bullet throwing, 279. 

— Dr. Alexander, 262. 

— John, killed by Cherokees, 260. 

LORD Cornwallis (see Corn- 

— John B., Esq., 267 ; member of 
General Assembly, 462. 

— North retires from British min- 
istry, 235. 

— Proprietors, sell to the King, 
49 ; names of, 61. 

— Rawdon, 217. 

LORETZ, Rev. Andrew, 467, 

LOSS of property, by deprecia- 
tion of Continental money, 286. 

LOVE, Hon. William C, 274, 
321 ; Representative in Con- 
gress, 321. 

LOWER Meeting-House, 364- 

— Stone (Grace) Church, 466, 


LUCKY, Dr. F. N., home at 

Villa Franca, 201. 
LUTHERAN Church, Salisbury, 

393 ; ministers of, 394. 

LUTHERAN Ministers in Synod 
of North Carolina, 388 ; in 
United States, 389. 

— Missions, 388. 


— Organ Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, 384, 385, 387, 389, 466; 
first organ in County con- 
structed, 385 ; translation of 
records, 389. 

— St. John's Church, Salisbury, 
393 ; ministers of, 394. 

LUTHERANS, Rev. Robert 
Johnstone Miller ordained by, 
386, 424. 

McADEN, Rev. Hugh, 80, 283, 
366, 474- 

McCAULE, Rev. T. H., 199. 


McCORKLE, David, died in 
Confederate army, 298. 

— Dr. John R., 297. 

— Family, the, 292. 

— James Marshall, 297. 

— Major Francis, 293; member of 
Rowan Committee of Safety, 
294; at battle of King's Moun- 
tain, 294 ; at battle of Ram- 
sour's Mill, 294 ; at battle of 
Cowpens, 294; at battle of Tor- 
rence's Tavern, 294; reported 
killed, 295 ; married to Eliza- 
beth Brandon, 297. 

— Matthew, 292. 

— Rev. Dr. Samuel Eusebius, 
199, 210, 245, 367, 372; elected 
Professor of Moral and Politi- 
cal Philosophy and History, in 
University of North Carolina, 
368 ; married to Margaret Gil- 
lespie, 368 ; stricken with palsy 
in the pulpit, 368 ; buried in 
Thyatira graveyard, 369. 

—William B., 267. 

McCUTCHEON'S Creek, 290. 

McDonald, Rev. Thales, 402. 

McEWEN, James, elected Town 
Clerk, 252. 

McGEE Brothers, 402. 

McHENRY, Rev. Barnabas, 401. 

McKENZIE, Charles, 290. 

— Montford S., Esq., 287, 290. 

McKOY, Hon. Allman A., Judge 
of Superior Court, 429. 

McMORDIE, Rev. Mr., 366. 

McREE, Rev. Dr. James, 372. 

McWHORTER, Rev. Alexander, 
365, 366. 



MACAY, Alfred, 274, 461. 

— Family, the, 2T2, 27^. 

— Hon. Spruce, 272, 461; licensed 
to practice law, 273 ; law tutor 
of Andrew Jackson, 274, 278 ; 
appointed Judge of Superior 
Court, 274; buried in grave- 
yard of Jersey Meeting-House, 

— James, 237 ; trustee of United 
Congregation, 272 ; obtains 
lands on Swearing Creek, 272. 

— William Spruce, 274. 

MACAY'S (Frohock's) Mill- 
point, deadly miasma from, 94. 

MacNAMARA, Col. Robert, 267. 

MADDOCK'S Mill, first public 
meeting of Regulators at, 119- 

MaDISOX, Bishop, 421. 

— President, suspends Non-Inter- 
course Act, 338. 

MANASSAS, Col. Charles Fred- 
erick Fisher killed at battle of, 
21, 263, 324. 

MAP of Rowan County, 28. 

— Old, of Salisbury, 77. 

MARCAND, Rev. Adam N., 386. 

MARKER, Boone Trail (111.), 
facing 77- 

MARKET-House, 255. 

MAROUIS de LaFayette, visits 
Camden, S. C, 249; at battle of 
Brandywine, 420. 

MARRIAGE license, exorbitant 
fees for, 88. 

MARRIAGES, common-law, 88. 

MARSHAL Turenne's ravages, 


MARTIN, Alexander, 419; col- 
onel in Continental Army, 420 ; 
fought under LaFayette at 
battle of Brandywine, 420 ; 
elected Governor of North 
Carolina, 420 ; elected United 
States Senator, 420. 

— Gov. Josiah, 127; accompanies 
Cornwallis to Salisbury, 218. 

— Hugh, Esq., 303. 

— James, Jr., Judge of Superior 
Court, 462. 

MARY, Queen of Scots (see 

MASON, Rev. Richard, S., 436. 

MASONIC Fraternity, Gen. 
William Richardson Davie 
Grand Master of, 276 ; organ- 
ize Fulton Lodge, 441. 

MASSACRE at Fort Mimms, 
342 ; Dr. Spruce Macay Os- 
borne killed at, 342. 

MATSOX, Rev. Enoch, 401. 

MECKLENBURG County, Presi- 
dent James Knox Polk born in, 

— County set off, 50. 

— County, instructions of, 417. 

— County, President James Knox 
Polk born in, 379. 

— Declaration of Independence, 
12; reputed author of, 113; 
Captain Jack brings to Salis- 
bury, 158, 420; read in Rowan 
Court, is-S; signers of, 143, 
168, 289. 

MEETING-House, Beale's, 400. 

— House, Jersey, Hon. Spruce 
Macay buried in graveyard of, 

— House, Lower, 364. 
— of Rowan Committee of Safety, 

the first, 175. 
MEIGS, Fort, defense of, 342. 
MEMBERS and officers of Eliza- 
beth Maxwell Steele Chapter, 

Daughters of the American 
Revolution, 3. 
— of First North Carolina Pro- 
vincial Congress, 133. 
— of Salisbury Presbyterian 

Church, the first, 373. 
— of the General Assembly, 159, 

266, 271, 287, 289, 301, 303, 

306, 308, 310, 312, 2,22, 323, 

330, 462. 
— of the Methodist Church in 

Salisbury, the first, 407. 
— of the Provincial Congress, 

133, 134, 135, 137, 147, 150, 

156, 168. 
— of the Rowan Committee of 

Safety, 141, i44, I57, 168, I75. 

294, 467. 
— Rowan, of United States Con- 
gress, 152, 266, 301, 303. 308, 

321, 322, 331, 462. 
MEMORIAL Cabin, Boone 

(111.), facing 71. 
— Tablet, Elizabeth Maxwell 

Steele (111.), facing 209. 
MEMORIALS to John Knox 

and wife, in Thyatira grave- 
yard, 379; (111.), facing 381. 
MERCURY, newspaper, 255. 
METHODISM in Rowan, 397. 
— Bishop Asbury preaches in 

Salisbury, 399. 
— Cokesbury, first Methodist 

school in section, 401. 
— Colored Church in Salisbury, 





— introduction of, into Davie 
County, 400. 

— Jesse Lee, 397 ; chaplain to 
Congress, 399. 

— Methodist ministers born and 
reared in Rowan County, 403 ; 
Rev. Moses Brock, 403 ; Rev. 
Richard Neely, 404; Rev. John 
Rich, 404; Rev. S. M. Frost, 
D.D., 404, 408; Rev. L. L. 
Hendren, 404; Rev. H. T. Hud- 
son, D.D., 397, 404; Rev. 
Abram Weaver, 405 ; Rev. 
James F. Smoot, 405 ; Rev. S. 
D. Peeler, 405 ; Rev. Calvin 
Plyer, 405; Rev. William C. 
Wilson, 405 ; Rev. William C. 
Call, 405 ; Rev. Leonidas W. 
Crawford, 405 ; Rev. James 
Wilson, 405. 

— Rev. Robert Johnstone Miller 
connected with, 423. 

— the approach of, into the 
Rowan section, 397. 

— the introduction and grow^th of, 
in Rowan County, 397. 

— the Methodist Church of Salis- 
bury, 406. 

— the results, 403. 

METHODIST Church in Salis- 
bury, 406 ; organized, 407 ; first 
members of, 407 ; pastors of, 

— Church, colored, in Salisbury, 

— Churches, Northern, 479. 

— Conference in Salisbury, the 
first, presided over by Rev. 
Moses Brock, 407. 

— Episcopal Circuit, Salisbury, 

— Ministers in Rowan County, 
403 (see also under Method- 

— Protestant Churches, 479. 

— School, Cokesbury first in sec- 
tion, 401. 

MIASMA, deadly, from Fro- 
hock's (Macav's) Millpond, 94. 

MICKLEJOHN, Rev. Mr., 420. 

MILAN decree, the, 337. 

MILD character of slavery in 
Rowan County, 349. 

MILITARY affairs, 183. 

— despotism averted by courage 
and patriotism of General 
W^ashington, 236. 

MILITIA, North Carolina, offi- 
cers of, 183; at defeat of Briar 

Creek, 188; at battle of Stono, 
189; at Camden, S. C, 189; at 
surrender of Charleston, 189. 

MILL, Ellyson's, Col. Montford 
S. Stokes killed at, 335. 

— Maddock's, first public meeting 
of Regulators at, 119. 

— Ramsour's, Tories defeated at, 
by Col. Francis Locke, i5'3; 
Major Francis McCorkle at, 

MILLER, Rev. Benjamin, 474. 

— Rev. Robert Johnstone, 422 ; 
connected with Methodism, 
423 ; ordained by Lutherans, 
386, 424; attends fifth annual 
Diocesan Convention, 427 ; or- 
dained deacon and priest by 
B i s h op Richard Channing 
Moore, 427; died, 434. 

MILLPOND, Frohock's (Ma- 
cay's), deadly miasma from, 

MIMMS, Fort, massacre at, 342 ; 
Dr. Spruce Macay Osborne 
killed at, 164, 342. 

MINISTER - Plenipotentiary to 
Spain, Romulus M. Saunders 
appointed, 462. 

MINISTERS, Lutheran, in Synod 
of North Carolina, 388 ; in 
United States, 389. 

— Methodist, in Rowan County, 
403 (see also under Method- 

— Natives of Back Creek, 378. 

— of Organ Church, 392. 

— of Rowan, 403 (see also under 

— of St. John's Lutheran Church, 
Salisbury, 394. 

— Sent out from Salisbury Pres- 
byterian Church. 378. 

MINISTRY, British, Lord 
North retires from, 235. 

MISSIONS, Home, Rev. Jethro 
Rumple pioneer in, 16. 

— Lutheran, 388. 

MISSISSIPPI, Rev. William M. 
Green Bishop of, 439, 448. 

MITCHELL, Dr. Lueco, at siege 
of New Orleans, 302 ; delegate 
to Episcopal Diocesan Conven- 
tion at Williamsboro, 431. 

MOCKSVILLE (Joppa) Presby- 
terian Church, 371. 

MONEY, Continental, deprecia- 
tion of, 286. 

MONMOUTH, North Carolina 
Continentals at battle of, 188. 



MONTGOMERY, Hugh, 221. 

—Rev. A. D., 375. 
MONUMENT to Hon. Francis 
Locke, in Thyatira graveyard, 

MOORE, Bishop Richard Chan- 
ning, ordains Rev. Robert 
Johnstone Miller, 427. 

MOORE'S Creek Bridge, bat- 
tle of, 127. 

MOORMAN, Rev. Charles P., 

MORAL and Political Philosophy 
and History, Rev. Dr. Samuel 
Eusebius McCorkle elected 
Professor of, 368. 

MORAVIANS, purchase Wacho- 
via tract, 57. 

MORGAN, Gen. Daniel, 196, 
202; defeats Tarleton at Cow- 
pens, 197. 

— Rev. John, 444 ; accumulates 
rare books, 445 ; visits Eng- 
land, 445. 

MORTON, Rev. Mr., 476. 

MOSER, Rev. Daniel, 388. 

—Rev. J. C, 396. 

MOUNDS, Indian, 41, 42, 45. 

MOUNT Gilead German Re- 
formed Church, 472. 

— Hope (St. Paul's) German Re- 
formed Church, 470. 

— Zion Baptist Church, 476. 

— Zion German Reformed Church, 

MURDER of Balfour, by Col- 
onel Fanning, 229. 

MURDOCK, Rev. Francis J., 
459, 460, 461. 

MURPHY, Judge A. D., 299. 

NAME of Salisbury, origin of, 

NAMES and character of German 
settlers in Rowan, 56. 

— Biblical, bestowed on sons, 167. 

— of Captain Krider's Company, 

— of Lord Proprietors, 61. 

— of places, change of, 79. 

— poetical, given to daughters, 

NAPOLEON sneers at Ameri- 
can Ambassador, 276 ; and the 
Milan Decree, 337. 

NASH, Gen. Francis, at German- 
town, 188. 

— Gov. Abner, 188. 

NATURAL Wall, of Rowan, 195 

NAUVASA, Catawba settlement, 

NEELY, Rev. Richard, 404. 
NEIFFER, Rev. J. G , 395 
NESBIT, Dr. A. M., 303. 
NESFIELD, Mary, married to 

Gen. John Steele, 267. 
NEST, Hornets' (see Hornets' 

NEW Light Baptists, 474. 
— Orleans, Dr. Lueco Mitchell at 

siege of, 302. 
— Preface, A, 5. 
NEWNAN, Dr. Anthony, 220, 

NINETY-SIX, Gen. William 

Richardson Davie at, 276. 
NINTH Regiment Cavalry (see 

Honor, Roll of). 
President Madison suspends. 
NORMENT, Rev. John H., 441. 

— Attorneys-General (see Attor- 

— Bishops of Diocese of, 421, 
430, 435, 439, 443, 450, 452. 
454, 45/, 458. 

— Continentals (see Continen- 

— Convention, Hon. Burton 
Craige offers Ordinance of 
Secession in, 332. 

— Diocesan Convention, Rev. 
Robert Johnstone Miller at- 
tends fifth annual, 427 ; twenty- 
fourth meets in St. Luke's 
Church, • Salisbury, 451. 

— Gen. Andrew Jackson born in, 

— Governors of (see Governors). 

— Great Wolf of, the (Governor 
Tryon), 117. 

— House of Commons, members 
of (see Commons, House of). 

— Lawson's History of, 32, 33. 

— Legislature, members of (see 

— Lutheran ministers in Synod 
of, 388. 

— Militia (see Militia). 

— Not represented in First Pro- 
vincial Congress, 131. 

— Population of, in 1709 and 
1729, 49- 

— Presbyterianism in. Rev. Jethro 
Rumple author of a History of, 

— Provincial Congress, members 
of (see Congress, Provincial). 




— Railroad, Col. Charles Frederick 
Fisher president of, 323. 

— State Senate, members of (see 

— Supreme Court (see Supreme 

— Troops in War between the 
States (see Honor, Roll of). 

— University of (see University). 

NORTH, 'Lord, retires from 
British ministry, 235. 

NORTHERN Methodist 
Churches, 479. 

NUMBER of Indians, 37, 44- 

NURSERY School, Clio's, 113. 

NUSSMAXN, Rev. Adolph, 382, 
383, 386. 

OAK Grove Cemetery, Gov. John 
W. Ellis buried in, 311; Hon. 
Burton Craige buried in, 332. 

OATHS of Allegiance, Con- 
sciences of Regulators en- 
tangled by, 125. 

O'BRIEN, Rev. S. J., 477- 

OCCONEECHEE Indians, 37, 

OFFICERS and members Eliza- 
beth Maxwell Steele Chapter, 
Daughters of the American 
Revolution, 3. 

— Crown, coercion of, 124. 

— of Militia, 183. 

— of Rowan Courts, 70. 

OGBURN, Rev. Henry, 401. 

O'HARA, General, 203. 

OLD Bethel Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

— Families of Rowan, 281. 

— Field Schools, 112. 

— Map of Salisbury, 77. 

— Records in Courthouse, 10. 

— Stone House (111.), facing 221 ; 
incidents at, 221. 

— Time farming, 238. 

— time feminine attire, 243. 

OLDEST tree, the, 230; fulcrum 
of cider press, 231. 

ORDINANCE of secession of- 
fered by Hon. Burton Craige, 
in North Carolina Convention, 

ORDINATION of Rev. John 
Haywood Parker, 457. 

— of Rev. Robert Johnstone Mil- 
ler, 386, 424, 427. 

— of Rev. Thomas F. Davis, Jr., 

—of Rev. Oliver S. Prescott, 458. 

ORDNANCE, First Regiment 

(see Honor, Roll of). 
ORGAN Church, 384, 385, 387, 

389, 466 ; extract from records, 

389; ministers of, 392. 
— First in Rowan, at Organ 

Church, 385. 

etc., of Rowan County, 31, 32, 

— of First Presbyterian Church, 

Salisbury, 373. 
— of Fulton Lodge, 441. 
— of Methodist Church in Salis- 
bury, 407. 
— of Presbyterian Church at 

Blowing Rock, by Rev. Jethro 

Rumple, 16. 
ORIGIN of name of Salisbury, 

— of slavery in the United States, 

ORPHAN Home, Barium 

Springs, Rev. Jethro Rumple 

first president of, 18. 
OSBORNE, Dr. Spruce Macay, 

killed at massacre of Fort 

Mimms, 164, 342. 
— Alexander, 162, 163. 
OTEY, Bishop, of Tennessee, 

OVERMAN, Hon. Lee S., 139; 

(111.), facing 139. 
PAINTERS' Colors, Tax im- 
posed on, 130. 
PALATINES, -3, 363. 
PALMER, Paul, establishes Mip- 

tist Church at Perquimans, 

PALSY, Rev. Samuel Eusebius 

McCorkle stricken with, 368. 
PAMLICO Sound, Lawson's 

History of a Journey from, to 

Charleston, 30. 
PANTHER, the, and William 

Young, 159. 
PAPER, tax imposed on, 130. 
PARIS, Treaty of, 235. 
PARISH Laws, loi. 
— of St. Luke's (see St. Luke's). 
PARKER, Rev. John Haywood, 

267, 456, 460 ; ordained by 

Bishop L. S. Ives, 457. 
PARKS, Rev. James, 401. 
— Rev. Martin P., 401. 
PARLIAMENT, British, resolves 

in favor of peace, 233. 
PARTEE, Noah, 291. 
— Charles, 291. 
— Hiram. 291. 



PASTORS of Salisbury Meth- 
odist Church, 408. 

PATERNAL Character of slav- 
ery in Rowan County, 349. 

PATRIOTISM and courage of 
General Washington avert mili- 
tary despotism, 236. 

PAYMASTER'S Department (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

PEACE, British House of Com- 
mons resolves in favor of, 233. 

— Cherokees sue for, no. 

— the first years of, 235. 

— Treaty of, signed at Ghent, 

PEARSON, Col. Jesse A., rep- 
resents Rowan County in Leg- 
islature, 308. 

— Family, the, 307. 

— Hon. Joseph, represents Salis- 
bury in House of Commons of 
North Carolina, 308; member 
of Congress, 308. 

— Lieut. Richmond, 185, 308. 

— Richmond M., graduate of Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, 308 ; 
licensed to practice law, 308; 
represents Rowan in House of 
Commons of North Carolina, 
308 ; elected judge of Superior 
Court, 308 ; transferred to Su- 
preme Court of North Carolina, 
308; becomes Chief Justice, 
309, 462 ; conducts law school, 

PEELER, Rev. S. D., 405. 

PENN, Rev. Abram, 406. 


PEOPLE of Salisbury, President 
Washington addresses, 251. 

PERQUIMANS, Paul Palmer es- 
tablishes Baptist Church at, 

PETITION from Rowan, 100, 

PETTIGREW, Rev. Charles, 
420 ; elected Bishop of North 
Carolina, 421. 

PHIFER, Col. John, 288; settles 
in Rowan, 12, 288; signs Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, 289. 

— Brig. -Gen. Charles, in War be- 
tween the States, 289. 

— Gen. John N., represents Ca- 
barrus in Senate of North Caro- 
lina, 289. 

— Margaret, pleads to avert house- 
firing, 288. 

PHILLIPS, Rev. Charles, D.D., 

PHILOSOPHY and History, 
Rev. Dr. Samuel Eusebius Mc- 
Corkle elected Professor of 
Moral and Political, in Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, 368. 

PLACES, change of name of, 79. 

PLANTATION, Cauthard's, 201. 

PLYER, Rev. Calvin, 405. 

POETICAL names given to 
daughters, 167. 

POLK, President James Knox, 
139; (111.), facing 379; his 
forefathers and T h y a t i r a 
Church, 379; born in Mecklen- 
burg County, 379; eleventh 
President of the United States, 

— Thomas G., member of General 
Assembly, 462. 

POPLAR at University of North 
Carolina, 276. 

POPULAR superstition. 355. 

POPULATION of North Caro- 
lina in 1709 and 1729, 49. 

— of Salisbury in 1793, 254- 

PORTER, Rev. Mr., 369- 

PORTRAIT of George III., 
and General Greene, 209. 

POWDER, price of fixed by 
Committee of Safety, 180. 

PRAIRIES in Early Rowan, 33. 

PREBLE, Commodore, 337. 


— A new, 51. 

Blowing Rock, organized by 
Rev. Jethro Rumple, 16. 

— Church, Salisbury, Rev. Jethro 
Rumple called to, 16; (111.), 
facing 17; ruling elders in, 266, 

Carolina, Rev. Jethro Rumple 
author of a history of, 17. 

an, 363. 

— Back Creek Church, 369, 370. 

— Bethphage Church, 370. 

— Cathey's (Thyatira) Church, 
4, 9, 364, 366, 367, 368, 369, 

— Colored Church in Salisbury, 

—Dr." J. J. Summerell (111.), 
facing 375 ; ruling elder in 
Salisbury Church, 377 ; deacon 
in Salisbury Church, 377. 




— Fourth Creek Church, 364, 
365, 367, 369. 

— Franklin Church, 370, 371. 

— Jean Gracy, 379 ; memorial 
stone in Thyatira churchyard, 
379; (111.), facing 381. 

— ^John Knox, 379 ; memorial 
stone in Thyatira churchyard, 
379; (111.), facing 381. 

— Joppa (Mocksville) Church, 

— President Polk's forefathers 
and Thyatira Church, 379 (see 
also under Polk). 

— Prospect Church, 369, 370. 

— Rev. Jonathan Otis Freeman, 
M. D., 372. 

— Salisbury Church, 371; organ- 
ized, 373 ; first members, 
373 ; elders and deacons, 266, 
377 ; ministers sent out from, 

— Third Creek Church, 370. 

— Thyatira Church and Knox 
Memorials (111.), facing 381. 

— Unity Church, 369, 370. 

PRESBYTERIANS elect vestry- 
men of St. Luke's, IDS, 415. 

— in Rowan, 363. 

PRESCOTT, Rev. Oliver S., or- 
dained by Bishop L. S. Ives, 

PRESIDENT Jefferson (see Jef- 

— Madison suspends Non-Inter- 
course Act, 338. 

— James Knox Polk (see Polk). 

— Washington (see Washington). 

PRESS, cider, old tree used as 
fulcrum of, 231. 

PRICE of powder fixed by Com- 
mittee of Safety, 180. 

PRINCE George, Fort, no. 

PRIxsXETON, North Carolina 
Continentals at battle of, 188. 

— University, Gen. William Rich- 
ardson Davie a graduate of, 

PRINTING office, John Joseph 
Bruner works in, 21. 

PRISON Ship, Gov. Montford 
Stokes confined in, 334. 

George Harvey, 132. 

— of President Madison, 338. 

PROFESSOR Clapp, 470. 

— Foil, 470. 

— of Moral and Political Phil- 
osophy and History of the 

University of North Carolina, 
Rev. Samuel Eusebius Mc- 
Corkle elected, 368. 

PROPERTY, loss of, by depre- 
ciation of Continental money, 

PROPRIETORS, Lord, sell to 
the King, 49; names of, 61. 

PROSPECT Presbyterian 
Church, 369, 370. 

Churches, 479. 

PROVIDENCE Church, Rer. 
Jethro Rumple ordained pastor 
of, 16. 

PROVINCIAL Congress (see 
Congress, Provincial) ; North 
Carolina not represented in the 
first, 131. 

— Dyeing, 242. 

PUBLIC meeting of Regulators, 
the first, 119. 

PULPIT, Rev. Samuel Eusebius 
McCorkle stricken with palsy 
in, 368. 

PUNISHMENT of refractory 
soldier, 344. 

PURCHASE of Wachovia tract, 
by Moravians, 57. 

QUEENS Museum College, Gen. 
Andrew Jackson attends, 278. 

QUILT, the faded, 248. 

QUIOGOZON, Indian, 41. 

RAIDER, Tory, visits Salis- 
bury, 229. 

RAILROAD, North Carolina, 
Col. Charles Frederick Fisher 
president of, 323. 

RAM, Albemarle (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

RAMSAY, James Graham, M. D. 
(111.), 136. 

—Rev. J. A.. 378. 

RAAISOUR'S Mill, Tories de- 
feated at, by Col. Francis 
Locke, 153; Major Francis 
McCorkle at, 294. 

RANKIN, Rev. Jesse, 375'. 

RARE books accumulated by 
Rev. John Morgan, 445. 

RAVAGES of Turenne, 54. 

Stark, elected first Bishop of 
North Carolina, 430 ; Christ 
Church consecrated by, 439. 

RAWDON, Lord, 217. 

READ, Dr., his account of Gen- 
eral Greene, 207. 

REBUKE of adulation, by Presi- 
dent Washington, 248. 



RECK, Rev. John, 394- 

RECORDS of Clarke family, 

— or Organ Church, 389. 

— of Town Council, 252. 

— old, in Courthouse, 10. 

RECREATIONS, Rural, 238. 

REESE, David, a signer of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, 143. 

an County, 63. 

REEVES, Mrs. Eleanora, 227. 

— Samuel, 227. 

REFORMED Church, German, 
465 (see also under German 

REFRACTORY soldier, punish- 
ment of, 344. 

REGIMENTS, Rowan, in War 
between the States (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

REGULATION, War of the, 115- 

Salisbury, 91. 

REGULATORS, first public 
meeting of, 119; consciences 
entangled by oaths, 125; Gen. 
Griffith Rutherford affiliated 
with, 138. 

REID, Rev. N. F., D.D., 406. 

— Christian (see Fisher, Frances 

— Rev. James, 406. 

RELIGION established, 100. 

— of the aborigines, 38. 

RENN, Rev. J. J., 406. 

John's Church, Salisbury, 393. 

States Congress from Rowan 
(see Congress). 

— in State Legislature (see Leg- 

RESERVES, Junior, in War be- 
tween the States (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

RESOLUTIONS against slave 
trade, 177. 

— of British House of Commons 
in favor of peace, correspond- 
ing to Inauguration Day, 233. 

— or Provincial Congress, 175; 
approved by Rowan Committee 
of Safety, 180. 

— of Rowan Committee of Safety, 
156, 175. 

— of young ladies endorsed by 
Rowan Committee of Safety, 

RL TREAT of General Greene, 

REVIVALS, 375, 401, 408. 

REVOLUTION, American. 

Daughters of the, Elizabeth 
Maxwell Steele Chapter, offi- 
cers and members, 3. 

— Causes of the, 127. 

— Women oi the, 192, 193. 

Hon. John Stokes a colonel in, 
333 ; Gov. Montford Stokes in, 

— Incidents, 215. 

RICH, Rev. John, 404. 

RICHARDSON, Rev. William, 

RIFLE Guards, Rowan (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

RIVER, Sapona (Yadkin), 32, 

ROBINSON, Rev. Dr. John, 373, 


ROCK House, Old (see Stone 

ROCKWELL, Rev. E. F., 365. 

ROLL of Honor (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

— of Salisbury families, ^-^z, 256. 

ROMAN Catholics in Rowan, 

ROSCHEN, Rev. Arnold, iS;. 

ROSENMULLER, Rev. Mr.,' 394. 

ROWAN Artillery (see Hoi.'or, 
Roll of). 

— Committee of Safety (see Com- 


— Baptist Churches of (see Bap- 

— Boundary and organization cf, 
31, Z2, 59. 

— Catholics in, 479. 

— Character of slavery in, 349. 

— Churches of (see (Churches). 

— Courts, 67 ; where held, 67 ; 
acts of, 69 ; officers of, 70. 

— Davie County a part of, 400. 

— Distinguished men in, 269. 

— Early society in, in. 

— Episcopacy in (see Episcopacy). 

— Episcopalian settlers in, 436. 

— Establishment of revoked, 6.3. 

— First juries in, the, 70. 

— first organ in, 385. 

— General description, 29. 

— General Greene in, 195. 

— Introduction and Growth of 
Methodism in, 397. 




— ^James Craige serves as Sheriff 
of. 328. 

— John Brevard settles in, 147. 

— ^John Phifer settles in, 288. 

— Lord Cornwallis in, 195. 

— Lutheranism in (see Lutheran- 

— Map of, 28. 

— Members of Legislature (see 

— Methodism in (see Methodism). 

— Methodist ministers in, 403. 

—Old families of, 281. 

— Petition from, 100, 412. 

— Prairies in, 33. 

— Presbyterianism in (see Pres- 

— Re-establishment of, 63. 

— Representatives in Provincial 
Congress (see Congress, Pro- 

— Representatives in United 
States Congress (see Con- 

— Set off, 50, 59- 

— Settlement of, sto. 

— Society in, 107, iii. 

— Troops in War between the 
States (see Honor, Roll of). 

ROWAN Court, Mecklenburg 
Decaration read in, 158. 

— House, Gen. Andrew Jackson 
lodges at, 278. 

— Light Horse, Capt. John 
Beard's Company, escorts Pres- 
ident Washington, 248, 251. 

— President Matthew, 50, 59. 

— Rifle Guards (see Honor, Roll 

— Section, approach of Methodism 
into the, 397 ; first Methodist 
school in, 401. 

— Superior Court, Hon. John 
Giles Clerk of, 321 ; Gov. Mont- 
ford Stokes Clerk of, 334; 
judges of (see Superior Court). 

ROYAL Governors of North 
Carolina, 50; Tryon, 117; 
Josiah Martin, 218. 

RUECKERT, Rev. John Michael, 

RULING elders in Salisbury 
Presbyterian Church, 377. 

RUMPLE, Rev. Jethro, 376; 
(111.), facing 15; sketch of 
life, 15; enters Davidson Col- 
lege, 16; licensed to preach, 
16; ordained pastor of Provi- 
dence and Sharon Churches, 

16; called to First Presbyterian 
Church, Salisbury, 16; pioneer 
in home mission work, 16; or- 
ganizes church at Blowing 
Rock, 17; author of a history 
of Presbyterianism in^ North 
Carolina, 17; trustee of David- 
son College, 18; trustee of 
Union Theological Seminary, 
18; first president of Barium 
Springs (Drphan Home, 18; 
married to Miss Jane Elizabeth 
Wharton, 19. 

RUNAWAY slaves (111.), 351. 

RURAL Recreations, 238. 

RUTHERFORD, Gen. Griffith, 
134, 135, ^37, 189, 201; repre- 
sents Rowan in Provincial 
Congress, 137; affiliated with 
Regulators, 138; wounded and 
taken prisoner at Sanders 
Creek, 138; appointed to Ter- 
ritorial Legislature, Tennessee, 
139; Counties named after, 
139; died in Tennessee, 139. 

— Major James, killed in battle 
of Eutaw, 138. 

SACKETT'S Harbor, 342. 

SAFETY, Rowan Committee of 
(see Committee). 

SALEM founded, 57. 


— Address of President Washing- 
ton to people of, 251. 

— Baptist Church, 477 ; colored 
churches, 479. 

— Bishop Asbury preaches in, 

— Captain Jack brmgs Mecklen- 
burg Declaration of Indepen- 
dence to, 158, 420. 

— Cemetery, Col. Charles Fred- 
erick Fisher buried in, 325. 

— Chartered, 94. 

— Christ Church (see under Epis- 

— Col. David Fanning visits, 229. 

— Colored churches in, 479. 

— Common, the, 95. 

— Cornwallis, Lord, headquarters 
at, 215, 315; accompanied to, 
by Josiah Martin, 218; departs 
from, 232. 

— Diagram of, 77. 

— District, represented in Conti- 
nental Congress by Hon. Wil- 
liam Sharpe, 144. 

— Early settlers in, iii. 

— First Methodist Conference in, 




— General Greene in, 205. 

— Indians visit, 107. 

— James McEwen elected Clerk 
of, 2512. 

— Josiah Martin accompanies 
Cornwallis to, 218. 

— Located, 76. 

— Methodist Church, 406, organ- 
ized, 407 ; first members of, 
407 ; became a station, 408 ; 
pastors of, 408. 

— Methodist Episcopal Circuit, 

— No church in, in early years of 
nineteenth century, 291, 342. 

— Old map of, yj. . 

— Origin of name, 414. 

— Population of, in 1793, 254. 

— Presbyterian Church, 371 ; Rev. 
Jethro Rumple called to, 16; 
(111.), facing 17; organized, 
373; first members of, 373; 
elders and deacons of, 377; 
ministers sent out from, 378. 

— President Washington visits, 
247, 250. 

— Regulations of Town, 91. 

— represented in Provincial Con- 
gress by Col. William Kennon, 
134, 168. 

— Roll of families in, 252, 256. 

— St. John's Church, Lutheran, 
reorganization of, 393 ; elder? 
and deacons of, 393 ; minister? 
of, 394- 

— St. Luke's Church (see St. 

— Township, 76. 

SANDERS Creek, Gen. Griffith 
Rutherford wounded and taken 
prisoner at, 138. 

SANKEY, Rev. Richard, 416. 

SAPOXA Indians, 44; mounds 
of, 42, 45 ; character, 44. 

— River (see Yadkin). 

— Town, 43; Island near, 33. 

SASSAFRAS tree, 230 ; used a* 
fulcrum of cider press, 231. 

SAUNDERS, Romulus M., 442; 
Judge of Superior Court, 462 ; 
Attorney-General of North 
Carolina, 462 ; Minister- Pleni- 
potentiary to Spain, 462. 

SAVITZ, George, 288, 289. 

— Catherine, 289, 291. 

— Mary, 290. 

SCHERER, Rev. Daniel, 39-. 

— Rev. Simeon, 392. 

SCHOBER, Rev. Gottlieb, 388. 
393, 430. 

SCHOOL, Clio's Nursery, 113. 

— Henry Allemand's, John Joseph 
Bruner attends, 21. 

— Cokesbury, first Methodist in 
section, 401. 

— Law, conducted by Richmond 
M. Pearson, 309. 


—Old-Field, 112. 

SCOTCH-Irish settlers in Rowan, 
51, 53- 

SECESSION, ordinance of, of- 
fered by Hon. Burton Craige, 

SECOND Regiment Cavalry (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

— Regiment Infantry (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

— Regiment Junior Reserves (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

SECTION, Rowan, approach of 
Methodism into the, 397 ; first 
Methodist school in, 401. 

SEMINARY, Union Theological, 
Rev. Jethro. Rumple a trustee 
of, 18. 

SENATE of North Carolina, 
members of (see State Senate). 

— United States (see under 

SENECA Indians, 37. 

SEPARATE Baptists, 474. 

SETTLEMENT, Catawba, 43. 

SETTLERS, Early, in Salis- 
bury, III. 

— Episcopal, in Rowan, 436. 

— First Europeans, the, 49. 

— German, 53 ; names and char- 
acters, 56. 

— Scotch-Irish, 51, 53. 

SEVENTH Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

SHANNON, Capt. Alexander, 
229 ; officer in Greene's army, 

SHARON Presbyterian Church, 
Rev. Jethro Rumple ordained 
pastor of, 16. 

SHARPE, Hon. William, 134, 
143, 365 ; member of Rowan 
Committee of Safety, 144; rep- 
resents Salisbury District in 
Continental Congress, 144. 

SHECK, Rev. John D., 394. 

SHELL, Rev. L., 408. 

SHERIFF of Rowan, James 
Craige serves as, 328. 




SHERRILL, Henderson, serves 
in Legislature, 298. 

— Jephtha, 398. 

SHERRILL'S Ford, 198. 

SHILOH German Reformed 
Church, 470. 

SHIVE, Rev. R. W., 378. 

SHUCKING, Corn, 240 ; supper, 

SIEGE of New Orleans, Dr. 
Lueco Mitchell at, 302. 

SIGNERS of Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence, 
143, 168, 289. 

SINNAGER Indians, 2>7- 

SIXTEENTH Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

SIXTH Alabama Regiment (s-e 
Honor, Roll of). 

— Regiment (see Honor, Roll of). 

SKETCH o f Author (see 

— of Editor (see Bruner). 

"SKY, Land of the," Christian 
Reid author of, 325. 

SLAVERY (see African). 

SLAVE Ship "Desire," 348. 

— Trade, resolved against, 177. 

SLAVES brought from Africa, 
the first cargo, 348. 

— Liberated at his death, by Max- 
well Chambers, 318. 

— Number in Rowan, 349. 

— Runaway (111.), 351. 

— Traders in, 352. 

SLOOP of War "Diligence," ar- 
rives in Cape Fear, 129; boat 
captured, 130. 

SMITH, Major Tames, 134, 139; 
represents Rowan in Provin- 
cial Congress, 134, 141 ; serves 
as Ensign under George III., 
140 ; member of Committee of 
Safety, 141 ; imprisoned at 
Camden, S. C, 142; dies of 
smallpox, 142. 

—Rev. W. J., 395. 

SMOOT, Rev. James F., 405. 

SOCIAL life in Rowan, 107. 

SOCIETY and schools, iii. 

SOJOURNER, William, estab- 
lishes Baptist Church on 
Kehukee Creek, 474, 

SOLDIER, refractory. Captain 
Krider's punishment of, 344. 

SOLOMAN, Rev. J. B., 477. 

SONS, Biblical names bestowed 
on, 167. 

— of Liberty, 119. 

SOUND, Pamlico, Lawson's His- 
tory of a Journey from Char- 
leston to, 30. 

SOUTH Carolina, Diocese of, 
Rev. Thomas F. Davis, Jr., 
elected Bishop of, 455. 

SOUTHERN Army, General 
Greene takes command of, at 
Charlotte, 196. 

SPAIN, Romulus M. Saunders 
Minister - Plenipotentiary t o , 

SPARROW, Rev. Dr. P. J., Pro- 
fessor of Languages in David- 
son College, 375; president of 
Hampden-Sidney College, 375. 

SPEAKER of State Senate, 
David Franklin Caldwell 
elected, 312. 

SPEAR, Rev. William W., 446, 

— Maria Louisa, 447, 448. 

SPELLS and charms, 358. 

SPENCER, Rev. Elihu, 365, 

SPINNING flax, 243. 

SPUKGEN, Colonel, 212. 

— John, 213. 

— Mary, 213. 

ST. ANDREW'S Church, 432, 
434, 45'i. 

ST. JOH.\ S Lutheran Church, 
Salisbury, 381, 393; elders and 
deacons of, 393 ; Hon. Charles 
Fisher aids in reorganization 
of, 393 ; ministers of, 394. 

ST. LUKE'S Parish, 60, 100, 412, 
431, 443; vestrymen elected by 
Presbyterians, 105, 415. 

— Church, 440, 441, 443, 445; 
Thirteenth Diocesan Conven- 
tion meets in, 441 ; Twenty- 
fourth Diocesan Convention 
meets in, 451; Col. Charles 
Frederick Fisher confirmed in, 
4S'3 ; Hon. Nathaniel Boyden 
confirmed in, 460 ; statistics of, 
460 ; Frances Christine Fisher 
confirmed in, 461. 

— German Reformed Church, 471. 

ST. PAUL'S (Mount Hope) 
German Reformed Church, 470. 

ST. PETER'S Episcopal Church, 
Lexington, 430, 432. 

STA.viP Act, 129. 

STATE Legislature, members of 
(see Legislature). 

— Senate, members of, 287, 289, 
312, 322. 



STATES, War between the: 

— Brig.-Gen. Charles Phifer in, 

— Col. Chas. Frederick Fisher 
volunteers at outbreak of, 263 ; 
killed at First Manassas, 21, 
263, 324; raises regiment, 324; 

— David McCorkle died in, 298. 

— Frank Craige serves in, 333. 

— Hon. Kerr Craige serves in, 

— James Craige a Major in, 333. 

— Lieut. Leonard Henderson 
killed at battle of Cold Harbor, 

— Montford S. Stokes, colonel in, 
334; killed at Ellyson'" Mill, 

— Rowan troops in (ste Honor, 
Roll of). 

STATISTICS of St. Luke's 
Church, 460. 

STEARNS, Shubeal, 474, 475- 

STEELE, Elizabeth Maxwell, 72, 
208, 268 ; Chapter, Daughters 
of the American Revolution, 
officers and members, 3 ; re- 
lieves distress of General 
Greene, 208, 368 ; memorial 
tablet erected to (111.), facing 

STEELE, Gen. John, 211, 266; 
(111.), facing 267; member of 
North Carolina Legislature, 
266 ; member of first United 
States Conp-ress, 266 ; first 
Comptroller of the Treasury, 
266 ; elected to House oi Com- 
mons of North Carolina on day 
of his death, 267 ; singular 
coincidence, 267 ; married to 
Mary Nesfield, 267. 

— William, 210. 

STICKLEY, Rev. V., 396. 

STIERS, Rev. J. B., 476! 

STINKING Quarter, 391. 

STOKES Family, the, 333. 

— County, represented in Legis- 
lature by Hon. Nathaniel Boy- 
den, 303. 

— Gov. Montford, 334; in Revo- 
lutionary Army, 334 ; taken 
prisoner near Norfolk, 334 ; 
confined in prison ship, 334; 
Clerk of Rowan Superior Court, 
334; Clerk of State Senate, 
334 ; elected to United States 
Senate, 334; removes to Arkan- 
sas, 334. 

STOKES, Hon. John, Colonel in 
Revolutionary Army, 333 ; 
wounded at Waxhaw, 333 ; 
United States District Judge, 
280, 334. 

— Montford S., major in War 
with Mexico, 334; Colonel in 
War between the States, 334 ; 
killed at Ellyson's Mill, 335. 

STONE House, old (111.), facing 
221 ; incidents at the, 221. 

STONO, battle of. Gen. Wil- 
liam Richardson Davie wounded 
at, 187, 275 ; North Carolina 
militia at, 189. 

STORCH, Rev. Carl August 
Gottlieb, 384, 391, 392. 

STROBED, Rev. P. A., 392. 

— Rev. William D., 12, 394. 

STUART, Mary (see Banns). 

SUMMERELL, Dr. J. J. (111.), 
facing 375 ; ruling elder in 
Salisbury Church, 377 ; deacon 
in Salisbury Church, m. 

H., 378. 

SUMNER, Gen. Jethro, 189. 

SUPERIOR Court, Judges of, 
274, 299, 308, 310, 312, 419, 
462; Clerks of, 321, 334. 

SUPERSTITION, Popular, 355. 

SUPREME Court of North Caro- 
lina, Judges of, 274, 299, 301, 

303, .308, 309, 429, 462; Hon. 
Archibald Henderson declines 
appointment to, 301 ; Clerks of, 

304, 447 ; Hamilton C. Jones 
Reporter for, 306. 

SURRENDER of Charleston, 
North Carolina militia at, 189. 

— of Cornwallis, at Yorktown, 
233, 235- 

SUSPENSION of Non-Inter- 
course Act, 338. 

SUTHER, Rev. Samuel, 68. 

SWANS on the Yadkin, 32. 

SWEARING Creek, 45; James 
Macay obtains lands on, 272. 

SYNOD of North Carolina, 
Lutheran, ministers in, 388. 

SYSTEM, Borough, abolition of, 

TABLER, Rev. Mr., 394. 

TABLET, Memorial, to EHza- 
beth Maxwell Steele (111.), 
facing 209. 

TARLETON, Col. Banaster, de- 
feated by General Morgan, at 
Cowpens, 197; at John Louis 
Beard's, 216: orders child 



choked, 217; boys "play" bat- 
tle of Cowpens, in presence 
of, 220 ; at Dr. Anthony New- 
nan's, 220. 

TAVERN charges, 71, 254. 

TAXATION, despotic, 128. 

TAX imposed on glass, paper, 
painters' colors, and tea, 130. 

TAYLOR, Rev. Mr., 420. 

TEA, tax imposed on, 130. 

TECUMSEH incites Southern 
Indians, 342. 

TENNESSEE, Bishop Otey of, 

— Gen. Griffith Rutherford dies 
in, 139. 

TENTH Kentucky Cavalry (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

— Regiment (see Honor, Roll 

— Virgmia Cavalry (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

TERRITORIAL Legislature, 
Tennessee, Gen. Griffith 
Rutherford appointed to, 139. 

TEST Oath, 418. 

TEXAS Regiment, Fourth (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

THEOLOGY, Indian, 38. 

THIRD Creek Presbyterian 
Church, 370. 

THIRTEENTH Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

THIRTIETH Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

THIRTY-FIFTH Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

THIRTY-FIRST Regiment (.'ee 
Honor, Roll of). 

(see Honor Roll of). 

THIRTY-THIRD Regiment (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

THOMAS, Rev. Brvant D., 378. 

THOMPSON, Rev.'john, 365. 

THYATIRA (Cathey's) Church, 
4, 9, 364, 366, 367, 368, 369, 
370; rallying point of Presby- 
terians, 291; ministers of, 370; 
and President Polk's fore- 
fathers, 379 (see also under 
Polk) ; and Knox memorials 
(111.), facing 381. 

— Churchyard, Alonument to Col. 
Francis Locke in, 153; Rev. 
Dr. Samuel Eusebius Mc- 
Corkle buried in, 369 ; me- 
morial stone to John Knox and 
wife in, 379; (111.), facing 381. 

TIERNAN, Mrs. Frances Chris- 
tine Fisher (see Fisher). 

Huske, 459. 

TOHOPEKA battle, Creek In- 
dians defeated at, 344. 

TORIES defeated at Ramsour's 
Mill, by Col. Francis Locke, 

TORRENCE, Albert, 265; home 
at Heights of Gowerie, 265 ; 
one of the first bench of elders 
in Presbyterian Church, 266 ; 
buried in English graveyard, 

TORRENCE'S, 200, 201. 

— Tavern, Major Francis Mc- 
Corkle at battle of, 294. 

TORY raider visits Salisbury, 

TOTERO Indians, 44. 

TOWN Clerk of Salisbury, James 
McEwen elected, 2512. 

— Commissioners, 97. 

— Council, records of, 252. 

— of Salisbury, regulations of, 
91 ; charter of, 94. 

— Sapona, 43 ; island near, 33. 

TOWNE, Ithiel, 263. 

TOWNS, Indian, 37, 43- 

TOWNSHIP of Salisbury. 76; 
diagram of, tj ; James Mc- 
Ewen elected Clerk of, 252. 

TRADE in slaves, resolutions 
against, 177. 

TRADING Ford, 43, 46, 196. 

— Ford Baptist Church, 476. 

—Path, 46. 

TRAIL Marker, Boone (111.), 
facing 77. 

TRAMPING out wheat, 239- 

TRANSLATION of records of 
Organ Church, 389. 

TREASURER of Rowan Com- 
mittee of Safety, Maxwell 
Chambers elected, 315. 

TREASURY, Comptroller of, 
Gen. John Steele appointed, 

TREATY of Paris, 235. 

— of peace signed at Ghent, 345. 

TREE, big sassafras, 230. 

TREXLER, Rev. P. M., 470. 

TRIPOLI, War with, 337- 

TROOPS of North Carolina in 
Revolution, 187. 

— of Rowan, in War between the 
States (see Honor, Roll of). 

TROY Family, the, 315- 



TRUSTEE of Davidson College. 

Rev. Jethro Rumple elected, 18. 
— of Union Theological Semin- 
ary, Rev. Jethro Rumple 

elected, 18. 
— of United Congregation, James 

Macay elected, 272. 
TRYON, Governor, 117, 125, 

TURENNE'S ravages, 54. 
TWELFTH Virginia Regiment 

(see Honor, Roll of). 
TWENTIETH Regiment (see 

Honor, Roll of). 

(see Honor, Roll of). 

Convention meets in St. Luke's 

Church, 451. 
TWENTY - SIXTH Regiment 

(see Honor, Roll of). 
TWENTY - THIRD Regiment 

(see Honor, Roll of). 
UNION Theological Seminary, 

Rev. Jethro Rumple elected 

trustee of, 18. 
UNITED Brethren purchase 

Wachovia tract, 57. 
— Congregation, James Macay 

elected trustee of, 272. 
— States Congress, (^en. John 

Steele a member of the first, 

266 ; Rowan representatives in 

(see Congress). 
— States District Judge, Hon. 

John Stokes appointed, 334. 
— States, James Knox Polk, 

eleventh President of, born in 

Mecklenburg County, 379. 
— States, Lutheran ministers in, 

— States, origin of slavery in, 348. 
— States Senate, Col. Francis 

Locke a member of, 153; 

Gov. Montford Stokes elected 

to. and declines to serve, 334 ; 

Alexander Martin a member 

of, 420. 
UNITY Presbyterian Church, 

369, 370. 
UNIVERSITY of Princeton, 

Gen. William Richardson Davie 

a graduate of, 275. 
— of North Carolina, Gen. Wil- 
liam Richardson Davie serves 

on Committee to locate, 276; 

cornerstone laid, 276 ; poplar 

at, 276; graduates of, 305, 

308, 310, 316, 321, 330; Rev. 

Dr. Samuel Eusebius Mc- 

Corkle elected Professor of 
Moral and Political Philosophy 
and History, 368 ; Rev. Thomas 
F. Davis, Jr., educated at, 454. 

UNIVERSITY of Virginia, 
Archibald Henderson a student 
at, 301. 

UWHARIE River Baptist 
Church, 475. 

VANHORN, Rev. Peter P.. 474. 

VESTRYMEN of St. Luke's 
elected by Presbyterians, 105, 

VILLA Franca, residence of Dr. 
F. N. Lucky, 201. 

VIRGINIA, Tenth Cavalry (see 
Honor, Roll of). 

— Twelfth Regiment (see Honor, 
Roll of). 

— University of, Archibald Hen- 
derson a student at, 301. 

VISIT of Col. David Fanning, 
notorious Tory raider, to 
Salisbury, 229. 

— of Indians to Salisbury, 107. 

— of President Washington tot 
Salisbury, 247. 

— of Rev. John Morgan to Eng- 
land, 445. 

— of Rev. Thomas F. Davis, Jr., 
to Europe. 455. 

WACHOVIA Tract, purchased 
by Moravians, 57. 

WADDELL, Col. Hugh, 109, 

WAKE, Miss Esther, 117. 

WALKER, Rev. C. B., 452. 

WALKUP, Gen. Samuel H., 278. 

WALL, Natural, of Rowan, 195. 

WAR between the States (see 
States, War between the). 

— declared against England, 341. 

— of the Regulation, 115. 

— of 1812, the, 337; Congress de- 
clares war, 341 ; treaty of 
peace signed at Ghent, 345'. 

— paint, Indian, 42. 

— with Mexico, Montford S. 
Stokes a Major in, 334. 

— with Tripoli, 337. 

WARD, Captain, 341. 

WARS, Indian, 107. 

WASHINGTON, George, North 
Carolina Continentals with, at 
battle of Brandywine, 188; 
Cornwallis surrenders to, 235; 
his courage and patriotism 
avert military despotism, 236 ; 
his visit to Salisbury, 247 ; re- 
bukes adulation, 248 ; Rowan 



Light Horse escorts, 248, 251 ; 
furnished breakfast by Betsy 
Brandon, 249, 283 ; lodges at 
Capt. Edward Yarboro's, 250; 
and the Bucktail boys, 250 ; 
addresses the people of Salis- 
bury, 251; attends ball at 
Hughes' Hotel, 251 ; Valen- 
tine Beard fights under, 264 ; 
his birthday celebrated in 
Rowan, 343. 

WATCHMAN, The Carolina (see 
Carolina Watchman). 

WAXHAWS, Hon. John Stokes 
wounded at, 333. 

WAXSAW Feast, 40. 

WEATHERFORD, Billy, leads 
Indians at massacre of Fort 
Mimms, 342. 

WEAVER, Rev. Abram, 405. 

WEBSTER, Colonel, 198. 

WEITZELL, Captain, at battle 
of Guilford Courthouse, 468. 

WELBORX, Col. James, 341. 

WESTERN Carolinian, The, 
Hon. Burton Craige editor of, 

WETMORE, Rev. George Bad- 
ger, 458. 

WHARTON, Miss Jane Eliza- 
beth, married to Rev. Jethro 
Rumple, 19. 

WHEAT, tramping out, 239. 

WHEEL and cards, 241. 

WHEELER, his account of set- 
tlement of Rowan, 50. 

WHITE, Hon. Philo, 311- 

WHITEFIELD, Rev. George, 

WHITSETT, John, Treasurer of 
Rowan County, 70. 

WILEY, Rev. Philip B., 441. 

— S. H., Esq., 229. 

WILLIAMS, Gen. Otho, 197. 

— Roger, 473. 


Diocesan Convention at, 431. 


WILSON, Rev. James, 405. 

— Rev. Lewis L., 402. 

— Rev. William C, 405. 

WINSLOW, Miss Dovey, 166. 

WINSLOW, Moses, 136, 162, 

164; represents Rowan in 

Provincial Congress, 133, 166. 
WISEMAN'S Mill, 201. 
WITCHES, Belief in, 356. 
WOCCON Indians, 37. 
WOLF, the great, of North 

Carolina (Governor Tryon), 

WOMEN of the Revolution, 192, 

WOOD, Dr. D. B., 162. 
—Rev. Dr. William A., 378. 
WORSHIP, Indian, 41. 
WRIGHT, Rev. Thomas, 438, 

439, 441, 442, 443, 444- 
YADKIN, Forks of, Company 

from, 186. 
— Circuit, 397. 
— (Sapona) River, 32, 34; swans 

on the, 32 ; families living on 

the, one hundred years ago, 

YALE University, Archibald 

Henderson a student at, 301; 

Col. Charles Frederick Fisher 

a student at, 323. 
YAkiiURO, Capt. Edward, 264, 

440 ; President Washington 

lodges at his house, 250. 
— House, Raleigh, 265. 
— Place, 264. 

Y'ARRELL, Rev. Mr., 408. 
YEARGAN, Rev. Andrew, 397, 

YORKTOWN, Cornwallis sur- 
renders at, 233, 235. 

YOUNG ladies' resolutions, en- 
dorsed by Rowan Committee of 
Safety, 192. 

— Samuel, 154; represents Rowan 
in Provincial Congress, 133, 
135, i5'6. 157; Young's Moun- 
tain named after, 155; member 
Rowan Committee of Safety, 
157; in N^orth Carolina Legis- 
lature, 159; bequeaths his 
library, 161; his library, list 
of books in, 161. 

— William, 159; and the panther, 
159; feats of agility, 160, 232. 

YOUNG'S Mountain, 155. 

ZION Parnassus Academy, 113; 
founded, 367.